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Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
(German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌfyːʁɐ ˈɛs ˈɛs] (listen), lit. " Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS). Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
was a title from 1925 to 1933, and from 1934 to 1945 it was the highest rank of the SS. The longest serving and most noteworthy Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
was Heinrich Himmler.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Duties 3 Relationship with the Waffen-SS 4 Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS 5 Office holders 6 Deputy 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Bibliography

Definition[edit] Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
was both a title and a rank. The title of Reichsführer was first created in 1926 by the second commander of the SS, Joseph Berchtold.[1] Julius Schreck, founder of the SS and Berchtold's predecessor, never referred to himself as Reichsführer. Yet, the title was retroactively applied to him in later years.[2] In 1929, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
became Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
and referred to himself by his title instead of his regular SS rank of Obergruppenführer.[3][4] This set the precedent for the commander of the SS to be called Reichsführer-SS. Prior to the Night of the Long Knives, the SS was an elite corps of the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA or storm troopers), and the Reichsführer-SS was subordinate to the SA's operating head, the Stabschef. On 20 July 1934, as part of the purge of the SA, the SS was made an independent branch of the Nazi Party, responsible only to Hitler. From that point on, the title of Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
became an actual rank, and in fact the highest rank of the SS.[5] In this position, Himmler was on paper the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
in the German Army. As Himmler's position and authority grew in Nazi Germany, so did his rank in a "de facto" sense.[6] Further, there was never more than one Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
at any one time, with Himmler holding the position as his personal title from 1929 (becoming his actual rank in 1934) until April 1945.[7]

Duties[edit] Under its original inception, the title and rank of Reichsführer-SS was the designation for the head of the Allgemeine-SS (General-SS).[8] In this capacity, the SS Reich Leader was the direct commander of the SS Senior District Leaders (SS-Oberabschnitt Führer); by 1936, the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
was head of the three main SS branches: the Allgemeine-SS, SS-Verfügungstruppe
SS-Verfügungstruppe
(SS-VT; Political Action Troops), and the SS-Totenkopfverbände
SS-Totenkopfverbände
(SS-TV; Concentration Camp Service).[9][10] During the Second World War, the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
in effect held several additional roles and wielded enormous personal power. He was responsible for all internal security within Nazi Germany. He was overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps (through the Concentration Camps Inspectorate
Concentration Camps Inspectorate
and SS-TV), and the Einsatzgruppen mobile death squads (through the RSHA).[11] Over time, his influence on both civil and foreign policy became marked, as the Reichsführer reported directly to Hitler and his actions were not tempered by checks and balances. This meant the office holder could implement broad policy, such as the Nazi plan for the Genocide
Genocide
or extermination of the Jews, or order criminal acts such as the Stalag Luft III murders, without impediment. It is difficult to separate the office from the duties assigned to the individual. As of 20 April 1934, Himmler in his position of Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
already controlled the SD and Gestapo.[12] On 17 June 1936 Himmler was named chief of all German police, thereby placing all uniformed police (Orpo) and criminal police (Kripo) in Germany under his control. In the latter role, he was nominally subordinate to the Interior Minister, Wilhelm Frick.[13] It is not clear how much of this power would technically reside in the office of the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
were those duties to be split up.[Note 1] These questions became moot by the time Himmler became the Interior Minister in 1943. It is difficult to define precisely the full detailed duties and responsibilities of the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
beyond that of leader and senior member of the SS, since, in the words of historian Martin Windrow, "(b)y the outbreak of the (Second World) war it would have been impossible to define exactly the role within the state" of the entire SS itself.[14]

Relationship with the Waffen-SS[edit] The rank of Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
was defined in the SS hierarchy as the highest possible rank of the Allgemeine-SS. The exact position of the rank within the military Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
evolved over many years, ranging from clearly defined to vaguely associated. The Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
was originally a small armed SS unit called the SS-Verfügungstruppe, and in the 1930s was under the command of Himmler who, in his position as Reichsführer-SS, issued directives and orders to SS-VT commanders. Hold-outs existed for some aspects of the armed SS however, as well as within the special bodyguard unit known as the SS-Leibstandarte. Although the unit was nominally under Himmler, Sepp Dietrich
Sepp Dietrich
was the real commander and handled day-to-day administration.[15] The Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
eventually grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions and served alongside the German Army, but was never formally part of it.[16] During World War II, the authority of the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
over the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
was mainly administrative in that certain General-SS offices controlled supply and logistics aspects of the Waffen-SS. Himmler also held authority to create new Waffen-SS divisions as well as order the formation of various smaller SS combat units. The daily association with the Waffen-SS, however, encompassed primarily inspecting Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
troops and presenting high-ranking medals to its members. The Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
further never exercised direct operational authority over Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
units until the very end of the war and then only through his capacity as an Army Group commander and not as the head of the SS. Top Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
commanders, such as Sepp Dietrich, Wilhelm Bittrich, and Matthias Kleinheisterkamp, further held a certain derision for Himmler, describing him as "sly and unmilitary".[17]

Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS[edit] Main article: Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS Attached to the office was the 18,438-strong SS formations managed by the Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS
Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS
("Command Staff Reichsführer-SS") reporting directly to Himmler. To head the Command Staff, Himmler appointed career army officer Kurt Knoblauch, who acted as chief of staff for the units.[18] Prior to the launch of the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, these formations included two motorized SS-Infantry Brigades, two SS-Cavalry Regiments combined into the SS Cavalry Brigade, a bodyguard battalion, flak units and a number of companies of support troops. Units were temporarily placed under army command for operations, but the Reichsführer could call them back at any time. Despite the name, it was not employed as a unified HQ unit. Instead, its individual units were sent to occupied areas, subordinated to local Higher SS and Police Leaders (HSSPFs) and used for "pacification actions" alongside the Einsatzgruppen. Often these actions were atrocities and mass murders, targeting Jews
Jews
and "suspected partisans".[19]

Office holders[edit] In all, five people held the title of Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
during the twenty years of its existence. Three persons held the position as a title while two held the actual SS rank.

Reichsführer-SS Took office Left office Time in office Party Ref 1 Schreck, JuliusJulius Schreck(1898–1936)4 April 192515 April 19261 year, 11 daysNSDAP[2] 2 Berchtold, JosephJoseph Berchtold(1897–1962)15 April 19261 March 1927320 daysNSDAP[2] 3 Heiden, ErhardErhard Heiden(1901–1933)1 March 19276 January 19291 year, 311 daysNSDAP[2] 4 Himmler, HeinrichHeinrich Himmler(1900–1945)6 January 192929 April 194516 years, 113 daysNSDAP[2] 5 Hanke, KarlKarl Hanke(1903–1945)29 April 19458 June 1945 †40 daysNSDAP[2]

Hanke was appointed SS leader in April 1945, but not informed until early May. He was killed on June 8, 1945, while attempting to escape a Czech POW camp. Historians have often speculated that Reinhard Heydrich would have eventually held the rank had Himmler in some way been killed or removed from his position earlier in World War II, and indeed Heydrich was often seen as Himmler's heir apparent by senior SS leaders. However, at a diplomatic function in Italy
Italy
in 1941, Heydrich was reported as stating that he had no desire to succeed Himmler.[20]

Deputy[edit]

Stellvertretender RfSS Took office Left office Time in office Ref ? Himmler, HeinrichSS-OberführerHeinrich Himmler(1900–1945)September 19276 January 19291 year, 4 months[21] ? Heydrich, ReinhardSS-ObergruppenführerReinhard Heydrich(1904–1942)17 June 19364 June 1942 †5 years, 11 months[22]

Notes[edit]

^ As noted in, The SS (Time-Life, pp. 70–73.): "Himmler...was now the head of two important, separate organizations - the SS and the national police (emphasis added)." Much of his power and influence as Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
resided from control of the police, duties separate, yet linked.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Weale 2010, p. 30.

^ a b c d e f McNab 2009, pp. 16, 17.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 18, 29.

^ Weale 2010, p. 47.

^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 309–314, 316.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 9, 17, 26–27, 30, 46–47.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 9, 17.

^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 313, 316.

^ Stein 2002, p. 23.

^ Flaherty 2004, p. 156.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 9, 35–36, 46–47.

^ Evans 2005, p. 54.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 9, 46–47.

^ Windrow 1982, p. 7.

^ Cook & Bender 1994, pp. 19, 33.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 9, 35–36, 46–47, 61, 64, 66–70.

^ Messenger, Charles (26 September 2005). Hitler's Gladiator (Re-issue ed.). London: Conway Maritime Press. p. 51. ISBN 1844860221..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Hale 2011, pp. 160–162.

^ Stein 2002.

^ Yerger 1997.

^ McNab 2009, p. 18.

^ McNab 2009, pp. 17, 23, 151.

Bibliography[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Cook, Stan; Bender, R. James (1994). Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler: Uniforms, Organization, & History. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender. ISBN 978-0-912138-55-8. Evans, Richard (2005). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8. Flaherty, T. H. (1988). The Third Reich: The SS. Time-Life Books, Inc. ISBN 0-8094-6950-2. Hale, Christopher (2011). Hitler's Foreign Executioners: Europe's Dirty Secret. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5974-5. Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6. McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5. Stein, George (2002) [1966]. The Waffen-SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War 1939–1945. Cerberus Publishing. ISBN 978-1841451008. Weale, Adrian (2010). The SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0304-5. Windrow, Martin (1982). The Waffen-SS. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-425-5. Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4.

Junior RankOberstgruppenführer

SS rankReichsführer-SS

Senior RankOberster Führer der Schutzstaffel

vte Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)Branches Allgemeine SS Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) Waffen-SS Leadership Reichsführer-SS SS and police leader SS commands Leaders Julius Schreck Joseph Berchtold Erhard Heiden Heinrich Himmler Karl Hanke Main departments Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS SS Main Office Head Operational Office Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) Economics and Administration Office Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV) Courts Office Personnel Office Education Office Ideological institutions Ahnenerbe Das Schwarze Korps SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz Lebensborn Police and security services Uniformed police (Orpo) Schutzpolizei (Schupo) Criminal police (Kripo) Secret State police (Gestapo) State Security police (SiPo) SS Security Service (SD) Customs Border Guards (ZGS) Führer protection SS-Begleitkommando des Führers Reichssicherheitsdienst Paramilitary units Einsatzgruppen Schutzmannschaft Belarusian Auxiliary Police Latvian Police Battalions Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Trawnikis Estonian Auxiliary Police Police Regiment Centre Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
divisions Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Leibstandarte (LSSAH) SS Division Das Reich SS Division Totenkopf SS Polizei Division SS Division Wiking Foreign SS units Germanic-SS Germaansche SS in Nederland Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen Germanske SS Norge Schalburg Corps Britisches Freikorps S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. Finnish Volunteer Battalion SS-controlled enterprises Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

vte Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
paramilitary ranks          Combat ranks Anwärter Junker Schütze Oberschütze Sturmmann Volkssturmmann Rottenführer Unterscharführer Scharführer Oberscharführer Hauptscharführer Stabsscharführer Sturmscharführer Zugführer (Volkssturm) Untersturmführer Obersturmführer Kompanieführer (Volkssturm) Hauptsturmführer Bataillonsführer (Volkssturm) Sturmbannführer Obersturmbannführer Standartenführer Oberführer Brigadeführer Gruppenführer Obergruppenführer Oberst-Gruppenführer Non-combat ranks Bewerber Aufseherin Mann Oberrottenführer HJ Staffelführer Truppführer Obertruppführer Haupttruppführer Sturmführer Rapportführer Sonderführer Sturmhauptführer Schutzhaftlagerführer Gauführer Untergruppenführer Stabsführer Reichsjugendführer Korpsführer Stabschef
Stabschef
(SA) Reichsführer-SS Nazi Party
Nazi Party
ranks Abschnittsleiter Abteilungsleiter Amtsleiter Arbeitsleiter Befehlsleiter Bereichsleiter Bereitschaftsleiter Betriebsobmann Blockleiter Dienstleiter Einsatzleiter Gauleiter Gemeinschaftsleiter Helfer Inspekteur Kreisleiter Mitarbeiter Ortsgruppenleiter Reichsleiter Sonderbeauftragter Stellenleiter Stützpunktleiter Zellenleiter Other ranks RLB-Präsident Organizations Nazi Party Sturmabteilung Schutzstaffel Allgemeine SS SS-Verfügungstruppe Waffen-SS SS-Totenkopfverbände Hitler Youth National Socialist Motor Corps National Socialist Flyers Corps Volkssturm

vteHeinrich Himmler Reichsführer-SS Chief of German Police Minister of the Interior Reichsführer-SS Ideology of the SS Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS Freundeskreis Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
("Circle of Friends of the Reichsführer-SS") Adolf Hitler Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
(Chief of the RSHA) Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(successor as Chief of the RSHA) Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
(Chief of Personal Staff) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(secretary) Rudolf Brandt
Rudolf Brandt
(Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS) Hermann Gauch
Hermann Gauch
(adjutant) Werner Grothmann
Werner Grothmann
(aide-de-camp) Heinz Macher (second personal assistant) Walter Schellenberg
Walter Schellenberg
(personal aide) Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist) Organizations Schutzstaffel Gestapo Ahnenerbe Lebensborn Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion Responsibility forthe Holocaust The Holocaust Porajmos Crimes against Poles Crimes against Soviet POWs Persecution of Slavs in Eastern Europe Persecution of homosexuals Persecution of Serbs Suppression of Freemasonry Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses Persecution of black people Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS Volksliste Operation Reinhard Hegewald Posen speeches Himmler-Kersten Agreement Family Margarete Himmler
Margarete Himmler
(wife) Gudrun Burwitz
Gudrun Burwitz
(daughter) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(mistress) Gebhard Ludwig (older brother) Ernst (younger brother) Katrin Himmler (great-niece) Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law) Richard Wendler
Richard Wendler
(brother-in-law) Military Operation Himmler Army Group Oberrhein Army Group Vistula Operation Nordwind Failed assassins Václav Morávek Thomas Sneum Claus von Stauffenberg Henning von Tresckow People Erhard Heiden
Erhard Heiden
(predecessor as Reichsführer-SS) Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
(successor as Reichsführer-SS) Falk Zipperer (closest friend) Karl Gebhardt
Karl Gebhardt
(personal physician) Felix Kersten (personal masseur) Hugo Blaschke (dentist) Sidney Excell
Sidney Excell
(man who a

.