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The REGIONS OF ITALY (Italian: _regioni_) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy , constituting its second NUTS administrative level . There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes.

Each region, except for the Aosta Valley , is divided into provinces . Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Regional control

* 2 Regions * 3 Macroregions

* 4 Status

* 4.1 Regions with ordinary statute * 4.2 Autonomous regions with special statute

* 5 Institutions * 6 Representation in the Senate * 7 Economy of regions and macroregions

* 8 See also

* 8.1 Other administrative divisions

* 9 References

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Italian

HISTORY

As the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy , regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic . The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). _Friuli_ and _Venezia Giulia_ were separate regions, and Basilicata was named _Lucania_. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into _ Abruzzo e Molise_ in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted (the _red belt_ of Emilia-Romagna , Tuscany , Umbria and the Marches ).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.

In June 2006 the proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord , and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in a referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favour in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria .

REGIONAL CONTROL

Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995: Center-left Center-right Others

REGIONS

FLAG Region _Italian name_ STATUS Population January 2016 AREA POP. DENSITY CAPITAL CITY PRESIDENT NUMBER OF COMUNI METROPOLITAN CITIES

NUMBER % KM2 %

ABRUZZO _Abruzzo_ Ordinary 1,326,513 2.19% 10,832 3.59% 122 L\'Aquila

Luciano D\'Alfonso _Democratic Party _ 305 -

AOSTA VALLEY _Valle d'Aosta_ Autonomous 127,329 0.21% 3,261 1.08% 39 Aosta

Augusto Rollandin _ Valdostan Union _ 74 -

APULIA _Puglia_ Ordinary 4,077,166 6.72% 19,541 6.47% 209 Bari

Michele Emiliano _Democratic Party _ 258 Bari

BASILICATA _Basilicata_ Ordinary 573,694 0.95% 10,073 3.33% 57 Potenza

Marcello Pittella _Democratic Party _ 131 -

CALABRIA _Calabria_ Ordinary 1,970,521 3.25% 15,222 5.04% 129 Catanzaro

Mario Oliverio _Democratic Party _ 409 Reggio Calabria

CAMPANIA _Campania_ Ordinary 5,850,850 9.64% 13,671 4.53% 428 Naples

Vincenzo De Luca _Democratic Party _ 550 Naples

EMILIA-ROMAGNA _Emilia-Romagna_ Ordinary 4,448,146 7.33% 22,453 7.43% 198 Bologna

Stefano Bonaccini _Democratic Party _ 334 Bologna

FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA _Friuli-Venezia Giulia_ Autonomous 1,221,218 2.01% 7,862 2.60% 155 Trieste

Debora Serracchiani _Democratic Party _ 216 -

LAZIO _Lazio_ Ordinary 5,888,472 9.70% 17,232 5.70% 342 Rome

Nicola Zingaretti _Democratic Party _ 378 Rome

LIGURIA _Liguria_ Ordinary 1,571,053 2.59% 5,416 1.79% 290 Genoa

Giovanni Toti _Forza Italia _ 235 Genoa

LOMBARDY _Lombardia_ Ordinary 10,008,349 16.50% 23,864 7.90% 419 Milan

Roberto Maroni _ Lega Nord _ 1,527 Milan

MARCHES _Marche_ Ordinary 1,543,752 2.54% 9,401 3.11% 164 Ancona

Luca Ceriscioli _Democratic Party _ 236 -

MOLISE _Molise_ Ordinary 312,027 0.51% 4,461 1.48% 70 Campobasso

Paolo Di Laura Frattura _Democratic Party _ 136 -

PIEDMONT _Piemonte_ Ordinary 4,404,246 7.26% 25,387 8.40% 173 Turin

Sergio Chiamparino _Democratic Party _ 1,202 Turin

SARDINIA _Sardegna_ Autonomous 1,658,138 2.73% 24,100 7.98% 69 Cagliari

Francesco Pigliaru _Democratic Party _ 377 Cagliari

SICILY _Sicilia_ Autonomous 5,074,261 8.36% 25,832 8.55% 196 Palermo

Rosario Crocetta _Democratic Party _ 390 Catania Messina Palermo

TRENTINO-SOUTH TYROL _Trentino-Alto Adige_ Autonomous 1,059,114 1.75% 13,606 4.50% 78 Trento

Arno Kompatscher _South Tyrolean People\'s Party _ 293 -

TUSCANY _Toscana_ Ordinary 3,744,398 6.17% 22,987 7.61% 163 Florence

Enrico Rossi _ Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement _ 279 Florence

UMBRIA _Umbria_ Ordinary 891,181 1.47% 8,464 2.80% 105 Perugia

Catiuscia Marini _Democratic Party _ 92 -

VENETO _Veneto_ Ordinary 4,915,123 8.10% 18,407 6.09% 267 Venice

Luca Zaia _ Lega Nord _ 576 Venice

ITALY

60,665,551 100% 302,073 100% 201 ROME

Sergio Mattarella _Independent _ 7,998 14

MACROREGIONS

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union .(it)

MAP Macroregion Italian name REGIONS MAJOR CITY Population January 2016 AREA (KM2) POP. DENSITY

NUMBER % KM2 %

NORTH-WEST _Nord-Ovest_ Aosta Valley Liguria Lombardy Piedmont Milan 16,110,977 26.56% 57,928 19.18% 278

NORTH-EAST _Nord-Est_ Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Trentino- South Tyrol Veneto Bologna 11,643,601 19.19% 62,328 20.63% 187

CENTRE _Centro_ Lazio Marches Tuscany Umbria Rome 12,067,803 19.89% 58,084 19.23% 208

SOUTH _Sud_ Abruzzo Apulia Basilicata Calabria Campania Molise Naples 14,110,771 23.26% 73,800 24.43% 191

ISLANDS _Isole_ or _Insulare_ (adj) Sardinia Sicily Palermo 6,732,399 11.10% 49,932 16.53% 135

STATUS

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the _Constitution of Italy_ (Article 123). Although all the regions except Toscana define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

REGIONS WITH ORDINARY STATUTE

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. _The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law_ (Article 117). Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system .

AUTONOMOUS REGIONS WITH SPECIAL STATUTE

Autonomous regions

Article 116 of the _ Italian Constitution _ grants to five regions (namely Sardinia , Sicily , Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol , Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia ) home rule , acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War .

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol constitutes a special case. The region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the region's statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region, Trentino and South Tyrol . In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role.

INSTITUTIONS

Each region has an elected parliament, called _Consiglio Regionale_ (regional council), or _Assemblea Regionale_ (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called _Giunta Regionale_ (regional committee), headed by a governor called _Presidente della Giunta Regionale_ (president of the regional committee) or _Presidente della Regione_ (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the _giunta_, and nominates or dismisses its members, called _assessori _. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners.

REPRESENTATION IN THE SENATE

Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senator for life ) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.

The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).

REGION SEATS REGION SEATS REGION SEATS

Abruzzo 7 Friuli-Venezia Giulia 7 Sardinia 8

Aosta Valley 1 Lazio 28 Sicily 25

Apulia 20 Liguria 8 Trentino- South Tyrol 7

Basilicata 7 Lombardy 49 Tuscany 18

Calabria 10 Marches 8 Umbria 7

Campania 29 Molise 2 Veneto 24

Emilia-Romagna 22 Piedmont 22 Overseas constituencies 6

ECONOMY OF REGIONS AND MACROREGIONS

FLAG NAME GDP 2011 MILLION, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011, EUR GDP 2011 MILLION PPS, EUR GDP 2011 PER CAPITA 2011 PPS, EUR

Abruzzo 30,073 22,400 29,438 21,900

Aosta Valley 4,328 33,700 4,236 33,000

Apulia 69,974 17,100 68,496 16,700

Basilicata 10,744 18,300 10,517 17,900

Calabria 33,055 16,400 32,357 16,100

Campania 93,635 16,000 91,658 15,700

Emilia-Romagna 142,609 32,100 139,597 31,400

Friuli-Venezia Giulia 36,628 29,600 35,855 29,000

Lazio 172,246 29,900 168,609 29,300

Liguria 43,998 27,200 43,069 26,700

Lombardy 337,161 33,900 330,042 33,200

Marches 40,877 26,100 40,014 25,500

Molise 6,414 20,100 6,278 19,700

Piedmont 125,997 28,200 123,336 27,600

Sardinia 33,075 19,700 32,377 19,300

Sicily 83,956 16,600 82,183 16,300

Trentino-Alto Adige 35,797 34,450 35,041 33,700