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The regions of Italy
Italy
(Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.[1] There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes. Each region, except for the Aosta
Aosta
Valley, is divided into provinces. Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Regional control

2 Regions 3 Macroregions 4 Status

4.1 Regions with ordinary statute 4.2 Autonomous regions with special statute

5 Institutions 6 Representation in the Senate 7 Economy of regions and macroregions 8 See also

8.1 Other administrative divisions

9 References 10 External links

History[edit] As the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy, regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic. The original draft list comprised the Salento
Salento
region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata
Basilicata
was named Lucania. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Molise
Molise
were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo
Abruzzo
e Molise
Molise
in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963. Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria
Umbria
and the Marches). Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.[2] In June 2006 the proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in a referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%.[2] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto
Veneto
to 82% against in Calabria.[2] Regional control[edit] Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995:   Center-left   Center-right   Others

Regions[edit]

Flag Region Italian name Status Population[3] January 2016 Area Pop. density Capital city President Number of comuni[4] Metropolitan cities

Number % km² %

Abruzzo Abruzzo Ordinary 1,326,513 2.19% 10,832 3.59% 122 L'Aquila

Luciano D'Alfonso Democratic Party 305 -

Aosta
Aosta
Valley Valle d'Aosta Autonomous 127,329 0.21% 3,261 1.08% 39 Aosta

Laurent Viérin Progressive Valdostan Union 74 -

Apulia Puglia Ordinary 4,077,166 6.72% 19,541 6.47% 209 Bari

Michele Emiliano Democratic Party 258 Bari

Basilicata Basilicata Ordinary 573,694 0.95% 10,073 3.33% 57 Potenza

Marcello Pittella Democratic Party 131 -

Calabria Calabria Ordinary 1,970,521 3.25% 15,222 5.04% 129 Catanzaro

Mario Oliverio Democratic Party 405 Reggio Calabria

Campania Campania Ordinary 5,850,850 9.64% 13,671 4.53% 428 Naples

Vincenzo De Luca Democratic Party 550 Naples

Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Ordinary 4,448,146 7.33% 22,453 7.43% 198 Bologna

Stefano Bonaccini Democratic Party 333 Bologna

Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Autonomous 1,221,218 2.01% 7,862 2.60% 155 Trieste

Debora Serracchiani Democratic Party 216 -

Lazio Lazio Ordinary 5,888,472 9.70% 17,232 5.70% 342 Rome

Nicola Zingaretti Democratic Party 378 Rome

Liguria Liguria Ordinary 1,571,053 2.59% 5,416 1.79% 290 Genoa

Giovanni Toti Forza Italia 235 Genoa

Lombardy Lombardia Ordinary 10,008,349 16.50% 23,864 7.90% 419 Milan

Attilio Fontana Lega Nord 1,523 Milan

Marches Marche Ordinary 1,543,752 2.54% 9,401 3.11% 164 Ancona

Luca Ceriscioli Democratic Party 229 -

Molise Molise Ordinary 312,027 0.51% 4,461 1.48% 70 Campobasso

Paolo Di Laura Frattura Democratic Party 136 -

Piedmont Piemonte Ordinary 4,404,246 7.26% 25,387 8.40% 173 Turin

Sergio Chiamparino Democratic Party 1,202 Turin

Sardinia Sardegna Autonomous 1,658,138 2.73% 24,100 7.98% 69 Cagliari

Francesco Pigliaru Democratic Party 377 Cagliari

Sicily Sicilia Autonomous 5,074,261 8.36% 25,832 8.55% 196 Palermo

Nello Musumeci Centre-right independent 390 Catania Messina Palermo

Trentino-South Tyrol Trentino-Alto Adige Autonomous 1,059,114 1.75% 13,606 4.50% 78 Trento

Arno Kompatscher South Tyrolean People's Party 293 -

Tuscany Toscana Ordinary 3,744,398 6.17% 22,987 7.61% 163 Florence

Enrico Rossi Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement 276 Florence

Umbria Umbria Ordinary 891,181 1.47% 8,464 2.80% 105 Perugia

Catiuscia Marini Democratic Party 92 -

Veneto Veneto Ordinary 4,915,123 8.10% 18,407 6.09% 267 Venice

Luca Zaia Lega Nord 575 Venice

ITALY

60,665,551 100% 302,073 100% 201 Rome

Sergio Mattarella Independent 7,978 14

Macroregions[edit] Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)

Map Macroregion Italian name Regions Major city Population January 2016 Area (km²) Pop. density

Number % km² %

North-West Nord-Ovest Aosta
Aosta
Valley Liguria Lombardy Piedmont Milan 16,110,977 26.56% 57,928 19.18% 278

North-East Nord-Est Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Trentino-South Tyrol Veneto Bologna 11,643,601 19.19% 62,328 20.63% 187

Centre Centro Lazio Marche Tuscany Umbria Rome 12,067,803 19.89% 58,084 19.23% 208

South Sud Abruzzo Apulia Basilicata Calabria Campania Molise Naples 14,110,771 23.26% 73,800 24.43% 191

Islands Isole or Insulare (adj) Sardinia Sicily Palermo 6,732,399 11.10% 49,932 16.53% 135

Status[edit] Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy
Italy
(Article 123). Although all the regions except Toscana
Toscana
define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes,[5] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy. Regions with ordinary statute[edit] These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution
Italian Constitution
dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117).[6] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system.[7] Autonomous regions with special statute[edit]

Autonomous regions

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution
Italian Constitution
grants to five regions (namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
and Friuli-Venezia Giulia) home rule, acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy
Italy
after the Second World War.[8] Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
constitutes a special case. The region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the region's statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region, Trentino
Trentino
and South Tyrol. In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role.[citation needed] Institutions[edit] Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council. Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately. In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino
Trentino
and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners. Representation in the Senate[edit]

Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy
Italy
establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians
Italians
residing abroad and a small number of senator for life) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
(which has one) and Molise
Molise
(which has two).

Region Seats[9] Region Seats Region Seats

Abruzzo 7 Friuli-Venezia Giulia 7 Sardinia 8

Aosta
Aosta
Valley 1 Lazio 28 Sicily 25

Apulia 20 Liguria 8 Trentino-South Tyrol 7

Basilicata 7 Lombardy 49 Tuscany 18

Calabria 10 Marches 8 Umbria 7

Campania 29 Molise 2 Veneto 24

Emilia-Romagna 22 Piedmont 22 Overseas constituencies 6

Economy of regions and macroregions[edit]

Flag Name GDP 2011 million, EUR[10] GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[10] GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[10] GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[10]

Abruzzo 30,073 22,400 29,438 21,900

Aosta
Aosta
Valley 4,328 33,700 4,236 33,000

Apulia 69,974 17,100 68,496 16,700

Basilicata 10,744 18,300 10,517 17,900

Calabria 33,055 16,400 32,357 16,100

Campania 93,635 16,000 91,658 15,700

Emilia-Romagna 142,609 32,100 139,597 31,400

Friuli-Venezia Giulia 36,628 29,600 35,855 29,000

Lazio 172,246 29,900 168,609 29,300

Liguria 43,998 27,200 43,069 26,700

Lombardy 337,161 33,900 330,042 33,200

Marches 40,877 26,100 40,014 25,500

Molise 6,414 20,100 6,278 19,700

Piedmont 125,997 28,200 123,336 27,600

Sardinia 33,075 19,700 32,377 19,300

Sicily 83,956 16,600 82,183 16,300

Trentino-Alto Adige 35,797 34,450 35,041 33,700

Tuscany 106,013 28,200 103,775 27,600

Umbria 21,533 23,700 21,078 23,200

Veneto 149,527 30,200 146,369 29,600

Code Name GDP 2011 million, EUR[10] GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[10] GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[10] GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[10]

ITE Centre 340,669 28,400 333,475 27,800

ITD North-East 364,560 31,200 356,862 30,600

ITC North-West 511,484 31,700 500,683 31,000

ITG Islands 117,031 17,400 114,560 17,000

ITF South 243,895 17,200 238,744 16,800

- Extra-regio 2,771 - 2,712 -

The extra-regio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be assigned to a single region. It consists of the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights, territorial exclaves, deposits of oil, natural gas etc. worked by resident units. Until 2011, the gross value added (GVA) produced in the extra-regio was allocated pro-rata to the inhabited regions of the country concerned. The order of magnitude of the extra-regio GVA depends in particular on the resource endowment in terms of natural gas and oil. In 2011, Member States and the European Commission agreed to give countries the possibility to calculate regional GDP also for the extra-regio. The resulting GDP is available only in absolute values, because the extra-regio territory by definition does not have a resident population. See also[edit]

Italian NUTS level 1 regions Regional Council (Italy) Presidents of Regions of Italy Flags of regions of Italy ISO 3166-2:IT

Other administrative divisions[edit]

Provinces of Italy Municipalities of Italy

References[edit]

^ "National structures". Eurostat. Retrieved 6 December 2011.  ^ a b c "Speciale Referendum 2006". la Repubblica. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2011.  ^ " Population
Population
Italian Regions". tuttitalia.it.  ^ "Italian Comuni". tuttitalia.it.  ^ Statuti Regionali - Edizioni Simone ^ The Constitution of the Italian Republic ^ Report RAI
RAI
- Le regioni a statuto speciale (Italian), retrieved 21st Jan 2009 [1], [2] Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hiroko Kudo, “Autonomy and Managerial Innovation in Italian Regions after Constitutional Reform”, Chuo University, Faculty of Law and Graduate School of Public Policy (2008): p. 1. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.med-eu.org/proceedings/MED1/Kudo.pdf. ^ http://www.senato.it/leg/17/BGT/Schede/Attsen/Regioni/01.html ^ a b c d e f g h GDP per capita in the EU in 2011

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Regions of Italy.

CityMayors article Regional Governments of Italy
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Italy
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List of regions of Europe

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Regions of Italy

Central

 Lazio  Marche  Tuscany  Umbria

Northeast

 Emilia-Romagna  Friuli-Venezia Giulia1  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol1  Veneto

Northwest

  Aosta
Aosta
Valley1  Liguria  Lombardy  Piedmont

South

 Abruzzo  Apulia  Basilicata  Calabria  Campania  Molise

Insular

 Sardinia1  Sicily1

1 Special
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statutes

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1 Has part of its territory outside Europe. 2 Considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons but is geographically in Western Asia.

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