REGGIO DI CALABRIA (Italian pronunciation: , also ;
Sicilian-Calabrian dialect : Rìggiu, Italic-Greek of
Bovesia : Righi,
Ancient Greek : Ῥήγιον, Rhḗgion, Latin : Rhēgium), commonly
known as REGGIO CALABRIA listen (help ·info ) or simply REGGIO in
Reggio is located on the "toe" of the
Italian Peninsula and is
separated from the island of
Sicily by the
Strait of Messina . It is
situated on the slopes of the
Aspromonte , a long, craggy mountain
range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third
economic centre of mainland Southern
As a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical,
cultural and economic ties with the city of
Reggio is the oldest city in the region, and despite its ancient
foundation – Ρηγιον was an important and flourishing colony of
It is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on
the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with
Taranto , is home to one of the most important archaeological museums,
the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of
The city centre, consisting primarily of Liberty buildings, has a
linear development along the coast with parallel streets, and the
promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms . Reggio has
commonly used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the
Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins; the "city
of bergamot ", which is exclusively cultivated in the region; and the
"city of Fatamorgana ", an optical phenomenon visible in
The city was an Italian candidate to become the European Capital of Culture . in 2019.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Ancient times * 1.3 Middle Ages * 1.4 Early modern period * 1.5 Late modern and contemporary * 1.6 Earthquakes in history * 1.7 European travellers who visited Reggio
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Administrative division and city government * 4 Twin towns * 5 Economy
* 6 Main sights
* 6.1 Castles, churches and cathedrals * 6.2 Museums, palaces and theatres * 6.3 Archaeological sites and natural sites * 6.4 New waterfront: Museum and Performing Arts Centre
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Literature and theatre
* 8 Education * 9 Notable people
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Highway * 10.2 Tramway * 10.3 Railway * 10.4 Port * 10.5 Airport
* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links
See also: Timeline of Reggio
During its 3,500-year history Reggio has often been renamed. Each name corresponds with the city's major historical phases:
* Recion (to read Rekion), name appeared on the most ancient coins
retrieved in Reggio.
* Erythrà (Ερυθρά, "The Red One"), the pre-Greek settlement
populated by the Italic people.
* Rhégion (Ῥήγιον, "Cape of the King"), the Greek city from
the archaic age (starting from Pallantiòn site) to the Magna Grecia
age, from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC.
* Febèa (Phoebea, solemnly dedicated to
The toponym of the city is perhaps derived from Chaldean word Rec
(meaning king) or maybe from the Greek one régnȳmi referring to the
From the late 3rd millennium BC onwards until the 8th century BC the
city was inhabited by peoples such as the
Osci (sometimes referred to
Cumae , Reggio is one of the oldest Greek colonies in southern
Italy. The colony was settled by the inhabitants of
Chalcis in 730 or
743 BC on the site of the older settlement, Erythrà (Ερυθρά),
meaning "the Red one". This dated back to the 3rd millennium BC and
was perhaps established by the
Ausones . The last Ausonian ruler was
king Italós , from whom the name of
Under Greek rule, Reggio became a Polis of
Throughout classical antiquity Rhégion remained an important maritime and commercial city as well as a cultural centre as is demonstrated by the presence of academies of art, philosophy and science, such as the Pythagorean School and also by its well-known poet, Íbykos , the historian, Ippys, the musicologist, Glaúkos and the sculptors Pythagóras and Kléarkhos .
Under the Greek rule, the former Italic culture was amalgamated into the Hellenic before disappearing altogether.
As an independent city since 271 BC Regium was an important ally and
"socia navalis" of Rome. During the Imperial age it became one of the
most important and flourishing cities of southern
In 61 AD the apostle
Invasions by the
Vandals , the
Lombards and the
Goths occurred in the
5th- 6th centuries, and then, under
As Reggio was a
Reggio in a medieval engraving.
Numerous occupying armies came to Reggio during the early Middle Ages due to the city's strategic importance. The Arabs occupied Reggio in 918 and sold most of its inhabitants into slavery. For brief periods in the 10th–11th centuries the city was ruled by the Arabs and, renamed Rivàh (or sometimes Rŷu), became part of the Emirate of Sicily . During the period of Arab rule various beneficial ideas were introduced into Calabria, such as Citrus fruit trees, Mulberry trees (used in silk production) and several ways of cooking local vegetables such as aubergines. The Arabs introduced water ices and ice cream and also greatly improved agricultural and hydraulic techniques for irrigation.
In 1060 the Normans , under Robert Guiscard and Roger I of Sicily , captured Reggio but Greek cultural and religious elements persisted until the 17th century. In 1194 Reggio and the whole of southern Italy went to the Hohenstaufen , who held it until 1266. In 1234 the town fair was established by decree of Emperor Frederick II .
From 1266 it was ruled by the Angevins , under whom life in Calabria
deteriorated because of the their tendency to accumulate wealth in
their capital, Naples, leaving
Reggio, throughout the Middle Ages, was first an important centre of
calligraphy and then of printing after its inventions, boasting the
first dated printed edition of a
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
From the early 16th century, the Kingdom of
Naples was under the
Habsburgs of Spain, who put Reggio undet a viceroy from 1504 to 1713.
The 16th and 17th centuries were an age of decay due to high Spanish
taxes, pestilence, the 1562 earthquake, and the Ottoman Turkish
invasions suffered by Reggio between 1534 and 1594. In 1534, facing
attack by an Ottoman fleet under
In 1714 southern
The precious citrus fruit,
In 1806, Napoleon Bonaparte took Reggio and made the city a Duchy and General Headquarters. After the former's fall, in 1816, the two ancient Kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily were unified becoming the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .
During the course of the 19th century new public gardens were laid out, the piazzas (or squares) were embellished and cafés and a theatre were opened. On the newly opened sea promenade a Civic Museum was inaugurated. In fact, some 60 years after the devastation caused by the 1783 earthquake, the English traveller and painter Edward Lear remarked "Reggio is indeed one vast garden, and doubtless one of the loveliest spots to be seen on earth. A half-ruined castle, beautiful in colour and picturesque in form, overlooks all the long city, the wide straits, and snow-topped Mongibello beyond."
LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY
Effects of the 1908 earthquake . Reggio di
On 21 August 1860, during the famous "Battaglia di Piazza Duomo" (Cathedral Square Battle), Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies . Bruno Antonio Rossi (the mayor of Reggio after the historian Domenico Spanò Bolani, who helped the citizenship during the previous turbulent years) was the first in the kingdom to proclaim the new Garibaldi Dictatorship and the end of the rule of Francis II .
On 28 December 1908, at 5:21 AM, the town was hit by a heavy
earthquake and shook violently for 31 seconds. Damage was even worse
During the World War II, due to its strategic military position, it
suffered a devastating air raid and was used as the invasion target by
the British Eighth Army in 1943 which led to the city's capture. After
the war Reggio recovered considerably. During 1970–71 the city was
the scene of a popular uprising – known as the Moti di Reggio –
against the government choice of
Catanzaro as capital of the newly
instituted Region of Calabria. The revolt was taken over by young
neofascists of the
Italian Social Movement
The spiral of corruption reached its zenith in the early 1990s. The sitting mayor at the time, Agatino Licandro , made a confession reporting "suitcases coming into city hall stuffed with money but going out empty". As a result of the nationwide corruption scandals most of the city council was arrested. Since the early 1990s, the so-called "Primavera di Reggio" (Reggio Spring) – a spontaneous movement of people and government institutions – encouraged city recovery and a renewed and stronger identity. The symbol of the Reggio Spring is the Lungomare Falcomatà, the sea-side boulevard named after Italo Falcomatà, the centre-left mayor who initiated the recovery of the town.
On 9 October 2012, the Italian government decided to dissolve the
city council of Reggio
EARTHQUAKES IN HISTORY
Main article: List of earthquakes in
Reggio has been destroyed by earthquakes several times over the centuries, such as in 91 BC, after which the city was reconstructed by order of the Emperor Augustus, followed by another in the year 17 AD; yet another one in 305 AD, and again another in 374. In 1562 one destroyed the natural, medieval port of the city and brought about the submersion of the Calamizzi promontory, known in ancient times as the Pallantiòn, where, we are told, the first Greek settlers, the Calcidesi, had set foot. The particularly devastating of 1783 and that of 1908, which was the worst natural calamity to take place in Europe in human memory, both profoundly altered the urban aspect of the city, due to the successive re-building which gave the present-day layout of straight, intersecting roads, planned by Giovanbattista Mori in 1784 and by Pietro De Nava in 1911. But some town-planning policies at the time were decided upon with no respect for the architectural history of Reggio, as is shown by the demolition of the remaining Norman part of the Castle, following the last big in 1923.
EUROPEAN TRAVELLERS WHO VISITED REGGIO
Although Reggio and
With an exceptionally high population density, Reggio
According to the
Köppen climate classification
CLIMATE DATA FOR REGGIO CALABRIA
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 24.6 (76.3) 25.2 (77.4) 27.0 (80.6) 30.4 (86.7) 35.2 (95.4) 42.0 (107.6) 44.2 (111.6) 42.4 (108.3) 37.6 (99.7) 34.4 (93.9) 29.9 (85.8) 26.0 (78.8) 44.2 (111.6)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 15.3 (59.5) 15.6 (60.1) 17.1 (62.8) 19.3 (66.7) 23.8 (74.8) 27.9 (82.2) 31.1 (88) 31.3 (88.3) 28.2 (82.8) 23.9 (75) 19.7 (67.5) 16.6 (61.9) 22.48 (72.47)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 11.8 (53.2) 13.0 (55.4) 15.1 (59.2) 19.2 (66.6) 23.2 (73.8) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1) 23.7 (74.7) 19.8 (67.6) 15.9 (60.6) 13.1 (55.6) 18.31 (64.96)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 7.9 (46.2) 9.0 (48.2) 10.9 (51.6) 14.7 (58.5) 18.6 (65.5) 21.6 (70.9) 22.1 (71.8) 19.3 (66.7) 15.7 (60.3) 12.1 (53.8) 9.6 (49.3) 14.14 (57.47)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) 1.0 (33.8) -0.0 (32) 0.0 (32) 4.6 (40.3) 7.8 (46) 10.8 (51.4) 14.6 (58.3) 14.4 (57.9) 11.2 (52.2) 6.6 (43.9) 4.4 (39.9) 2.6 (36.7) -0 (32)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 69.6 (2.74) 61.5 (2.421) 50.7 (1.996) 40.4 (1.591) 19.8 (0.78) 10.9 (0.429) 7.0 (0.276) 11.9 (0.469) 47.5 (1.87) 72.5 (2.854) 81.7 (3.217) 73.3 (2.886) 546.8 (21.529)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 9.3 9.1 7.5 6.6 2.8 1.5 1.3 1.9 4.4 7.0 8.7 8.3 68.4
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION AND CITY GOVERNMENT
The municipality of Reggio is divided into 15 sub-municipalities (Circoscrizioni) containing the frazioni ("subdivisions", mainly villages and hamlets) of Catona , Gallico, Archi, Pentimele, Gallina, Mosorrofa (Greek : Messorofè), Ortì (Greek : Orthioi), Pellaro (Greek : Pèllaros) and Saracinello. They are: Centro Storico (1st); Pineta Zerbi, Tremulini and Eremo (2nd); Santa Caterina, San Brunello and Vito (3rd); Trabochetto, Condera and Spirito Santo (4th); Rione Ferrovieri, Stadio and Gebbione (5th); Sbarre (6th); San Giorgio, Modena, Scido and San Sperato (7th); Catona, Salice, Rosalì and Villa San Giuseppe (8th); Gallico and Sambatello (9th); Archi (10th); Ortì, Podàrgoni and Terreti (11th); Cannavò, Mosorrofa and Cataforio (12th); Ravagnese, San Gregorio, Croce Valanidi and Trunca (13th); Gallina (14th); Pellaro and Bocale (15th).
Reggio retains a somewhat rural ambience despite its sizable population. Industry in the city revolves primarily around agriculture and export, fruits, tobacco, briar and the precious essence of the bergamot which is used in perfume production. Reggio is a port city with a sizeable fishing industry.
The beaches of the city have become a popular tourist destination ., even if the sea is often polluted by untreated sewers . Tourism is distributed between the Ionian coast (Costa Jonica), the Tyrrhenian coast (the Costa Viola, Purple Coast) and the Aspromonte mountain behind the city, containing the natural reserve of the Aspromonte National Park where, at 1,300–1,950 metres above sea level, there is a panoramic view of the Strait of Messina from the snowy mount Etna to the Aeolian Islands . Bathing establishments along the beach Monument to Victor Emmanuel II
Castle Cathedral. Cilea Theatre. Giudecca Street. Villa Genoese-Zerbi.
CASTLES, CHURCHES AND CATHEDRALS
* The Castle, originally built before 540 AD and enlarged by the
Normans and later by the Aragonese in 1459, unfortunately partially
torn in the late 19th century and in 1923, is now home to art
* The Cathedral of Reggio, re-built after the last earthquake ,
actually the largest religious building in
MUSEUMS, PALACES AND THEATRES
* The National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to
Ancient Greece , heir of the previous City Museum (created in 1819);
its building was built in 1932 with project of Marcello Piacentini
under the auspices of Archæological Superintendent Edoardo Galli.
* The Villa Genoese-Zerbi is a modern villa in 14th century Venetian
Neo-Gothic ). It is the seat of exhibition of the Venice
Biennale in southern Italy.
* The Palazzo Nesci is a mansion in Neoclassical style; it is one of
the few 19th-century buildings survived to the 1908 earthquake .
* The Pinacoteca Comunale ("Town Art Gallery") houses works by
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND NATURAL SITES
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* Soprintendenza alle Antichità della Calabria, established in 1907
as Archeological Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania.
Riace bronzes , that can be seen at the important National
Greater Greece , are some of the main touristic destinations
* The Lungomare Falcomatà, a seaside promenade located in the
downtown, is a swimming destination and main symbol of the summer
movida ; it was defined by Nando Martellini , quoting the poet
Gabriele D\'Annunzio , as "the most beautiful kilometre of Italy".
* The botanic gardens facing the sea.
* The walls of the ancient city, one of the few remaining examples
of the original Greek walls, are divided into four separate sections.
The one at the Falcomatà Seaside dates to the 5th–4th century BC
and is attributed to the city's reconstruction by Dionysius II of
* The remains of Roman baths, along the sea promenade.
* The archaeological excavations of Piazza Italia, which was the
central square of Reggio since
Greater Greece age until today.
* The archaeological site of Griso Laboccetta, an ancient Greek and
Roman sacred area.
* The archaeological excavations nearby Church San Giorgio al Corso.
* Other sites of archæological interest in the upper-eastern part
of the city, such as a Greek mansion, a necropolis, or some ancient
Greek walls and
NEW WATERFRONT: MUSEUM AND PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE
The new waterfront, designed by architect
Zaha Hadid , is located on
a narrow strait separating
Arena dello Stretto, hosts musical and theatrical events.
LITERATURE AND THEATRE
* Teatro Comunale "Francesco Cilea": Municipal Theatre, firstly inaugurated in 1818 as Real Teatro Borbonio, it was rebuilt in a different place after the 1908 earthquake . * Politeama "Siracusa": multi-purpose theatre inaugurated in 1922 inside a Liberty style building. * Biblioteca Comunale "Pietro De Nava": the Municipal Library, the most long-standing of its kind in Calabria, was inaugurated in 1818 as Regia Biblioteca Ferdinandiana and set in its present-day building in 1928, after the last earthquake.
* Università "Mediterranea" : established in 1968, it is the first
* Università per Stranieri "Dante Alighieri": it is one of the
three Italian Universities for Foreigners; created in 1984 it includes
several Linguistic and Philology courses.
* Accademia di Belle Arti : the Academy of Fine Arts, established in
1967 is the most long-standing of its kind in
For more information, see Category:People from Reggio
* Agatho (7th century), pope born in
* Clearchus (7th–6th century BC), sculptor
Theagenes of Rhegium (6th century BC), literary critic
Proclus of Rhegium (1st–2nd century), physician
* Giuseppe De Nava (1858–1924), politician
* Rocco de Zerbi (1843–1924), born in
Giuseppe Filianoti , (1974), operatic tenor
* Alfonso Frangipane (1881–1970), born in
* Glaucus of Rhegium (5th century BC), historian
Ibycus (6th century BC), poet
* Iokastos (13th century BC), probably king of Reggio
* Giuseppe Logoteta (1758–1799), politician
Luigi Malice (1937), painter/sculptor born in
Tito Minniti (1909–1935), pilot
Domingo Periconi (1883–1940), painter
Raffaele Piria (1814–1865), chemist born in Scilla
* Pythagoras (6th–5th century BC), sculptor born in
Mino Reitano (1944–2009), singer born in
Leopoldo Trieste (1917–2003), actor and movie director
The Tramway of Reggio was operative since 1918 until 1937. Tramway line was 5.3 km long, from Sbarre district (southern suburbs) until Annunziata bridge (northern part of town centre) passing by the whole historical centre.
It has an important main central railway station , the largest in Calabria, opened in 1866, with ten smaller stations.
The Port of Reggio was enlarged after the 1908 earthquake.
View on Reggio
Reggio Calabria, served by air from the Reggio
* ^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da\' Tempi Primitivi
sino all\'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno,
Napoli, 1857. ISBN 8874481535 .
* ^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da\' Tempi Primitivi
sino all\'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno,
Napoli, 1857. ISBN 8874481535 .
* ^ "Dizionario d\'ortografia e di pronunzia".
* ^ "E Reggio