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French and German Native languages (Caddo, Comanche) and Portuguese regionally

Government Constitutional republic

President1

 •  1836 David G. Burnet

 •  1836–38 Sam Houston, 1st term

 •  1838–41 Mirabeau B. Lamar

 •  1841–44 Sam Houston, 2nd term

 •  1844–46 Anson Jones

Vice President1

 •  1836 Lorenzo de Zavala

 •  1836–38 Mirabeau B. Lamar

 •  1838–41 David G. Burnet

 •  1841–44 Edward Burleson

 •  1844–45 Kenneth L. Anderson

Legislature Congress

Historical era Western Expansion

 •  Independence from Mexico March 2, 1836

 •  Annexation by the United States
United States
of America December 29, 1845

 •  Transfer of power February 19, 1846

Area

 •  1840 1,007,935 km2 (389,166 sq mi)

Population

 •  1840 est. 70,000 

     Density 0/km2 (0/sq mi)

Currency Republic of Texas
Texas
Dollar

Preceded by Succeeded by

Coahuila y Tejas

First Mexican Republic

Louisiana

Texas

New Mexico
Mexico
Territory

Indian Territory

Second Federal Republic of Mexico

Cimarron Territory

Kansas
Kansas
Territory

Today part of  United States   Mexico
Mexico
(shifting Rio Grande)

1Interim period (March 16 – October 22, 1836): President: David G. Burnet, Vice President Lorenzo de Zavala

The Burnet Flag
Burnet Flag
used from December 1836 to January 1839 as the national flag until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag, and as the war flag from January 25, 1839 to December 29, 1845[1]

Naval ensign of the Texas
Texas
Navy from 1836–1839 until it was replaced by the Lone Star Flag[1]

The Lone Star Flag became the national flag on January 25, 1839 (identical to modern state flag)[1]

The Republic of Texas
Texas
(Spanish: República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign country in North America
North America
that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana
Louisiana
and Arkansas
Arkansas
to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico
Mexico
to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians. The Mexican province of Tejas (in English history books usually referred to as Mexican Texas) declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas
Texas
Revolution in 1836. The Texas
Texas
war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico
Mexico
refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s. The United States recognized the Republic of Texas
Texas
in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory.[2] The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas
Texas
Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico. The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819 between the United States
United States
and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas
Texas
and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819 the United States
United States
had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and to the north of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase of 1803. The republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico
Mexico
continued to be disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas
Texas
claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico
Mexico
insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas
Texas
was annexed by the United States
United States
on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas
Texas
formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States
United States
again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Texas
Texas
prior to independence 1.2 Independent republic

1.2.1 Politics 1.2.2 Armed conflict

2 Government 3 Boundaries 4 Diplomatic relations 5 Presidents and vice presidents 6 Statehood 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Texas
Texas
prior to independence[edit] See also: Spanish Texas
Texas
and Mexican Texas Texas
Texas
had been one of the Provincias Internas
Provincias Internas
of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain
Spain
to establish permanent settlements in the area.[3] Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio
San Antonio
as a permanent civilian settlement.[4] Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas
Texas
remained largely unsettled by Europeans, although Spain
Spain
maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, and to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana
Louisiana
and British North America. In 1762, France
France
ceded to Spain
Spain
most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana.[5] During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana
Louisiana
back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States. The status of Texas
Texas
during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
to the United States, and established a clear boundary between Texas
Texas
and Louisiana.[6] Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain
Spain
north of the Isthmus of Panama (including Texas) sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico
Mexico
against Spain
Spain
in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition
Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition
(also known as the Republican Army of the North) consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain
Spain
with efforts contributed by Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, and led by Samuel Kemper (who succeeded Magee after his death in battle in 1813), the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo. Their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813; he was executed two days later. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.[7] Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas
Texas
came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North. The harsh reprisals against the Texas
Texas
rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, and veterans of the Battle of Medina
Battle of Medina
would later become leaders of the Texas
Texas
Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico
Mexico
some 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas
Texas
gained its independence from Spain
Spain
in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, and the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico
Mexico
as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin
Austin
led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas
Texas
with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory. Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin
Austin
would later travel to Mexico
Mexico
City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle.[8] The establishment of Mexican Texas
Mexican Texas
coincided with the Austin-led settlement, leading to animosity between Mexican authorities and ongoing American settlement of Texas. The First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
was short lived, being replaced by a republican form of government in 1823. Following Austin's lead, additional groups of settlers, known as Empresarios, continued to colonize Mexican Texas
Mexican Texas
from the United States. In 1830, Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante
Anastasio Bustamante
outlawed American immigration to Texas, following several conflicts with the Empresarios over the status of slavery in the region.[9] Angered at the interference of the Mexican government, the Empresarios held the Convention of 1832, which is considered the first formal step in what would later become the Texas
Texas
Revolution. On the eve of war, the American settlers in the area outnumbered Mexicans by a considerable margin.[10] Following a series of minor skirmishes between Mexican authorities and the settlers, the Mexican government, fearing open rebellion of their Anglo subjects, began to step up military presence in Texas
Texas
throughout 1834 and early 1835. Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
revoked the 1824 Constitution of Mexico
Mexico
and began to consolidate power in the central government under his own leadership. The Texian leadership under Austin
Austin
began to organize its own military, and hostilities broke out on October 2, 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales, the first engagement of the Texas
Texas
Revolution.[11] In November, 1835 a provisional government known as the Consultation was established to oppose the Santa Anna regime (but stopped short of declaring independence from Mexico). On March 1, 1836 the Convention of 1836
Convention of 1836
came to order, and the next day declared independence from Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas.[12] Independent republic[edit] Politics[edit]

Map of the Republic of Texas
Texas
and the Adjacent Territories by C.F. Cheffins, 1841

The second Congress of the Republic of Texas
Congress of the Republic of Texas
convened in October 1836 at Columbia (now West Columbia). Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, died December 27, 1836, after serving two months as Secretary of State for the new Republic. In 1836, five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas (Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco and Columbia), before President Sam Houston
Houston
moved the capital to Houston in 1837. The next president, Mirabeau B. Lamar, moved the capital to the new town of Austin
Austin
in 1839. The first flag of the republic was the "Burnet Flag" (a single gold star on an azure field), followed in 1839 by official adoption of the Lone Star Flag. Internal politics of the Republic centred on two factions. The nationalist faction, led by Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans (Indians), and the expansion of Texas
Texas
to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas
Texas
to the United States
United States
and peaceful coexistence with the Indians, when possible. The Texas
Texas
Congress even passed a resolution over Houston's veto claiming the Californias for Texas.[13] The 1844 presidential election split the electorate dramatically, with the newer western regions of the Republic preferring the nationalist candidate Edward Burleson, while the cotton country, particularly east of the Trinity River, went for Anson Jones.[14] Armed conflict[edit] The Comanche
Comanche
Indians furnished the main Indian opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements, capture and rape of female pioneers, torture killings, and trafficking in captive slaves.[15] In the late 1830s, Sam Houston
Houston
negotiated a peace between Texas
Texas
and the Comanches. Lamar replaced Houston
Houston
as president in 1838 and reversed the Indian policies. He returned to war with the Comanches and invaded Comancheria
Comancheria
itself. In retaliation, the Comanches attacked Texas
Texas
in a series of raids. After peace talks in 1840 ended with the massacre of 34 Comanche
Comanche
leaders in San Antonio, the Comanches launched a major attack deep into Texas, known as the Great Raid of 1840. Under command of Potsanaquahip (Buffalo Hump), 500 to 700 Comanche
Comanche
cavalry warriors swept down the Guadalupe River valley, killing and plundering all the way to the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where they sacked the towns of Victoria and Linnville. Houston became president again in 1841 and, with both Texians and Comanches exhausted by war, a new peace was established.[16] Although Texas
Texas
achieved self-government, Mexico
Mexico
refused to recognize its independence.[17] On March 5, 1842, a Mexican force of over 500 men, led by Ráfael Vásquez, invaded Texas
Texas
for the first time since the revolution. They soon headed back to the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
after briefly occupying San Antonio. About 1,400 Mexican troops, led by the French mercenary general Adrián Woll, launched a second attack and captured San Antonio
San Antonio
on September 11, 1842. A Texas
Texas
militia retaliated at the Battle of Salado Creek while simultaneously, a mile and a half away, Mexican soldiers massacred a militia of fifty-three Texas
Texas
volunteers who had surrendered after a skirmish.[18][19] That night, the Mexican Army retreated from the city of San Antonio
San Antonio
back to Mexico. Mexico's attacks on Texas
Texas
intensified conflicts between political factions, including an incident known as the Texas
Texas
Archive War. To "protect" the Texas
Texas
national archives, President Sam Houston
Houston
ordered them removed from Austin. The archives were eventually returned to Austin, albeit at gunpoint. The Texas
Texas
Congress admonished Houston
Houston
for the incident, and this episode in Texas
Texas
history would solidify Austin as Texas's seat of government for the Republic and the future state.[20] There were also domestic disturbances. The Regulator–Moderator War involved a land feud in Harrison and Shelby Counties in East Texas from 1839 to 1844. The feud eventually involved Nacogdoches, San Augustine, and other East Texas
Texas
counties. Harrison County Sheriff John J. Kennedy and county judge Joseph U. Fields helped end the conflict, siding with the law-and-order party. Sam Houston
Houston
ordered 500 militia to help end the feud. Government[edit]

Sam Houston
Houston
and Stephen F. Austin
Austin
depicted on a 1936 US postage stamp commemorating 100th anniversary of the Texas
Texas
Republic

After gaining their independence, the Texas
Texas
voters had elected a Congress of 14 senators and 29 representatives in September 1836. The Constitution allowed the first president to serve for two years and subsequent presidents for 3 years. In order to hold an office or vote, a person needed to be a citizen of the Republic.[21] However, it is important to note that citizenship was not granted to all previous inhabitants of Texas, and not all of them could even live legally within the limits of the Republic without the consent of Congress. In this regard, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836) established major differences according to the ethnicity of each individual. Section 10 of the General Provisions of the constitution stated that all persons who were residing in Texas
Texas
on the day of the Declaration of Independence were to be considered citizens of the Republic, excepting "Africans, the descendants of Africans, and Indians".[22] For new white immigrants, section 6 established that, in order to become citizens, they needed to live in the Republic for at least six months and take an oath. While regarding the black population, section 9 established that black persons who were brought to Texas
Texas
as slaves were to remain slaves, and that not even their owner could emancipate them without the consent of Congress, while the Congress itself was not allowed to make laws affecting the slave trade or to declare emancipation. Section 9 also established that: "No free person of African descent, either in whole or in part, shall be permitted to reside permanently in the Republic, without the consent of Congress".[23] The first Congress of the Republic of Texas
Congress of the Republic of Texas
convened in October 1836 at Columbia (now West Columbia). Stephen F. Austin, often referred to as the "Father of Texas," died on December 27, 1836, after serving just two months as the republic's secretary of state. Due mainly to the ongoing war for independence, five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas
Texas
in 1836: (Washington-on-the-Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco and Columbia). The capital was moved to the new city of Houston
Houston
in 1837. In 1839, a small pioneer settlement situated on the Colorado
Colorado
River in central Texas
Texas
was chosen as the republic's seventh and final capital. Incorporated under the name Waterloo, the town was renamed Austin shortly thereafter in honor of Stephen F. Austin. The court system inaugurated by Congress included a Supreme Court consisting of a chief justice appointed by the president and four associate justices, elected by a joint ballot of both houses of Congress for four-year terms and eligible for re-election. The associates also presided over four judicial districts. Houston nominated James Collinsworth
James Collinsworth
to be the first chief justice. The county-court system consisted of a chief justice and two associates, chosen by a majority of the justices of the peace in the county. Each county was also to have a sheriff, a coroner, justices of the peace, and constables to serve two-year terms. Congress formed 23 counties, whose boundaries generally coincided with the existing municipalities. In 1839, Texas
Texas
became the first nation in the world to enact a homestead exemption under which a person's primary residence could not be seized by creditors. Boundaries[edit]

The Centralist Republic with the separatist movements generated by the dissolution of the Federal Republic.   Territory proclaimed its independence   Territory claimed by the Republic of Texas   Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande   Rebellions

The Texan leaders at first intended to extend their national boundaries to the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately decided to claim the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
as boundary, including much of New Mexico, which the Republic never controlled. They also hoped, after peace was made with Mexico, to run a railroad to the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
to give "access to the East Indian, Peruvian and Chilean trade."[24] When negotiating for the possibility of annexation to the US in late 1836, the Texan government instructed its minister Wharton in Washington that if the boundary were an issue, Texas
Texas
was willing to settle for a boundary at the watershed between the Nueces River
Nueces River
and Rio Grande, and leave out New Mexico.[25] In 1840 the first and only census of the Republic of Texas
Texas
was taken, recording a population of about 70,000 people. San Antonio and Houston
Houston
were recorded as the largest and second largest cities respectively.[citation needed] Diplomatic relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of the Republic of Texas

The Hôtel Bataille de Francès (now Hôtel de Vendôme), place Vendôme in Paris, housed the Embassy of the Republic of Texas

On March 3, 1837, US President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
appointed Alcée La Branche American chargé d'affaires to the Republic of Texas, thus officially recognizing Texas
Texas
as an independent republic.[26] France granted official recognition of Texas
Texas
on September 25, 1839, appointing Alphonse Dubois de Saligny to serve as chargé d'affaires. The French Legation
French Legation
was built in 1841, and still stands in Austin
Austin
as the oldest frame structure in the city.[27] Conversely, the Republic of Texas
Texas
embassy in Paris was located in what is now the Hôtel de Vendôme, adjacent to the Place Vendôme
Place Vendôme
in Paris's 2e arrondissement.[28] The Republic also received diplomatic recognition from Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Republic of Yucatán. The United Kingdom never granted official recognition of Texas
Texas
due to its own friendly relations with Mexico, but admitted Texan goods into British ports on their own terms. In London, immediately opposite the gates to St. James's Palace, Sam Houston's original Embassy of the Republic of Texas
Texas
to the Court of St. James's
Court of St. James's
is now a hat shop, but is clearly marked with a large plaque and a nearby restaurant is called Texas Embassy.[29] A plaque on the exterior of 3 St. James's Street in London
London
notes the upper floors of the building (which have housed the noted wine merchant Berry Brothers and Rudd
Berry Brothers and Rudd
since 1698) housed the Texas
Texas
Legation. Presidents and vice presidents[edit] Main article: President of the Republic of Texas

Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Republic of Texas

№ Portrait President Term of Office Party Term Previous Office Vice President

David G. Burnet (1788-04-18)April 18, 1788 - (1870-12-05)December 5, 1870 (aged 82) March 16, 1836 – October 22, 1836 Nonpartisan Interim Delegate to the Convention of 1833 Lorenzo de Zavala

1

Sam Houston (1793-03-02)March 2, 1793 - (1863-07-26)July 26, 1863 (aged 70) October 22, 1836 – December 10, 1838 Nonpartisan 1 (1836) Commander-in-Chief of the Texian Army (1836) Mirabeau B. Lamar

2

Mirabeau B. Lamar (1798-08-16)August 16, 1798 - (1859-12-19)December 19, 1859 (aged 61) December 10, 1838 – December 13, 1841 Nonpartisan 2 (1838) 1st Vice President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838) David G. Burnet

3

Sam Houston (1793-03-02)March 2, 1793 - (1863-07-26)July 26, 1863 (aged 70) December 13, 1841 – December 9, 1844 Nonpartisan 3 (1841) 1st President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838) Edward Burleson

4

Anson Jones (1798-01-20)January 20, 1798 - (1858-01-09)January 9, 1858 (aged 59) December 9, 1844 – February 19, 1846 Nonpartisan 4 (1844) 11th Secretary of State of the Republic of Texas (1841-1844) Kenneth Anderson December 9, 1844 - July 3, 1845

Statehood[edit] Main article: Texas
Texas
annexation On February 28, 1845, the US Congress passed a bill that would authorize the United States
United States
to annex the Republic of Texas. On March 1, US President John Tyler
John Tyler
signed the bill. The legislation set the date for annexation for December 29 of the same year. Faced with imminent American annexation of Texas, Charles Elliot
Charles Elliot
and Alphonse de Saligny, the British and French ministers to Texas, were dispatched to Mexico
Mexico
City by their governments. Meeting with Mexico's foreign secretary, they signed a "Diplomatic Act" in which Mexico
Mexico
offered to recognize an independent Texas
Texas
with boundaries that would be determined with French and British mediation. Texas
Texas
President Anson Jones forwarded both offers to a specially elected convention meeting at Austin, and the American proposal was accepted with only one dissenting vote. The Mexican proposal was never put to a vote. Following the previous decree of President Jones, the proposal was then put to a vote throughout the republic.

Texas
Texas
statehood 100th anniversary issue of 1945

Proposals for Texas's north and west boundaries in 1850 debate

On October 13, 1845, a large majority of voters in the republic approved both the American offer and the proposed constitution that specifically endorsed slavery and emigrants bringing slaves to Texas.[30] This constitution was later accepted by the US Congress, making Texas
Texas
a US state on the same day annexation took effect, December 29, 1845 (therefore bypassing a territorial phase).[31] One of the motivations for annexation was the huge debts which the Republic of Texas
Texas
government had incurred. As part of the Compromise of 1850, in return for $10,000,000 in Federal bonds, Texas
Texas
dropped claims to territory which included parts of present-day Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Wyoming. The resolution did include two unique provisions: First, it said up to four additional states could be created from Texas' territory with the consent of the State of Texas
Texas
(and that new states north of the Missouri Compromise Line
Missouri Compromise Line
would be free states). Though the resolution did not make exceptions to the constitution,[32] the U.S. Constitution requires Congressional consent neither to the creation of new states to be ex post to applications nor to expire. To illustrate the strength of the latter caveat, the 27th Amendment was submitted to the states in 1789, yet was not ratified until 1992; thus, the expressed consent of Congress, via this resolution, to the creation of new states would not expire nor require renewal. Second, Texas
Texas
did not have to surrender its public lands to the federal government. While Texas
Texas
did cede all territory outside of its current area to the federal government in 1850, it did not cede any public lands within its current boundaries. Consequently, the lands in Texas
Texas
owned by the federal government are those which were subsequently purchased by it. This also means the state government has control over oil reserves which were later used to fund the state's public university system through the Permanent University Fund.[33] In addition, the state's control over offshore oil reserves in Texas
Texas
runs out to 3 nautical leagues (9 nautical miles, 10.357 statute miles, 16.668 km) rather than three nautical miles (3.45 statute miles, 5.56 km) as with other states.[34][35] See also[edit]

Texas
Texas
portal

California Republic Vermont Republic Timeline of the Republic of Texas The Texas
Texas
Legation History of slavery in Texas Republic of Texas
Texas
(group), late 20th century

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Flags of Texas". Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online. Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ Henderson (2008), p. 121. ^ Weber, David J. (1992), The Spanish Frontier in North America, Yale Western Americana Series, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, p. 149, ISBN 0-300-05198-0  ^ Chipman, Donald E. (2010) [1992], Spanish Texas, 1519–1821 (revised ed.), Austin: University of Texas
Texas
Press, p. 126, ISBN 0-292-77659-4  ^ Weber (1992), p. 198. ^ Lewis, James E. (1998), The American Union and the Problem of Neighborhood: The United States
United States
and the Collapse of the Spanish Empire, 1783–1829, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, p. 124, ISBN 0-8078-2429-1  ^ Weber (1992), p. 299. ^ Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas
Texas
Press. p. 63. ISBN 1-55622-678-0.  ^ Manchaca, Martha (2001). Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. The Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. Austin, TX: University of Texas
Texas
Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-292-75253-9.  ^ Manchaca (2001), pp. 172, 201. ^ Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad. Austin, TX: University of Texas
Texas
Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-292-73086-1.  ^ Lack, Paul D. (1992). The Texas
Texas
Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835–1836. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-89096-497-1.  ^ #Fehrenbach, page 263 ^ #Fehrenbach, page 265 ^ This had also been their policy toward neighboring tribes before the arrival of the settlers. Gwinnett, S.C. Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History. ISBN 1-4165-9106-0.  ^ Hämäläinen 2008, pp. 215–217. ^ Jack W. Gunn, "MEXICAN INVASIONS OF 1842," Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online [1], accessed May 24, 2011. Published by the Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. ^ Thomas W. Cutrer, "SALADO CREEK, BATTLE OF," Handbook of Texas Online <http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qfs01>, accessed May 24, 2011. Published by the Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. ^ "Dawson Massacre". Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online. Retrieved Sep.24, 2006. ^ "The Archives War". Texas
Texas
Treasures – The Republic. The Texas State Library and Archives Commission. November 2, 2005. Retrieved January 3, 2009.  ^ Davis, William C. (2006). Lone Star Rising. College Station, TX: Texas
Texas
A&M University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-58544-532-5.  originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press ^ "General Provisions - Constitution of the Republic of Texas
Texas
(1836)". tarlton.law.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.  ^ "General Provisions - Constitution of the Republic of Texas
Texas
(1836)". tarlton.law.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-26.  ^ George Rives, The United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
vol. 1, page 390 ^ Rives, p. 403 ^ "LA BRANCHE, ALCÉE LOUIS". Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online. Retrieved Apr.7, 2010. ^ Museum Info, French Legation
French Legation
Museum. ^ "PARIS 2e: The Paris Embassy of Texas". Parisdeuxieme.com. June 28, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2013.  ^ "DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS".  ^ "Article VIII: Slaves - Constitution of Texas
Texas
(1845) (Joining the U.S.)". Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.  ^ "The Avalon Project : Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy". Archived from the original on December 5, 2006.  ^ "Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas
Texas
to the United States
United States
Approved March 1, 1845 - TSLAC".  ^ Texas
Texas
Annexation : Questions and Answers, Texas
Texas
State Library & Archives Commission. ^ Overview of US Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity ^ " United States
United States
v. Louisiana :: 363 U.S. 1 (1960) :: Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center". Justia Law. 

References[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Texas

Timeline

Pre-Columbian Texas

Early Spanish explorations 1520–

French Texas 1684–1689

Spanish Texas 1690–1821

Mexican Texas 1821–1836

Republic of Texas 1836–1845

Statehood 1845–1860

Civil War Era 1861–1865

Reconstruction 1865–1899

State of Texas

Texas
Texas
portal

v t e

Huson, Hobart (1974), Captain Phillip Dimmitt's Commandancy of Goliad, 1835–1836: An Episode of the Mexican Federalist War in Texas, Usually Referred to as the Texan Revolution, Austin, TX: Von Boeckmann-Jones Co  Hämäläinen, Pekka (2008), The Comanche
Comanche
Empire, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-12654-9  Lack, Paul D. (1992), The Texas
Texas
Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835–1836, Texas
Texas
A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-497-1  Fehrenbach, T. R. (2000), Lone Star: a history of Texas
Texas
and the Texans, Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-80942-2  Republic of Texas
Texas
Historical Resources Republic of Texas
Texas
from the Handbook of Texas
Texas
Online Hosted by Portal
Portal
to Texas
Texas
History:

Texas: the Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, Vol. 1, by William Kennedy, published 1841 Texas: the Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, Vol. 2, published 1841 Laws of the Republic, 1836–1838 from Gammel's Laws of Texas, Vol. I.[permanent dead link] Laws of the Republic, 1838–1845 from Gammel's Laws of Texas, Vol. II.

The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Texas
Texas
– From Independence to Annexation Early Settlers and Indian Fighters of Southwest Texas
Texas
by Andrew Jackson Sowell 1900

Further reading[edit]

Hardin, Stephen L.; Wade, Mary Dodson (1998). Lone Star: The Republic of Texas, 1836–1846. Discovery Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-878668-63-9.  Hogan, William Ransom (2007). The Texas
Texas
Republic: A Social and Economic History. Texas
Texas
State Historical Association. ISBN 978-0-87611-220-5.  Howell, Kenneth W. and Charles Swanlund, eds. Single Star of the West: The Republic of Texas, 1836-1845 (U of North Texas
Texas
Press; 2017) 550 pages; essays by scholars on its founders, defense, diplomacy, economy, and society, with particular attention to Tejanos, African-Americans, American Indians, and women. Lankevich, George J. (1979). The Presidents of the Republic of Texas: Chronology, Documents, Bibliography. Oceana Publications. ISBN 978-0-379-12085-1.  Weems, John Edward; Weems, Jane (1971). Dream of Empire: A Human History of the Republic of Texas, 1836–1846. Simon and Schuster. 

External links[edit]

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v t e

Republic of Texas

Capitals

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Presidents

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