A RENEWABLE RESOURCE is a natural resource which replenishes to
overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either
through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes
in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources
are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components
of its ecosphere . A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator
of a resource's sustainability.
Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural
production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water
resources . In 1962
Paul Alfred Weiss defined Renewable Resources as:
"The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibres,
drugs, etc...". Another type of renewable resources is renewable
energy resources. Common sources of renewable energy include solar,
geothermal and wind power, which are all categorised as renewable
resources. Global vegetation oceans and seas often act as
renewable resources Sawmill near Fügen, Zillertal, Austria
* 1 Air, food and water
* 1.2 Non agricultural food
* 2 Non-food resources
* 2.1 Historical role
* 2.2 Challenges
* 2.3 Renewables used for self sufficiency
* 3 Legal situation and subsidies
* 4 Examples of industrial use
* 4.1 Biorenewable chemicals
* 4.6 Biofuel
* 4.8 Natural fibre
* 5 Threats to renewable resources
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
AIR, FOOD AND WATER
Water can be considered a renewable material when carefully
controlled usage, treatment, and release are followed. If not, it
would become a non-renewable resource at that location. For example,
groundwater is usually removed from an aquifer at a rate much greater
than its very slow natural recharge, and so groundwater is considered
non-renewable. Removal of water from the pore spaces may cause
permanent compaction (subsidence ) that cannot be renewed. 97.5% of
the water on the
Earth is salt water, and 3% is fresh water ; slightly
over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps .
The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with
only a small fraction (0.008%) present above ground or in the air.
Water pollution is one of the main concerns regarding water
resources. It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water is used in
industry. Major industrial users include hydroelectric dams,
thermoelectric power plants (which use water for cooling), ore and oil
refineries (which use water in chemical processes) and manufacturing
plants (which use water as a solvent).
Panoramic of a natural wetland (
Sinclair Wetlands , New Zealand)
NON AGRICULTURAL FOOD
Alaska wild "berries" from the
Innoko National Wildlife Refuge -
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the
body. Most food has its origin in renewable resources.
obtained directly from plants and animals.
Hunting may not be the first source of meat in the modernised world,
but it is still an important and essential source for many rural and
remote groups. It is also the sole source of feeding for wild
The phrase sustainable agriculture was coined by Australian
Gordon McClymont . It has been defined as "an
integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a
site-specific application that will last over the long term".
Expansion of agricultural land reduces biodiversity and contributes to
deforestation . The
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United
Nations estimates that in coming decades, cropland will continue to be
lost to industrial and urban development, along with reclamation of
wetlands, and conversion of forest to cultivation, resulting in the
loss of biodiversity and increased soil erosion . Polyculture
Although air and sunlight are available everywhere on
Earth , crops
also depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water .
Monoculture is a method of growing only one crop at a time in a given
field, which can damage land and cause it to become either unusable or
suffer from reduced yields .
Monoculture can also cause the build-up
of pathogens and pests that target one specific species. The Great
Irish Famine (1845–1849) is a well-known example of the dangers of
Crop rotation and long-term crop rotations confer the replenishment
of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals
and other crops, and can improve soil structure and fertility by
alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Other methods to
combat lost soil nutrients are returning to natural cycles that
annually flood cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients
indefinitely) such as the
Flooding of the Nile
Flooding of the Nile , the long-term use of
biochar , and use of crop and livestock landraces that are adapted to
less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of
Agricultural practices are the single greatest contributor to the
global increase in soil erosion rates. It is estimated that "more
than a thousand million tonnes of southern Africa's soil are eroded
every year. Experts predict that crop yields will be halved within
thirty to fifty years if erosion continues at present rates." The
Dust Bowl phenomenon in the 1930s was caused by severe drought
combined with farming methods that did not include crop rotation,
fallow fields, cover crops , soil terracing and wind-breaking trees to
prevent wind erosion .
The tillage of agricultural lands is one of the primary contributing
factors to erosion, due to mechanised agricultural equipment that
allows for deep plowing, which severely increases the amount of soil
that is available for transport by water erosion . The phenomenon
Soil describes how large-scale factory farming techniques
are jeopardizing humanity's ability to grow food in the present and in
the future. Without efforts to improve soil management practices, the
availability of arable soil will become increasingly problematic.
Methods to combat erosion include no-till farming , using a keyline
design , growing wind breaks to hold the soil, and widespread use of
Chemical fertiliser and pesticides can also have an effect
of soil erosion, which can contribute to soil salinity and prevent
other species from growing.
Phosphate is a primary component in the
chemical fertiliser applied most commonly in modern agricultural
production. However, scientists estimate that rock phosphate reserves
will be depleted in 50–100 years and that Peak
Phosphate will occur
in about 2030.
Industrial processing and logistics also have an effect on
agriculture's sustainability. The way and locations crops are sold
requires energy for transportation, as well as the energy cost for
materials, labour , and transport .
Food sold at a local location,
such a farmers\' market , have reduced energy overheads. Illegal
slash and burn practice in
Madagascar , 2010
Air is a renewable resource. All living organisms need oxygen ,
nitrogen (directly or indirectly), carbon (directly or indirectly) and
many other gases in small quantities for their survival .
Douglas fir forest created in 1850,
Meymac (Corrèze), France
Energy crop and
An important renewable resource is wood provided by means of forestry
, which has been used for construction, housing and firewood since
ancient times. Plants provide the main sources for renewable
resources, the main distinction is made between energy crops and
non-food crops . A large variety of lubricants , industrially used
vegetable oils, textiles and fibre made e.g. of cotton , copra or hemp
, paper derived from wood , rags or grasses , bioplastic are based on
plant renewable resources. A large variety of chemical based products
like latex , ethanol , resin , sugar and starch can be provided with
plant renewables. Animal based renewables include fur , leather ,
technical fat and lubricants and further derived products, as e.g.
animal glue , tendons , casings or in historical times ambra and
baleen provided by whaling .
With regard to pharmacy ingredients and legal and illegal drugs,
plants are important sources, however e.g. venom of snakes, frogs and
insects has been a valuable renewable source of pharmacological
ingredients. Before GMO production set in, insulin and important
hormones were based on animal sources. Feathers , an important
byproduct of poultry farming for food, is still being used as filler
and as base for keratin in general. Same applies for the chitin
produced in farming Crustaceans which may be used as base of chitosan
. The most important part of the human body used for non-medical
purposes is human hair as for artificial hair integrations , which is
being traded worldwide.
An adult and sub-adult
Minke whale are dragged aboard the
Nisshin Maru , a Japanese whaling vessel
Hemp insulation, a
renewable resource used as building material
Historically, renewable resources like firewood, latex , guano ,
charcoal , wood ash , plant colors as indigo , and whale products have
been crucial for human needs but failed to supply demand in the
beginning of the industrial era. Early modern times faced large
problems with overuse of renewable resources as in deforestation ,
overgrazing or overfishing .
Besides fresh meat and milk, which is as a food item not topic of
this section, livestock farmers and artisans used further animal
ingredients as tendons , horn, bones, bladders. Complex technical
constructions as the composite bow were based on combination of animal
and plant based materials. The current distribution conflict between
biofuel and food production is being described as
Food vs. fuel .
Conflicts between food needs and usage, as supposed by fief
obligations were in so far common in historical times as well.
However, a significant percentage of (middle European) farmers yields
went into livestock , which provides as well organic fertiliser. Oxen
and horses were important for transportation purposes, drove engines
as e.g. in treadmills .
Other regions solved the transportation problem with terracing ,
urban and garden agriculture. Further conflicts as between forestry
and herding, or (sheep) herders and cattle farmers led to various
solutions. Some confined wool production and sheep to large state and
nobility domains or outsourced to professional shepherds with larger
British Agricultural Revolution was mainly based on a new system
of crop rotation , the four-field rotation. British agriculturist
Charles Townshend recognised the invention in Dutch
popularised it in the 18th century UK,
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver in the
USA. The system used wheat , turnips and barley and introduced as well
Clover is able to fix nitrogen from air, a practically non
exhaustive renewable resource, into fertilizing compounds to the soil
and allowed to increase yields by large. Farmers opened up a fodder
crop and grazing crop. Thus livestock could to be bred year-round and
winter culling was avoided. The amount of manure rose and allowed more
crops but to refrain from wood pasture .
Early modern times and the 19th century saw the previous resource
base partially replaced respectively supplemented by large scale
chemical synthesis and by the use of fossil and mineral resources
respectively. Besides the still central role of wood, there is a sort
of renaissance of renewable products based on modern agriculture,
genetic research and extraction technology. Besides fears about an
upcoming global shortage of fossil fuels , local shortages due to
boycotts, war and blockades or just transportation problems in remote
regions have contributed to different methods of replacing or
substituting fossil resources based on renewables.
The use of certain basically renewable products as in TCM endangers
various species . Just the black market in rhinoceros horn reduced the
world's rhino population by more than 90 percent over the past 40
RENEWABLES USED FOR SELF SUFFICIENCY
In vitro-culture of Vitis (grapevine), Geisenheim Grape Breeding
The success of the German chemical industry till World War I was
based on the replacement of colonial products. The predecessors of IG
Farben dominated the world market for synthetic dyes at the beginning
of the 20th century and had an important role in artificial
pharmaceuticals , photographic film , agricultural chemicals and
However the former
Plant breeding research institutes took a
different approach. After the loss of the
German colonial empire
German colonial empire ,
important players in the field as
Erwin Baur and
Konrad Meyer switched
to using local crops as base for economic autarky . Meyer as a key
agricultural scientist and spatial planner of the Nazi era managed and
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft resources and focused about a
third of the complete research grants in Nazi Germany on agricultural
and genetic research and especially on resources needed in case of a
further German war effort. A wide array of agrarian research
institutes still existing today and having importance in the field was
founded or enlarged in the time.
There were some major failures as trying to e.g. grow frost resistant
olive species, but some success in the case of hemp , flax , rapeseed
, which are still of current importance. During World War 2, German
scientists tried to use Russian
Taraxacum (dandelion) species to
manufacture natural rubber . Rubber dandelions are still of interest,
as scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and
Applied Ecology (IME) announced 2013 to have developed a cultivar that
is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber.
LEGAL SITUATION AND SUBSIDIES
Several legal and economic means have been used to enhance the market
share of renewables. The UK uses Non-Fossil
Fuel Obligations (NFFO), a
collection of orders requiring the electricity Distribution Network
Wales to purchase electricity from the
nuclear power and renewable energy sectors. Similar mechanisms operate
Scotland (the Scottish Renewable Orders under the Scottish
Renewables Obligation) and
Northern Ireland (the Northern Ireland
Fuel Obligation). In the USA, Renewable
(RECs), use a similar approach. German Energiewende is using fed-in
tariffs. An unexpected outcome of the subsidies was the quick increase
of pellet byfiring in conventional fossil fuel plants (compare Tilbury
power stations ) and cement works, making wood respectively biomass
accounting for about half of Europe’s renewable-energy consumption.
EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIAL USE
Biorenewable chemicals are chemicals created by biological organisms
that provide feedstocks for the chemical industry . Biorenewable
chemicals can provide solar-energy-powered substitutes for the
petroleum-based carbon feedstocks that currently supply the chemical
industry. The tremendous diversity of enzymes in biological organisms,
and the potential for synthetic biology to alter these enzymes to
create yet new chemical functionalities, can drive the chemical
industry. A major platform for creation of new chemicals is the
polyketide biosynthetic pathway, which generates chemicals containing
repeated alkyl chain units with potential for a wide variety of
functional groups at the different carbon atoms.
Bioplastics A packaging blister made from
cellulose acetate , a bioplastic
Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass
sources, such as vegetable fats and oils , lignin , corn starch , pea
starch or microbiota . The most common form of bioplastic is
thermoplastic starch. Other forms include
Polylactic acid , and bio-derived polyethylene .
The production and use of bioplastics is generally regarded as a more
sustainable activity when compared to plastic production from
petroleum (petroplastic); however, manufacturing of bioplastic
materials is often still reliant upon petroleum as an energy and
materials source. Because of the fragmentation in the market and
ambiguous definitions it is difficult to describe the total market
size for bioplastics, but the global production capacity is estimated
at 327,000 tonnes. In contrast, global consumption of all flexible
packaging is estimated at around 12.3 million tonnes.
Bioasphalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum based
renewable resources. Manufacturing sources of bioasphalt include sugar
, molasses and rice , corn and potato starches , and vegetable oil
Asphalt made with vegetable oil based binders was
patented by Colas SA in France in 2004.
Renewable energy refers to the provision of energy via renewable
resources which are naturally replenished fast enough as being used.
It includes e.g. sunlight , wind , biomass , rain , tides , waves and
geothermal heat .
Renewable energy may replace or enhance fossil
energy supply various distinct areas: electricity generation , hot
water /space heating , motor fuels , and rural (off-grid) energy
Biomass A sugarcane plantation in
of São Paulo). Cane is used for biomass energy.
Biomass is referring to biological material from living, or recently
living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived
Sustainable harvesting and use of renewable resources (i.e.,
maintaining a positive renewal rate) can reduce air pollution , soil
contamination , habitat destruction and land degradation . Biomass
energy is derived from six distinct energy sources: garbage, wood,
plants, waste, landfill gases , and alcohol fuels . Historically,
humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the advent of
burning wood to make fire, and wood remains the largest biomass energy
However, low tech use of biomass, which still amounts for more than
10% of world energy needs may induce indoor air pollution in
developing nations and results in between 1.5 million and 2 million
deaths in 2000.
The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest
by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the
United States .
Agricultural waste is common in
Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and
Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as
poultry litter, are common in the UK . The biomass power generating
industry in the United States, which consists of approximately 11,000
MW of summer operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid,
produces about 1.4 percent of the U.S. electricity supply.
Brazil has bioethanol made from
sugarcane available throughout the country. Shown a typical Petrobras
gas station at
São Paulo with dual fuel service, marked A for alcohol
(ethanol) and G for gasoline.
A biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological
carbon fixation .
Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass
conversion, as well as solid biomass , liquid fuels and various
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation , mostly from
carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn ,
sugarcane or switchgrass .
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats .
produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most
common biofuel in Europe.
Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of
organic material by anaerobes ., etc. is also a renewable source of
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of gases produced by the
breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen .
produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or
fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure , sewage ,
municipal waste , green waste , plant material , and crops. It is
primarily methane (CH
4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen
2S), moisture and siloxanes .
Natural fibres are a class of hair-like materials that are continuous
filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of
thread . They can be used as a component of composite materials. They
can also be matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt
. Fibres are of two types: natural fibre which consists of animal and
plant fibres, and man made fibre which consists of synthetic fibres
and regenerated fibres.
THREATS TO RENEWABLE RESOURCES
Renewable resources are endangered by non-regulated industrial
developments and growth. They must be carefully managed to avoid
exceeding the natural world's capacity to replenish them. A life
cycle assessment provides a systematic means of evaluating
renewability. This is a matter of sustainability in the natural
Atlantic cod stocks severely overfished leading to abrupt
collapse Main article:
National Geographic has described ocean over fishing as "simply the
taking of wildlife from the sea at rates too high for fished species
to replace themselves."
Tuna meat is driving overfishing as to endanger some species like the
bluefin tuna. The European Community and other organisations are
trying to regulate fishery as to protect species and to prevent their
extinctions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
treaty deals with aspects of overfishing in articles 61, 62, and 65.
Examples of overfishing exist in areas such as the North Sea of
Europe , the Grand Banks of
North America and the
East China Sea
East China Sea of
The decline of penguin population is caused in part by overfishing,
caused by human competition over the same renewable resources
Besides their role as a resource for fuel and building material,
trees protect the environment by absorbing carbon dioxide and by
creating oxygen. The destruction of rain forests is one of the
critical causes of climate change .
Deforestation causes carbon
dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it
produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun.
The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming , which is
better known as the greenhouse effect .
Deforestation also affects the water cycle . It reduces the content
of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture.
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion , flooding and
Rain forests house many species and organisms providing people with
food and other commodities. In this way biofuels may well be
unsustainable if their production contributes to deforestation.
American Bison . Main article: Endangered
Some renewable resources, species and organisms are facing a very
high risk of extinction caused by growing human population and
over-consumption. It has been estimated that over 40% of all living
Earth are at risk of going extinct. Many nations have laws
to protect hunted species and to restrict the practice of hunting.
Other conservation methods include restricting land development or
creating preserves. The
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the
best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system.
Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord agreeing to
Biodiversity Action Plans to protect endangered and other
Renewable energy portal
* Environment portal
* Ecology portal
Earth sciences portal
Sustainable development portal
Exploitation of natural resources
Exploitation of natural resources
* List of renewable resources produced and traded by the United
* ^ A B "Management for a Small Planet" by Jean Garner Stead and W.
Edward Stead, M.E. Sharpe 2009
* ^ What are “Renewable Resources”?, by A. John Armstrong, Esq.
& Dr. Jan Hamrin, Chapter 1, The Renewable
Energy Policy Manual,
Organization of American States, undated. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ Paul Weiss chairman of renewable resources study (1962).
"Renewable Resources, a report to the committee on natural resources".
National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington
D.C., USA. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
* ^ "Earth\'s water distribution".
United States Geological Survey.
* ^ "Scientific Facts on Water: State of the Resource". GreenFacts
Website. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
* ^ "WBCSD
Water Facts & Trends". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica definition
* ^ Mammals: Carnivores. Duane E. Ullrey. Encyclopedia of Animal
* ^ Rural Science Graduates Association (2002). "In Memorium —
Former Staff and Students of Rural Science at UNE". University of New
England . Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 21
* ^ Gold, M. (July 2009). What is Sustainable Agriculture?. United
States Department of Agriculture, Alternative Farming Systems
* ^ "FAO World
Agriculture towards 2015/2030".
Food and Agriculture
Organization . 2003. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
* ^ Committee on 21st Century Systems
Agriculture (2010). Toward
Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century. National
Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-14896-2 . CS1 maint: Uses authors
parameter (link )
* ^ "Musokotwane Environment
Resource Centre for Southern Africa
CEP Factsheet". Archived from the original on 2013-02-13. Retrieved
* ^ "Drought: A Paleo Perspective – 20th Century Drought".
National Climatic Data Center
National Climatic Data Center . Retrieved 2009-04-05.
* ^ Blanco, Humberto & Lal, Rattan (2010). "
Soil Conservation and Management. Springer. ISBN
978-90-481-8529-0 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ Lobb, D.A. (2009). "
Soil movement by tillage and other
agricultural activities". In Jorgenson, Sven E. Applications in
Ecological Engineering. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-444-53448-4 .
* ^ "Peak Soil: Why cellulosic ethanol, biofuels are unsustainable
and a threat to America". Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ "CopperWiki
Soil erosion". Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ Cordell; et al. (2009-02-11). "The story of phosphorus: Global
food security and food for thought". Global Environmental Change. 19:
292–305. doi :10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 . Retrieved
Wood confirmed as the primary source of renewable energy in
Europe, UNECE February 2012
* ^ FAO Factsheet
* ^ A B
Wood The fuel of the future Environmental lunacy in Europe,
Economist title story Apr 6th 2013
* ^ A B C D Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment.
By Joachim Radkau. Publications of the German Historical Institute
Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008
* ^ A short history of livestock production, J. Hartung, in
Livestock housing, Modern management to ensure optimal health and
welfare of farm animals, edited by: Andres Aland and Thomas Banhazi,
© 2013 ISBN 978-90-8686-217-7
* ^ Gustav Comberg, Die deutsche Tierzucht im 19. und 20.
Jahrhundert, Ulmer, 1984, ISBN 3-8001-3061-0 , (History of livestock
breeding in Germany)
* ^ Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte.
2, Band 0, Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte, Reiner Prass,
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1958, p. 58
* ^ A B Lesch, John E. (2000). The German Chemical Industry in the
Twentieth Century. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 219.
* ^ "Rhino horn: All myth, no medicine", National Geographic,
* ^ Facts about traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): rhinoceros
horn, Encyclopædia Britannica, Facts about traditional Chinese
medicine (TCM): rhinoceros horn, as discussed in rhinoceros (mammal):
– Britannica Online Encyclopedia
* ^ Aftalion 1991 , p. 104, Chandler 2004 , p. 475
* ^ A B C D Autarkie und Ostexpansion: Pflanzenzucht und
Agrarforschung im Nationalsozialismus, (agrarian research during the
NS regime) Susanne Heim, Wallstein, 2002, ISBN 389244496X
* ^ Heim, Susanne (2002). Autarkie und Ostexpansion: Pflanzenzucht
und Agrarforschung im Nationalsozialismus, (agrarian research during
the NS regime). Wallstein. ISBN 389244496X .
* ^ "Making Rubber from Dandelion Juice". sciencedaily.com.
sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
* ^ A B Nikolau, Basil J.; Perera, M. Ann D.N.; Brachova, Libuse;
Shanks, Brent (2008-05-01). "Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable
chemical industry". The Plant Journal. 54 (4): 536–545. doi
:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03484.x . ISSN 1365-313X .
* ^ Garg, Shivani; Rizhsky, Ludmila; Jin, Huanan; Yu, Xiaochen;
Jing, Fuyuan; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J. "Microbial
production of bi-functional molecules by diversification of the fatty
acid pathway". Metabolic Engineering. 35: 9–20. doi
* ^ Leber, Christopher; Da Silva, Nancy A. (2014-02-01).
"Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the synthesis of short
chain fatty acids". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 111 (2):
347–358. doi :10.1002/bit.25021 . ISSN 1097-0290 .
* ^ "Development of a pea starch film with trigger biodegradation
properties for agricultural applications". CORDIS services.
2008-11-30. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
* ^ Hong Chua1, Peter H. F. Yu, and Chee K. Ma (March 1999).
"Accumulation of biopolymers in activated sludge biomass". Applied
Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Humana Press Inc. 78: 389–399. doi
:10.1385/ABAB:78:1-3:389 . ISSN 0273-2289 . Retrieved 2009-11-24. CS1
maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ NNFCC Renewable Polymers Factsheet:
Bioplastics — NNFCC.
Nnfcc.co.uk (2010-02-19). Retrieved on 2011-08-14.
* ^ "FYI charts". Plastics News. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
* ^ "Colas S.A.: Information and Much More from". Answers.com.
* ^ COLAS CST - Végécol Archived October 12, 2007, at the Wayback
* ^ "The myth of renewable energy Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists". Thebulletin.org. 2011-11-22. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
* ^ REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report p. 15.
* ^ "Benefits of Renewable
Energy Use". Union of Concerned
Scientists. 1999. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved
* ^ Retrieved on 2012-04-12.
* ^ Global biomass fuel resources, Matti Parikka, in
Bioenergy, Volume 27, Issue 6, December 2004, Pages 613–620, Pellets
2002. The first world conference on pellets
* ^ Duflo E, Greenstone M, Hanna R (2008). "Indoor air pollution,
health and economic well-being". S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (1).
* ^ Ezzati M, Kammen DM (November 2002). "The health impacts of
exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing
countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs" . Environ Health Perspect.
110 (11): 1057–68. doi :10.1289/ehp.021101057 . PMC 1241060 .
PMID 12417475 .
* ^ A B C D Frauke Urban and Tom Mitchell 2011. Climate change,
disasters and electricity generation Archived 2012-09-20 at the
Wayback Machine .. London:
Overseas Development Institute and
Institute of Development Studies
* ^ "U.S. Electric Net Summer Capacity". U.S.
Administration. July 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
* ^ B.N. Divakara; H.D. Upadhyaya; S.P. Wani; C.L. Laxmipathi Gowda
(2010). "Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A
Applied Energy . 87 (3): 732–742. doi
* ^ Redman, G., The Andersons Centre. "Assessment of on-farm AD in
the UK" Archived 2010-11-13 at the
Wayback Machine ., National
Food Crops Centre , 2008-06-09. Retrieved on 2009-05-11.
National Non-Food Crops Centre
National Non-Food Crops Centre . "NNFCC Renewable Fuels and
Energy Factsheet: Anaerobic Digestion", Retrieved on 2011-02-16
* ^ "Capitalizing on Environmental Injustice: The
Polluter-Industrial Complex in the Age of Globalization", by Daniel
Faber, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 17 Jul 2008
* ^ "Environmental Science: Creating a Sustainable Future" by
Daniel D. Chiras, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 21 Dec 2004
* ^ "Overfishing". National Geographic . Retrieved 2013-01-06.
* ^ COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2371/2002 of 20 December 2002 on the
conservation and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources under
the Common Fisheries Policy. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ "Text of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea:
Part V". Retrieved 2012-05-01.
* ^ Lu Hui, ed. (16 August 2006). "Pollution, overfishing destroy
East China Sea
East China Sea fishery".
Xinhua on GOV.cn. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
* ^ "Most
Penguin Populations Continue to Decline, Biologists
Warn". Science News. Science Daily. Sep 9, 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ How Much
Oxygen Does One Tree Produce? By Anne Marie
Helmenstine, Ph.D., About.com Guide
* ^ Mumoki, Fiona. “The Effects of
Deforestation on our
Environment Today.” Panorama. TakingITGlobal. 18 July 2006. Web. 24
* ^ "Underlying Causes of Deforestation". UN Secretary-General’s
Report. Archived from the original on 2001-04-11.
* ^ Daniel Rogge. "
Deforestation and Landslides in Southwestern
Washington". University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.
* ^ "China\'s floods: Is deforestation to blame?". BBC News. August
6, 1999. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
* ^ Assessing biofuels: towards sustainable production and use of
Resource Panel , United Nations Environment
Programme , 2009, retrieved 2013-01-05
* ^ "Threatened Species". Conservation and Wildlife. Retrieved 2
* ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN. February 2011. Archived from the
original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
* Krzeminska, Joanna, Are Support Schemes for Renewable Energies
Compatible with Competition Objectives? An Assessment of National and
Community Rules, Yearbook of European Environmental Law (Oxford
University Press), Volume VII, Nov. 2007, p. 125
* Masters, G. M. (2004). Renewable and Efficient Electric Power
Systems. Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons.
* Panwar, N. L., Kaushik, S. C., & Kothari, S. (2011, April). Role
of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review.
Renewable & Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 15(3), 1513-1524.
* Sawin, Janet. "Charting a New
Energy Future." State of the World
2003. By Lester R. Brown. Boston ;background:none
POLLUTION / QUALITY
* Ambient standards (USA)
* developing nations
Air Act (USA)
* Fossil fuels (peak oil )
* peak farmland
* habitat conservation
* genetic resources
* Herbalist plants
* Non-timber forest products
TYPES / LOCATION
* storage and recovery
* tragedy of
Earth Overshoot Day
* Conflict (perpetuation)
* Renewable / Non-renewable
Agriculture and agronomy