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Rehe (), also romanized as Jehol, was a former Chinese
special administrative region A special administrative region is a designation for types of administrative territorial entities in Mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopo ...
and
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outs ...
.


Administration

Rehe was north of the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Stepp ...
, west of
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a ...

Manchuria
, and east of
Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, which is sometimes used to refer t ...
. Its capital and largest city was
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because ...
. The second largest city was Chaoyang, followed by Chifeng. The province covered 114,000 square kilometers.


History

Rehe was once at the core of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty. Rehe was conquered by the
Manchu
Manchu
banners before they took possession of Beijing in 1644. Between 1703 and 1820, the Qing emperors spent almost each summer in their summer
Mountain Resort A mountain resort is a place to holiday or vacation located in a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a ...
in Chengde. They governed the empire from Chengde, and received there foreign diplomats and representatives of vassal and tributary countries. The Kangxi emperor restricted the admission to the forests and prairies of Rehe to the court's hunting expeditions and to the maintenance of the imperial cavalry. Agricultural settlements were at first forbidden to
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleZhili, migrants from Hebei and Liaoning settled in Rehe and displaced the Mongol communities. The Republic of China created the Rehe Special Area (熱河特別區) in 1914, and the Province of Jehol in 1923. To form a buffer zone between China proper and Japanese-controlled
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until th ...
, the
Imperial Japanese Army Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
invaded Jehol in Operation Nekka on 21 January 1933. It was subsequently annexed by the Empire of Manchukuo, as the '' anto'' (province) of Rehe. The seizure of Jehol poisoned relations between Japan and China, and was one of the incidents that led to the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. In China, the war is known as the War of Resistance against Japa ...
. At the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, when the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China resumed control of Manchuria, the Kuomintang government continued to administer the area as a separate province, reverting its name to Jehol Province, with its capital in Hailar, China, Hailar. In 1955, the administration of the People's Republic of China divided the area between Hebei province, Liaoning Province, Tianjin Municipality, and the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.


Bibliography

*Hedin, Sven (1933). ''Jehol: City of Emperors''. Reprint (2000): Pilgrim's Book House, Varanasi. . *Forêt, Philippe (2000). "Mapping Chengde. The Qing Landscape Enterprise". 2000: University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. . {{coord missing, China Rehe Province, Provinces of the Republic of China (1912–1949) Former provinces of China Provinces of Manchukuo States and territories established in 1923 States and territories disestablished in 1955