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The Renaissance
Renaissance
Papacy was a period of papal history between the Western Schism
Western Schism
and the Protestant Reformation. From the election of Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
of the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
in 1417 to the Reformation, Western Christianity was largely free from schism as well as significant disputed papal claimants. There were many important divisions over the direction of the religion, but these were resolved through the then-settled procedures of the papal conclave. The popes of this period were a reflection of the College of Cardinals that elected them. The College was dominated by cardinal-nephews (relatives of the popes that elevated them), crown-cardinals (representatives of the Catholic monarchies of Europe), and members of the powerful Italian families. There were two popes each from the House of Borgia, House of della Rovere, and House of Medici
House of Medici
during this period. The wealthy popes and cardinals increasingly patronized Renaissance
Renaissance
art and architecture, (re)building the landmarks of Rome from the ground up. The Papal States
Papal States
began to resemble a modern nation-state during this period, and the papacy took an increasingly active role in European wars and diplomacy. Popes were more frequently called upon to arbitrate disputes between competing colonial powers than to resolve complicated theological disputes. To the extent that this period is relevant to modern Catholic dogma, it is in the area of papal supremacy. None of these popes have been canonized as a saint, or even regarded as Blessed or Venerable.

Contents

1 Overview 2 History 3 Art and architecture 4 Theology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Overview[edit] The period from end of the Western Schism
Western Schism
in 1417 to the Council of Trent (1534–1563) is a rough approximation used by scholars to date the Renaissance
Renaissance
Papacy and separate it from the era of the Counter-Reformation.

Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V
(1417–1431)

Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
(1431–1447)

Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
(1447–1455)

Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III
(1455–1458)

Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II
(1458–1464)

Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II
(1464–1471)

Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV
(1471–1484)

Pope Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII
(1484–1492)

Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
(1492–1503)

Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III
(1503)

Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
(1503–1513)

Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
(1513–1521)

Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI
(1522–1523)

Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
(1523–1534)

Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
(1534–1549)

Pope Julius III
Pope Julius III
(1550–1555)

Pope Marcellus II
Pope Marcellus II
(1555)

Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
(1555–1559)

Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
(1559–1565)

History[edit] In 1420, the papacy returned to Rome
Rome
under Martin V. The Renaissance popes aggressively pursued the temporal interests of the Papal States in Italian politics.[1] In addition to being the head of the Church, the Pope
Pope
became one of Italy's most important secular rulers, signing treaties with other sovereigns and fighting wars. In practice, though, most of the territory of the Papal States
Papal States
was still only nominally controlled by the Pope, with much of the territory being ruled by minor princes. Control was often contested; indeed it took until the 16th century for the Pope
Pope
to have any genuine control over all his territories. The popes of this period used the papal military not only to enrich themselves and their families, but also to enforce and expand upon the longstanding territorial and property claims of the papacy as an institution.[2] Although before the Western Schism
Western Schism
the papacy had derived much of its revenue from the "vigorous exercise of its spiritual office," during this period the popes were financially dependent on the revenues from the Papal States
Papal States
themselves.[3] With ambitious expenditures on war and construction projects, popes turned to new sources of revenue from the sale of indulgences and of bureaucratic and ecclesiastical offices .[3] Pope
Pope
Clement VII's diplomatic and military campaigns resulted in the Sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527.[4] Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II
become known as "the Warrior Pope" for his use of military force to increase the territory and property of the papacy.[1] He continued the consolidation of power in the Papal States and continued the process of rebuilding Rome
Rome
physically. His most prominent project among many was the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica. The popes of this period became absolute monarchs, but unlike their European peers, they were not hereditary, so they could only promote their family interests through nepotism.[5] The word nepotism originally referred specifically to the practice of creating cardinal-nephews, when it appeared in the English language
English language
about 1669.[6] According to Duffy, "the inevitable outcome of all of this was a creation of a wealthy cardinalatial class, with strong dynastic connections."[7] According to Eamon Duffy, "the Renaissance
Renaissance
papacy invokes images of a Hollywood spectacular, all decadence and drag. Contemporaries viewed Renaissance
Renaissance
Rome
Rome
as we now view Nixon's Washington, a city of expense-account whores and political graft, where everything and everyone had a price, where nothing and nobody could be trusted. The popes themselves seemed to set the tone."[7] For example, Leo X was said to have remarked: "Let us enjoy the papacy, since God has given it to us."[5] Several of these popes took mistresses, fathered children, and engaged in intrigue or even murder.[7] Alexander VI had four acknowledged children, including Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
and Lucrezia Borgia. Art and architecture[edit] Because the popes had been in Avignon or divided by schism since 1309, Rome
Rome
remained architecturally underdeveloped from both a utilitarian and artistic perspective.[8] According to Duffy, " Rome
Rome
had no industries except pilgrimage, no function except as the pope's capital."[8] The patronage of arts and architecture was both a matter of papal policy—to increase the prestige of the institution as a whole—and the personal preferences of individual popes.[5] Leo X is well known for his patronage of Raphael, whose paintings played a large role in the redecoration of the Vatican. Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV initiated a major drive to redesign and rebuild Rome, widening the streets and destroying the crumbling ruins, commissioning the Sistine Chapel, and summoning many artists from other Italian city-states. Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
founded the Vatican Library.

The rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
began in 1506.

The Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
was painted between 1481 and 1512.

The School of Athens
The School of Athens
from the Raphael
Raphael
Rooms

Michelangelo's Pietà, completed 1499

Julius II commissioned Michelangelo's Moses for his tomb.

Theology[edit]

The execution of Savonarola

The "inquisitorial machinery" to deal with heresy remained largely unchanged from the thirteenth century.[1] The two main movements unsuccessfully suppressed during this period were John Wycliffe's Lollardy
Lollardy
and Jan Hus's Hussitism.[1] Voices critical of the worldliness of the papacy—such as Savonarola
Savonarola
in Florence—were excommunicated.[9] Critics such as Desiderius Erasmus, who remained committed to reform rather than schism, were treated more favorably.[10] The revival of Greek literature during this period made Platonism
Platonism
fashionable again in Catholic intellectual circles.[7] This was a period of declining religiosity among popes. Although Adrian VI said mass every day for the year he was pope, there is no evidence that his two predecessors—Julius II and Leo X—ever celebrated mass at all.[11] The reforms of the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
were unambitious and unenforced.[1] Conciliarism—a movement to assert the authority of ecumenical councils over popes—was also defeated; papal supremacy was maintained and strengthened at the expense of the papacy's moral prestige.[1] The role of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in theological and temporal policy making also declined during this period.[12] According to Duffy, "the one place where the cardinals were supreme was in Conclave."[7] The perceived abuses of this period, such as the selling of indulgences, were piled upon pre-existing theological differences and calls for reform, culminating in the Protestant Reformation.[13] Leo X and Adrian VI "failed utterly to grasp the seriousness" of the support of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in Germany, and their response to the rise Protestantism was ineffective.[14] See also[edit]

Catholicism portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f Spielvogel, 2008, p. 368. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 190. ^ a b Duffy, 2006, p. 194. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 206. ^ a b c Spielvogel, 2008, p. 369. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. September 2003. "Nepotism" ^ a b c d e Duffy, 2006, p. 193. ^ a b Duffy, 2006, p. 178. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 197. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 197-198. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 97–98. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 192. ^ Duffy, 2006, pp. 201–203. ^ Duffy, 2007, pp. 203–204.

References[edit]

Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8. Duffy, Eamon. 1997. Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. Jackson J. Spielvogel. 2008. Western Civilization: Alternate Volume: Since 1300helloo.

External links[edit]

The Papacy during the Renaissance
Renaissance
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

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1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire (until 493) including under Constantine (312–337)

Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto (1262–1297) Perugia (1228–1304) Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance
Renaissance
Papacy (1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance
Renaissance
Papacy (1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

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