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The Info List - Replicon (genetics)



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A REPLICON is a DNA
DNA
molecule or RNA
RNA
molecule, or a region of DNA
DNA
or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication .

CONTENTS

* 1 Prokaryotes * 2 Eukaryotes * 3 See also * 4 References

PROKARYOTES

For most prokaryotic chromosomes , the replicon is the entire chromosome. One notable exception found comes from archaea , where two Sulfolobus species have been shown to contain three replicons. Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include: Rhodobacter sphaeroides (2), Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
, and Burkholderia multivorans (3). These "secondary" (or tertiary) chromosomes are often described as a molecule that is a mixture between a true chromosome and a plasmid and are sometimes called "chromids". Various Azospirillum species possess 7 replicons, Azospirillum lipoferum , for instance, has 1 bacterial chromosome, 5 chromids, and 1 plasmid. Plasmids and bacteriophages are usually replicated as single replicons, but large plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to carry several replicons.

EUKARYOTES

For eukaryotic chromosomes, there are multiple replicons per chromosome. In the case of mitochondria the definition of replicons is somewhat confused, as they use unidirectional replication with two separate origins.

SEE ALSO

* Origin of replication
Origin of replication

REFERENCES

* ^ Tagomori, K.; Iida, T.; Honda, T. (2002). "Comparison of genome structures of vibrios, bacteria possessing two chromosomes" . Journal of Bacteriology. 184 (16): 4351–4358. PMC 135242  . PMID 12142404 . doi :10.1128/JB.184.16.4351-4358.2002 . * ^ Wisniewski-Dyé, F.; Borziak, K.; Khalsa-Moyers, G.; Alexandre, G.; Sukharnikov, L. O.; Wuichet, K.; Hurst, G. B.; McDonald, W. H.; Robertson, J. S.; Barbe, V.; Calteau, A.; Rouy, Z.; Mangenot, S.; Prigent-Combaret, C.; Normand, P.; Boyer, M.; Siguier, P.; Dessaux, Y.; Elmerich, C.; Condemine, G.; Krishnen, G.; Kennedy, I.; Paterson, A. H.; González, V.; Mavingui, P.; Zhulin, I. B. (2011). Richardson, Paul M, ed. " Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic to Terrestrial Environments" . PLoS Genetics. 7 (12): e1002430. PMC 3245306  . PMID 22216014 . doi :10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430 . * ^ Thomas, Christopher M. (2000-05-01). Horizontal Gene Pool: Bacterial Plasmids and Gene Spread (1 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9057024624 .

* v * t * e

DNA
DNA
replication (comparing Prokaryotic to Eukaryotic )

INITIATION

Prokaryotic (initiation )

* Pre-replication complex

* dnaC

* Cdc6

* Helicase
Helicase

* dnaA * dnaB * T7

* Primase
Primase

* dnaG

Eukaryotic (preparation in G1 phase)

* Pre-replication complex

* Origin recognition complex

* ORC1 * ORC2 * ORC3 * ORC4 * ORC5 * ORC6

* Cdc6

* Cdt1

* Minichromosome maintenance

* MCM2 * MCM3 * MCM4 * MCM5
MCM5
* MCM6 * MCM7
MCM7

* Licensing factor

* Autonomously replicating sequence

* Single-strand binding protein

* SSBP2 * SSBP3 * SSBP4

* RNase H
RNase H

* RNASEH1 * RNASEH2A
RNASEH2A

* Helicase
Helicase
: HFM1

* Primase
Primase
: PRIM1 * PRIM2
PRIM2

BOTH

* Origin of replication
Origin of replication
/Ori /Replicon

* Replication fork
Replication fork

* Lagging and leading strands

* Okazaki fragments
Okazaki fragments
* Primer

REPLICATION

Prokaryotic (elongation )

* DNA
DNA
polymerase III holoenzyme

* dnaC * dnaE * dnaH * dnaN * dnaQ * dnaT * dnaX * holA * holB * holC * holD * holE *

* Replisome
Replisome
* DNA
DNA
ligase * DNA
DNA
clamp

* Topoisomerase

* DNA
DNA
gyrase

* Prokaryotic DNA
DNA
polymerase : DNA
DNA
polymerase I

* Klenow fragment

Eukaryotic (synthesis in S phase)

* Replication factor C

* RFC1

* Flap endonuclease

* FEN1

* Topoisomerase

* Replication protein A
Replication protein A

* RPA1

* Eukaryotic DNA
DNA
polymerase :

* alpha

* POLA1 * POLA2 * PRIM1 * PRIM2
PRIM2

* delta

* POLD1 * POLD2 * POLD3 * POLD4

* epsilon

* POLE * POLE2 * POLE3 * POLE4

* DNA
DNA
clamp

* PCNA

* Control of chromosome