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The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.[1][2] Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within government. While they no longer fulfill this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. They define areas (constituencies) for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament. Eurostat
Eurostat
also uses them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions (" NUTS 1 regions") within the European Union. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions, established in the 1940s for statistical purposes. The London
London
region (also known as Greater London) has a directly elected Mayor and Assembly. Six regions have local authority leaders' boards to assist with correlating the headline policies of local authorities. The remaining two regions no longer have any administrative functions, having abolished their regional local authority leaders' boards. In 1998, regional chambers were established in the eight regions outside London, which produced strategic plans and recommendations to local authorities. The regions also had an associated (central) Government Office
Government Office
with some responsibility for coordinating policy, and, from 2007, a part-time regional minister within the Government. House of Commons regional Select Committees were established in 2009. However, the chambers and select committees were abolished in May 2010, restoring these functions to the main tier of local government,[3] with limited functions transferred to the regional local authority leaders' boards created in 2009. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. From 2011, combined authorities have been introduced in some city regions, with similar responsibilities to the former regional chambers (and in some cases, replacing a regional local authority leaders' board on a smaller scale), but which also receive additional delegated functions from central government relating to transport and economic policy. Regional development agencies
Regional development agencies
were public bodies established in all nine regions in 1998 to promote economic development. They had certain delegated functions, including administering European Union
European Union
regional development funds, and received funding from the central government as well. These were abolished in 2012, with statutory functions returning to local authorities and central government, however smaller scale local enterprise partnerships were voluntarily established to take on some functions relating to coordinating economic priorities and development.

Contents

1 History 2 Regions as areas of administration

2.1 List of regions

3 NUTS 1 statistical regions 4 City regions 5 Subdivisions of England 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] See also: Historical and alternative regions of England After about 500 AD, England
England
comprised seven Anglo-Saxon territories – Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex – often referred to as the heptarchy. The boundaries of some of these, which later unified as the Kingdom of England, roughly coincide with those of modern regions. During Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate in the 1650s, the rule of the Major-Generals created 10 regions in England
England
and Wales
Wales
of similar size to the modern regions.[4] Proposals for administrative regions within England
England
were mooted by the British government prior to the First World War. In 1912 the Third Home Rule Bill was passing through parliament. The Bill was expected to introduce a devolved parliament for Ireland, and as a consequence calls were made for similar structures to be introduced in Great Britain or "Home Rule All Round". On 12 September the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, gave a speech in which he proposed 10 or 12 regional parliaments for the United Kingdom. Within England, he suggested that London, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and the Midlands would make natural regions.[5][6] While the creation of regional parliaments never became official policy, it was for a while widely anticipated and various schemes for dividing England
England
devised.[7][8] By the 1930s, several competing systems of regions were adopted by central government for such purposes as census of population, agriculture, electricity supply, civil defence and the regulation of road traffic.[9] In 1946 nine "standard regions" were set up, in which central government bodies, statutory undertakings and regional bodies were expected to cooperate.[10] However, these had declined in importance by the late 1950s.[11] Creation of some form of provinces or regions for England
England
was an intermittent theme of post- Second World War
Second World War
British governments. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed the creation of eight provinces in England, which would see power devolved from central government. Edward Heath's administration in the 1970s did not create a regional structure in the Local Government Act 1972, waiting for the Royal Commission on the Constitution, after which government efforts were concentrated on a constitutional settlement in Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
for the rest of the decade. In England, the majority of the Commission "suggested regional coordinating and advisory councils for England, consisting largely of indirectly elected representatives of local authorities and operating along the lines of the Welsh advisory council". One-fifth of the advisory councils would be nominees from central government. The boundaries suggested were the "eight now [in 1973] existing for economic planning purposes, modified to make boundaries to conform with the new county structure".[12][13] A minority report by Lord Crowther-Hunt and Alan T. Peacock suggested instead seven regional assemblies and governments within Great Britain (five within England), which would take over substantial amounts of the central government.[14] Some elements of regional development and economic planning began to be established in England
England
from the mid-1960s onwards. In most of the standard regions, Economic Planning Councils and Boards were set up, comprising appointed members from local authorities, business, trade unions and universities, and in the early 1970s these produced a number of regional and sub-regional planning studies.[10] These institutions continued to operate until they were abolished by the incoming Conservative government in 1979. However, by the mid-1980s local authorities in most regions had jointly established standing conferences to consider regional planning issues. Regional initiatives were bolstered by the 1986 Government Green Paper and 1989 White Paper on The Future of Development Plans, which proposed the introduction of strong regional guidance within the planning system,[10] and by the Government's issuing of Strategic Guidance at a regional level, from 1986 onwards.[11] Regions as areas of administration[edit] In April 1994, the John Major
John Major
ministry created a set of ten Government Office Regions for England. Prior to 1994, although various central government departments had different regional offices, the regions they used tended to be different and ad hoc. The stated purpose was as a way of co-ordinating the various regional offices more effectively: they initially involved the Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Employment, Department of Transport and the Department for the Environment.[15] Following the Labour Party's victory in the 1997 general election, the government created regional development agencies. Around a decade later the Labour administration also founded the Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnerships (RIEPs) with £185m of devolved funding to enhance councils' capacity to improve and take the lead in their own improvement. The Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
encouraged the creation of regional boundaries for selection of members for the Committee of the Regions
Committee of the Regions
of the European Union: Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
had each constituted a region, but England
England
represents such a large proportion of the population of the United Kingdom that further division was thought necessary. The English regions, which initially numbered ten, also replaced the Standard Statistical Regions. Merseyside
Merseyside
originally constituted a region in itself, but in 1998 it was merged into the North West England
England
region, creating the nine present-day regions.[16] Since 1999, the nine regions have also been used as England's European Parliament constituencies[17] and as statistical NUTS level 1 regions. Since 1 July 2006, there have also been ten NHS Strategic Health Authorities, each of which corresponds to a region, except for South East England, which is divided into western and eastern parts.

East of England London South East South West East Midlands West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber North East North West

In 1998, regional chambers were created in the eight English regions outside London
London
under the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.[18] The powers of the assemblies were limited, and members were appointed, largely by local authorities, rather than being directly elected. The functions of the English regions were essentially devolved to them from Government departments or were taken over from pre-existing regional bodies, such as regional planning conferences and regional employers' organisations. Each assembly also made proposals for the UK members of the Committee of the Regions, with members drawn from the elected councillors of the local authorities in the region. The final nominations were made by central government.[19] Although they were publicly funded, one of the Regional Assemblies claimed not to be a public authority and therefore not subject to the Freedom of Information Act 2000.[20] As power was to be devolved to Scotland, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Wales without a counterweight in England, a series of referendums were planned to establish elected regional assemblies in some of the regions. The first was held in London
London
in 1998 and was passed. The London Assembly
London Assembly
and Mayor of London
Mayor of London
of the Greater London
Greater London
Authority were created in 2000. A referendum was held in North East England
England
on 4 November 2004, but the proposal for an elected assembly was rejected. Plans to hold further referendums in other regions were first postponed and then cancelled. A campaign for the establishment of a Cornish assembly, including a petition to the UK government in 2001, was largely ignored and no referendum was held.[21] In 2007, a Treasury Review for new Prime Minister Gordon Brown recommended that greater powers should be given to local authorities and that the Regional Chambers should be phased out of existence by 2010.[22] The same year, nine Regional Ministers were appointed by the incoming Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
government. Their primary goal was stated as being to improve communication between central government and the regions of England.[23] The assemblies were effectively replaced by smaller local authority leaders' boards between 2008 and 2010, and formally abolished on 31 March 2010, as part of a "Sub-National Review of Economic Development and Regeneration". Most of their functions transferred to the relevant regional development agency and to local authority leaders' boards.[24] In June 2010, the incoming Coalition Government announced its intentions to abolish regional strategies and return spatial planning powers to local government. These plans include the withdrawal of funding to the existing eight Local Authority Leaders' Boards, with their statutory functions also being assumed by local councils. The boards in most cases continue to exist as voluntary associations of council leaders, funded by the local authorities themselves.[25][26][27] No appointments as Regional Ministers were made by the incoming UK government in 2010. These changes did not affect the directly elected London
London
Assembly, which was established by separate legislation as part of the Greater London
London
Authority. In 2011, Greater London
Greater London
remains administered by the Greater London
Greater London
Authority, which consists of an elected London
London
Assembly and a separately elected Mayor of London. Following the abolition of the Government Offices in 2011, it was announced that the former Government Office
Government Office
Regions (GOR) would henceforth be known, for the purposes of statistical analysis, simply as Regions.[28] List of regions[edit]

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Name[29] Population 10-year % increase (to 2011 Census) Area km² Pop. density /km² Median gross annual earnings (£) 2014[30] % of population claiming Income Support or JSA (August 2012) % as at August 2001 Largest city

South East 8,634,750 7.9% 19,095 452.20 28,629 3.0% 5.4% Brighton and Hove

London 8,173,941 14.0% 1,572 5199.71 35,069 5.3% 10.1% London

North West 7,052,177 4.8% 14,165 497.86 25,229 5.3% 10.4% Manchester

East of England 5,846,965 8.5% 19,120 305.80 26,830 3.5% 6.2% Norwich

West Midlands 5,601,847 6.4% 13,000 430.00 24,920 5.1% 9.2% Birmingham

South West 5,288,935 7.3% 23,829 221.95 25,571 3.3% 6.8% Bristol

Yorkshire and the Humber 5,283,733 6.4% 15,420 342.65 24,999 5.2% 9.3% Leeds

East Midlands 4,533,222 8.7% 15,627 290.09 25,027 4.2% 7.7% Leicester

North East 2,596,886 3.2% 8,592 302.24 24,876 6.1% 11.6% Newcastle upon Tyne

England 53,012,456 7.88% 130,395 406.55 27,487 4.45% 8.32%[31] London

NUTS 1 statistical regions[edit] Main article: NUTS 1 statistical regions of England The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
(NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
for statistical purposes. The NUTS code for the UK is UK and there are 12 first level regions within the state. Within the UK, there are 9 such regions in England, together with Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union
European Union
(EU). The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the EU's Structural Funds. A hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. The sub-structure corresponds to administrative divisions within the country. Formerly, the further NUTS divisions (IV and V) existed; these have now been replaced by Local administrative unit (LAU-1 and LAU-2 respectively). City regions[edit] Main article: City region (United Kingdom) In its later years the Labour government adopted the concept of city regions, regions consisting of a metropolitan area and its hinterland or Travel to Work Areas. Two such areas were considered for giving statutory powers: Greater Manchester
Manchester
City Region and Leeds
Leeds
City Region. However, this was later discontinued as a result of the May 2010 general election, although the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government did agree to the creation of the Greater Manchester
Manchester
Combined Authority and West Yorkshire Combined Authority
West Yorkshire Combined Authority
in 2011, with all other proposals and the regional development agencies being subsumed into the local enterprise partnerships. Subdivisions of England[edit] Main article: Subdivisions of England Local government in England
England
does not follow a uniform structure. Therefore, each region is divided into a range of further subdivisions. London
London
is divided into London
London
boroughs while the other regions are divided into metropolitan counties, shire counties and unitary authorities. Counties are further divided into districts and some areas are also parished. Regions are also divided into sub-regions, which usually group socio-economically linked local authorities together. However, the sub-regions have no official status and are little used other than for strategic planning purposes. References[edit]

^ Local government geography and history, Department for Communities and Local Government. Retrieved 23 November 2016. ^ Regions (Former GORs), Guidance and Methodology, ONS. Retrieved 23 November 2016. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster (27 May 2010). "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 27 May 2010 (pt 0001)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2010-11-24. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Little, Patrick (2012). "Major-generals (act. 1655–1657)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/95468.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Local Parliaments For England. Mr. Churchill's Outline of a Federal System, Ten Or Twelve Legislatures, The Times, 13 September 1912, p.4 ^ G. K. Peatling, ''Home Rule for England, English Nationalism, and Edwardian Debates about Constitutional Reform'' in ''Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies'', Vol. 35, No. 1. (Spring, 2003), pp.71–90. JSTOR 4054518 ^ In 1917 the Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
debated a paper by C.B. Fawcett that detailed 12 provinces he considered to be the "natural divisions of England". Detailed boundaries were proposed with regional capitals designated on the basis of the possession of universities or university colleges. C. B. Fawcett, Natural Divisions of England
England
in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 2. (February 1917), pp. 124–135 JSTOR 1779341 ^ In 1919 Fawcett expanded his paper into a book entitled the Provinces of England, and a similar system of regions was proposed by G.D.H. Cole in The Future of Local Government in 1921. In 1920 the Ministry of Health published its own proposals for 15 provinces, subdivided into 59 regions E. W. Gilbert, Practical Regionalism in England
England
and Wales
Wales
in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 94, No. 1. (July 1939), pp. 29–44. JSTOR 1788587 ^ E. W. Gilbert, ''Practical Regionalism in England
England
and Wales'' in ''The Geographical Journal'', Vol. 94, No. 1. (July 1939), pp. 29–44. JSTOR 1788587 ^ a b c Paul N. Balchin and Luděk Sýkora, Regional Policy and Planning in Europe, Routledge, 1999, pp.89–100 ^ a b Urlan Wannop, Regional Imperative: Regional Planning and Governance in Britain, Europe and the United States, Routledge, 2002, pp.8–30 ^ Whitehall powers would go to Scotland, Wales
Wales
and regions, but no full self-government. The Times. 1 November 1973. ^ More freedom for Scots, Welsh in proposals to region regions. The Times. 1 November 1973. ^ Dissenters urge plan for seven assemblies. The Times. 1 November 1973. ^ Devolution and British Politics. Chapter 10. English regional government: Christopher Stevens ^ National Statistics – Beginners' guide to UK geography ^ "United Kingdom Election Results". Election.demon.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-08-25.  ^ "Regional Development Agencies Act 1998". Opsi.gov.uk. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-07.  ^ Committee of the Regions
Committee of the Regions
– Appointing the UK delegation Archived 21 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "South East Regional Assembly: Policy on access to information". Webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2013-02-07.  ^ Cornish Constitutional Convention. "Campaign for a Cornish Assembly". Cornishassembly.org. Retrieved 2013-02-07.  ^ HM Treasury Press Release 79/07 – 17 July 2007 Archived 8 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Regional Ministers at Government Offices webpage. Retrieved 27 February 2010. Archived 18 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ eGov monitor – Planning transfer undermines democracy. 29 November 2007 Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "In Full: The projects axed or suspended by government". BBC News. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-24.  ^ "Scrapping regional bureaucracy will save millions – Newsroom – Department for Communities and Local Government". Communities.gov.uk. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-24.  ^ "1 Horse Guards Road" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-24.  ^ ONS: Regions (Former GORs). Accessed 8 August 2012 ^ "Regions (Former GORs)". ONS. Retrieved 2015-08-25.  ^ "ASHE 1997 to 2014 selected estimates (Excel sheet 408Kb)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 December 2014.  ^ Key Statistics: Population; Quick Statistics: Economic indicators. (2011 census and 2001 census) Retrieved 2015-02-27.[dead link]

External links[edit]

Local Government Boundary Commission for England Dept of Communities and Local Government

v t e

Regions of England

East of England East Midlands London North East North West South East South West West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber

v t e

Administrative geography of the United Kingdom

United Kingdom local government

History Subdivisions: Shrievalties Lieutenancy areas Counties (list)

England
England
local government

History Subdivisions: Regions Ceremonial counties

list

Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan counties Unitary authorities (list) Districts (list) Civil parishes (list)

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
local government

History Subdivisions: Counties Districts

Scotland
Scotland
local government

History Subdivisions: Sheriffdoms Lieutenancy areas Council areas Community council areas Civil parishes

Wales
Wales
local government

History Subdivisions: Preserved counties Principal areas Communities (list) Historic counties

v t e

Subdivisions of England

Region

Regions NUTS 1 statistical regions of England

Ceremonial County

Ceremonial County

Administrative County

Metropolitan County Non-Metropolitan County Greater London

District

Metropolitan Borough Non-Metropolitan District London
London
Borough

Unitary Authority

Unitary Authority

Sui-Generis

City of London Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish<

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