Calabria (Italian pronunciation: [ˈreddʒo di
kaˈlaːbrja], also [ˈrɛddʒo]; Sicilian-Calabrian dialect:
Rìggiu, Italic-Greek of Bovesia: Righi, Ancient Greek: Ῥήγιον,
Rhḗgion, Latin: Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria
listen (help·info) or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is
the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern
Italy. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria
and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria.
Reggio is located on the "toe" of the
Italian Peninsula and is
separated from the island of
Sicily by the Strait of Messina. It is
situated on the slopes of the Aspromonte, a long, craggy mountain
range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third
economic centre of mainland Southern Italy, the city proper has a
population of more than 200,000 inhabitants spread over 236 square
kilometres (91 sq mi), while the fast-growing urban area
numbers 260,000 inhabitants. About 560,000 people live in the
metropolitan area, recognised in 2015 by
Italian Republic as a
As a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical,
cultural and economic ties with the city of Messina, which lies across
the strait in Sicily, forming a metro city of less than 1 million
Reggio is the oldest city in the region, and despite its ancient
foundation – Ρηγιον was an important and flourishing colony of
Magna Graecia – it has a modern urban system, set up after the
catastrophic earthquake on 28 December 1908, which destroyed most of
the city. The region has been subject to earthquakes.
It is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on
the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with
Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums,
the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia,
Ancient Greece (which houses the Bronzes of Riace, rare
example of Greek bronze sculpture, which became one of the symbols of
the city). Reggio is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological
Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania.
The city centre, consisting primarily of Liberty buildings, has a
linear development along the coast with parallel streets, and the
promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms. Reggio has
commonly used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the
Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins; the "city
of bergamot", which is exclusively cultivated in the region; and the
"city of Fatamorgana", an optical phenomenon visible in
from the Reggio seaside.
1.2 Ancient times
1.3 Middle Ages
1.4 Early modern period
1.5 Late modern and contemporary
1.6 Earthquakes in history
1.7 European travellers who visited Reggio
3 Administrative division and city government
4 Twin towns
6 Main sights
6.1 Castles, churches and cathedrals
6.2 Museums, palaces and theatres
6.3 Archaeological sites and natural sites
6.4 New waterfront: Museum and Performing Arts Centre
7.1 Literature and theatre
9 Notable people
11 See also
14 External links
See also: Timeline of Reggio Calabria
During its 3,500-year history Reggio has often been renamed. Each name
corresponds with the city's major historical phases:
Recion (to read Rekion), name appeared on the most ancient coins
retrieved in Reggio.
Erythrà (Ερυθρά, "The Red One"), the pre-Greek settlement
populated by the Italic people.
Rhégion (Ῥήγιον, "Cape of the King"), the Greek city from the
archaic age (starting from Pallantiòn site) to the
Magna Grecia age,
from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC.
Febèa (Phoebea, solemnly dedicated to Apollo), a short period under
Dionysius II of Syracuse, in the 4th century BC.
Regium, its first Latin name, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC,
then became Rhegium.
Rhègium Julium (Reggio Giulia), as a noble Roman city during the
Rivàh, Arabic name under the short domination by Emirate of Sicily,
between 10th and 11th centuries.
Rìsa, under the Normans, between the 11th and 12th centuries.
Regols, Catalan name under the Crown of Aragon, in the late 13th
Reggio or Regio, usual Italian name in the Middle and Modern age.
Règgio di Calàbria, post
Italian Unification (to be distinguished
from Reggio di Lombardia or di
Modena – located in northern Italy
– which was renamed Reggio nell'Emilia).
The toponym of the city is perhaps derived from Chaldean word Rec
(meaning king) or maybe from the Greek one régnȳmi referring to the
Sicily as a break in the land.
From the late 3rd millennium BC onwards until the 8th century BC the
city was inhabited by peoples such as the
Osci (sometimes referred to
as Opici), Phoenicians, Trojans,
Mycenaeans and Achæans, then by
Oenotrians, Ligures, Ausones, Mamertines, Taureanes, Sicels, Morgeti
and Itali. The sculptor Léarchos was at Reggio at the end of the
15th century BC, and one Iokastos appears on its coinage at the
beginning of the 13th century BC. The land around Reggio was first
known as Saturnia, or Neptunia, and later Italia, which in Roman times
became the name of the whole Italian peninsula. In those days however,
it corresponded only to present-day, southern Calabria, which later
came to be known as Bruttium, while the name Italia (Italy), in fact,
was first used only for the area of Reggio itself.
After Cumae, Reggio is one of the oldest Greek colonies in southern
Italy. The colony was settled by the inhabitants of
Chalcis in 730 or
743 BC on the site of the older settlement, Erythrà
(Ερυθρά), meaning "the Red one". This dated back to the 3rd
millennium BC and was perhaps established by the Ausones. The last
Ausonian ruler was king Italós, from whom the name of
derived. King Iokastos is buried on the Punta Calamizzi
promontory, called "Pallantiòn", where Greek settlers later arrived.
The colony retained the earlier name of "Rhégion" (Ρήγιoν).
Under Greek rule, Reggio became a Polis of
Magna Græcia and an ally
of Athens; it was also first an ally and then an enemy of nearby
Locri. Rhégion was governed by the Messenians, from 737 to 461 BC; by
Syracuse from 387 to 351 BC, when it was known as Phœbèa and
subsequently by the Campanians but between the 5th–3rd centuries BC,
from time to time, it was also a republic. Reggio was one of the most
important cities in Greater Greece, reaching great economic and
political power during the 5th and 6th centuries BC under the Anaxilas
Anaxilas allowed Reggio to rule over all the Messina
Zancle (modern Messina). Rhegion later allied with
Athens during the
Peloponnesian War until 387 BC when the city was
taken by the Syracusans.
Throughout classical antiquity Rhégion remained an important maritime
and commercial city as well as a cultural centre as is demonstrated by
the presence of academies of art, philosophy and science, such as the
Pythagorean School and also by its well-known poet, Íbykos, the
historian, Ippys, the musicologist, Glaúkos and the sculptors
Pythagóras and Kléarkhos.
Under the Greek rule, the former Italic culture was amalgamated into
the Hellenic before disappearing altogether.
As an independent city since 271 BC Regium was an important ally and
"socia navalis" of Rome. During the Imperial age it became one of the
most important and flourishing cities of southern
Italy when it was
the seat of the "Corrector", the Governor of "Regio II Lucania et
Bruttii" (province of Lucany and Brutium). During the
Roman Empire it
was elected a Municipium and named "Rhegium Julium" as a noble Roman
city. It was a central pivot for both maritime and mainland traffic,
reached by the final part of the
Via Popilia (also known as Via
Annia), which was built in the 2nd century BC and joined the older,
Via Appia at Capua, south of Rome. Close to Reggio, on the Straits of
Messina, was the busy port of Columna Rhegina. Rhegium boasted in
imperial times, nine thermal baths, one of which is still visible
today on the sea-front. During the whole Latin age Reggio maintained
not only its Greek customs and language but also its Mint.
In 61 AD the apostle
St. Paul passed through Rhegium on his final
voyage towards Rome, converting the first local Christians and,
according to tradition, laying the foundations of the Christianization
of Bruttium. Due to its seismic activity, the Reggio area was often
damaged by earthquakes, such as in 91 BC, when it was destroyed but
then was rebuilt by order of the Emperor Augustus. Other memorable
shocks took place in the years 17, 305 and 374 AD.
Invasions by the Vandals, the
Lombards and the
Goths occurred in the
5th- 6th centuries, and then, under
Byzantine rule, Reggio became, a
Metropoli of the
Byzantine possessions in
Italy and several times
between 536 and 1060 AD was also the capital of the Duchy of Calabria.
Following wars between the
Lombards and Byzantines in the 6th century,
present-day Calabria, then known as Bruttium, was renamed Calabria.
As Reggio was a
Byzantine centre of culture, certain monks undertook
the work of scribes and carried out the transcription of ancient
classical works. Until the 15th century Reggio was one of the most
important Greek-rite Bishoprics in
Italy and even today Greek words
are used and are recognisable in local speech and
Byzantine terms can
be found in local liturgy, in religious icons and even in local
Reggio in a medieval engraving.
Numerous occupying armies came to Reggio during the early Middle Ages
due to the city's strategic importance. The
Arabs occupied Reggio in
918 and sold most of its inhabitants into slavery. For brief
periods in the 10th–11th centuries the city was ruled by the Arabs
and, renamed Rivàh (or sometimes Rŷu), became part of the Emirate of
Sicily. During the period of Arab rule various beneficial ideas were
introduced into Calabria, such as Citrus fruit trees, Mulberry trees
(used in silk production) and several ways of cooking local vegetables
such as aubergines. The
Arabs introduced water ices and ice cream and
also greatly improved agricultural and hydraulic techniques for
In 1060 the Normans, under
Robert Guiscard and Roger I of Sicily,
captured Reggio but Greek cultural and religious elements persisted
until the 17th century. In 1194 Reggio and the whole of southern Italy
went to the Hohenstaufen, who held it until 1266. In 1234 the town
fair was established by decree of Emperor Frederick II.
From 1266 it was ruled by the Angevins, under whom life in Calabria
deteriorated because of the their tendency to accumulate wealth in
their capital, Naples, leaving
Calabria in the power of local
Barons. In 1282, during the Sicilian Vespers, Reggio rallied in
Messina and the other oriental
Sicily cities because of the
shared history, commercial and cultural interests. From 1147 to 1443
and again from 1465 to 1582, Reggio was the capital of the Calabrian
Giustizierato. It supported the Aragonese forces against the House of
Anjou. In the 14th century it obtained new administrative powers.
In 1459 the Aragonese enlarged its medieval castle.
Reggio, throughout the Middle Ages, was first an important centre of
calligraphy and then of printing after its inventions, boasting the
first dated printed edition of a Hebrew, a
Rashi commentary on the
Pentateuch, printed in 1475 in
La Giudecca of Reggio although
Rome as the city where
began. The Jewish Community was also considered to be
among the foremost internationally, for the dyeing and the trading of
silk: silk woven in Reggio was esteemed and bought by the Spaniards,
the Genoese, the Dutch, the English and the Venetians, as it was
recognised as the best silk in the Kingdom of Naples.
Early modern period
From the early 16th century, the Kingdom of
Naples was under the
Habsburgs of Spain, who put Reggio undet a viceroy from 1504 to 1713.
The 16th and 17th centuries were an age of decay due to high Spanish
taxes, pestilence, the 1562 earthquake, and the Ottoman Turkish
invasions suffered by Reggio between 1534 and 1594. In 1534, facing
attack by an Ottoman fleet under
Hayreddin Barbarossa the townspeople
abandoned Reggio. Barbarossa captured eight hundred of those who
remained, and then burned the town. After
Barbary pirates attacked
Reggio in 1558, they took most of its inhabitants as slaves to
In 1714 southern
Italy became once more property of the Austrian
Habsburgs who remained until 1734, when they were replaced by the
Bourbons of Spain. Reggio was the capital of
Calabria Ulteriore Prima
from 1759 to 1860. In 1783, a disastrous earthquake damaged Reggio,
Calabria and Messina.
The precious citrus fruit, Bergamot orange, had been cultivated and
used in the Reggio area since the 15th century. By 1750 it was being
grown intensively in the Rada Giunchi area of Reggio and was the first
plantation of its kind in the world.
Napoleon Bonaparte took Reggio and made the city a Duchy and
General Headquarters. After the former's fall, in 1816, the two
ancient Kingdoms of
Naples and of
Sicily were unified becoming the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
During the course of the 19th century new public gardens were laid
out, the piazzas (or squares) were embellished and cafés and a
theatre were opened. On the newly opened sea promenade a Civic Museum
was inaugurated. In fact, some 60 years after the devastation caused
by the 1783 earthquake, the English traveller and painter Edward Lear
remarked "Reggio is indeed one vast garden, and doubtless one of the
loveliest spots to be seen on earth. A half-ruined castle, beautiful
in colour and picturesque in form, overlooks all the long city, the
wide straits, and snow-topped Mongibello beyond."
Late modern and contemporary
Effects of the 1908 earthquake.
Calabria in 1920.
On 21 August 1860, during the famous "Battaglia di Piazza Duomo"
(Cathedral Square Battle),
Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of
the Two Sicilies. Bruno Antonio Rossi (the mayor of Reggio after the
historian Domenico Spanò Bolani, who helped the citizenship during
the previous turbulent years) was the first in the kingdom to proclaim
the new Garibaldi Dictatorship and the end of the rule of Francis
On 28 December 1908, at 5:21 AM, the town was hit by a heavy
earthquake and shook violently for 31 seconds. Damage was even worse
Messina across the Straits. It is estimated that 25,000 people
perished in Reggio and 65,000 in Messina. Reggio lost 27% of its
Messina lost 42%. Ten minutes after the catastrophic
earthquake those who tried to escape running towards the open spaces
of the coast were engulfed by a 10 metre high tsunami. Three waves of
6–12 metres swept away the whole waterfront. The 1908 Messina
earthquake remains one of the worst on record in modern western
During the World War II, due to its strategic military position, it
suffered a devastating air raid and was used as the invasion target by
the British Eighth Army in 1943 which led to the city's capture. After
the war Reggio recovered considerably. During 1970–71 the city was
the scene of a popular uprising – known as the Moti di Reggio –
against the government choice of
Catanzaro as capital of the newly
instituted Region of Calabria. The revolt was taken over by young
neofascists of the Italian Social Movement, backed by the 'Ndrangheta,
a Mafia-type criminal organisation based in Calabria. The
Calabria protests were the expression of malcontent about
cronyism and the lack of industrial planning. Between the 1970s and
the 1980s Reggio went through twenty years of an increase in organized
crime by the
'Ndrangheta as well as urban decay. The town is home to
several 'ndrine, such as the Condello-Imerti and the De Stefano-Tegano
clans, which were involved in bloody wars against each other during
this period. The
'Ndrangheta extorts protection money ("pizzo")
from every shop and viable business in town and has more power than
the city council in awarding licences to retailers.
The spiral of corruption reached its zenith in the early 1990s. The
sitting mayor at the time, Agatino Licandro, made a confession
reporting "suitcases coming into city hall stuffed with money but
going out empty". As a result of the nationwide corruption scandals
most of the city council was arrested. Since the early 1990s, the
so-called "Primavera di Reggio" (Reggio Spring) – a spontaneous
movement of people and government institutions – encouraged city
recovery and a renewed and stronger identity. The symbol of the Reggio
Spring is the Lungomare Falcomatà, the sea-side boulevard named after
Italo Falcomatà, the centre-left mayor who initiated the recovery of
On 9 October 2012, the Italian government decided to dissolve the city
council of Reggio
Calabria for infiltration by the 'Ndrangheta. The
move came after some councillors were suspected of having ties to the
powerful crime syndicate, under the 10-year centre-right rule of
Giuseppe Scopelliti, mayor from 2002 to 2010. His successor, the
centre-right mayor Demetrio Arena and all 30 city councilors were
sacked to prevent any "mafia contagion" in the local government. It
was the first time that the entire government of a provincial capital
has been dismissed over suspected links to organized crime. Three
commissioners ran the city for 18 months until a new election.
According to anti-mafia investigators in 2016, Scopelliti was elected
thanks to votes from the 'Ndrangheta.
Earthquakes in history
Main article: List of earthquakes in Italy
Reggio has been destroyed by earthquakes several times over the
centuries, such as in 91 BC, after which the city was reconstructed by
order of the Emperor Augustus, followed by another in the year 17 AD;
yet another one in 305 AD, and again another in 374. In 1562 one
destroyed the natural, medieval port of the city and brought about the
submersion of the Calamizzi promontory, known in ancient times as the
Pallantiòn, where, we are told, the first Greek settlers, the
Calcidesi, had set foot. The particularly devastating of 1783 and that
of 1908, which was the worst natural calamity to take place in Europe
in human memory, both profoundly altered the urban aspect of the city,
due to the successive re-building which gave the present-day layout of
straight, intersecting roads, planned by Giovanbattista Mori in 1784
and by Pietro De Nava in 1911. But some town-planning policies at the
time were decided upon with no respect for the architectural history
of Reggio, as is shown by the demolition of the remaining Norman part
of the Castle, following the last big in 1923.
European travellers who visited Reggio
Although Reggio and
Calabria in general were less popular destinations
Naples for the first Northern European travellers,
several famous names such as the Flemish Pieter Bruegel (in c. 1550),
the German Johann Hermann von Riedesel (in 1767), the Frenchmen Jean
Claude Richard de Saint-Non (in 1778) and
Stendhal (in 1817), the
Henry Swinburne (in c. 1775), Richard Keppel Craven
(in c. 1820),
Craufurd Tait Ramage (in 1828), the Strutt family and
Elizabeth Byron (in 1840),
Edward Lear (in 1847),
Norman Douglas (in
D. H. Lawrence
D. H. Lawrence (in c. 1920) and
Eric Whelpton (in 1950s) and
Jules Destrée (in 1915 and in 1930) visited Reggio.
With an exceptionally high population density, Reggio
cited as having the least green space in a study of 386 European
cities. The study reported that green space coverage varied markedly,
averaging 18.6 per cent and "ranging from 1.9 (Reggio di Calabria,
Italy) to 46 (Ferrol, Spain) per cent." The study further reported
"Per capita green space provision varied by two orders of magnitude,
from 3 to 4 m2 per person in Cádiz, Fuenlabrada and Almería
(Spain) and Reggio di
Calabria (Italy) to more than 300 m2 in Liège
(Belgium), Oulu (Finland) and Valenciennes (France)."
According to the Köppen climate classification, Reggio Calabria
possesses a typical
Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). Its climate
is mostly identical with
Messina which lies on the other side of the
Precipitation is the only exception because
approximately 300 mm (12 in) more.
Climate data for Reggio Calabria
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)
Administrative division and city government
The municipality of Reggio is divided into 15 sub-municipalities
(Circoscrizioni) containing the frazioni ("subdivisions", mainly
villages and hamlets) of Catona, Gallico, Archi, Pentimele, Gallina,
Mosorrofa (Greek: Messorofè), Ortì (Greek: Orthioi),
Pèllaros) and Saracinello. They are: Centro Storico (1st); Pineta
Zerbi, Tremulini and Eremo (2nd); Santa Caterina, San Brunello and
Vito (3rd); Trabochetto, Condera and Spirito Santo (4th); Rione
Ferrovieri, Stadio and Gebbione (5th); Sbarre (6th); San Giorgio,
Scido and San Sperato (7th); Catona, Salice, Rosalì and Villa
San Giuseppe (8th); Gallico and Sambatello (9th); Archi (10th); Ortì,
Podàrgoni and Terreti (11th); Cannavò, Mosorrofa and Cataforio
(12th); Ravagnese, San Gregorio, Croce Valanidi and Trunca (13th);
Pellaro and Bocale (15th).
Calabria is twinned with:
Athens, Greece, since 2003
Egaleo, Greece, since 2004
Cesana Torinese, Italy, since 2006
Montesilvano, Italy, since 2009
Fairfield City, Australia
View on the
Strait of Messina
Strait of Messina by the beach of Reggio Calabria
Reggio retains a somewhat rural ambience despite its sizable
population. Industry in the city revolves primarily around agriculture
and export, fruits, tobacco, briar and the precious essence of the
bergamot which is used in perfume production. Reggio is a port city
with a sizeable fishing industry.
The beaches of the city have become a popular tourist
destination., even if the sea is often polluted by untreated
sewers. Tourism is distributed between the Ionian coast (Costa
Jonica), the Tyrrhenian coast (the Costa Viola, Purple Coast) and the
Aspromonte mountain behind the city, containing the natural reserve of
Aspromonte National Park where, at 1,300–1,950 metres above sea
level, there is a panoramic view of the
Strait of Messina
Strait of Messina from the
snowy mount Etna to the Aeolian Islands.
Bathing establishments along the beach
Monument to Victor Emmanuel II
Castles, churches and cathedrals
The Castle, originally built before 540 AD and enlarged by the Normans
and later by the Aragonese in 1459, unfortunately partially torn
in the late 19th century and in 1923, is now home to art exhibitions.
The Cathedral of Reggio, re-built after the 1908
The Church of Saint Gaetano Catanoso, in the Santo Spirito
neighborhood. It houses the namesake saint's glass tomb, in the
sanctuary as well as museum exhibits.
The Church of the Optimates constructed in Byzantine-Norman style,
containing medieval artistic items of interest.
Museums, palaces and theatres
The National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to
Ancient Greece, heir of the previous City Museum (created in 1819);
its building was built in 1932 with project of Marcello Piacentini
under the auspices of Archæological Superintendent Edoardo Galli.
The Villa Genoese-Zerbi is a modern villa in 14th century Venetian
style (Neo-Gothic). It is the seat of exhibition of the Venice
Biennale in southern Italy.
The Palazzo Nesci is a mansion in Neoclassical style; it is one of the
few 19th-century buildings survived to the 1908 earthquake.
The Pinacoteca Comunale ("Town Art Gallery") houses works by Antonello
Abraham Served by the Angels
Abraham Served by the Angels and St. Jerome in Penitence),
Mattia Preti, Luca Giordano, Giuseppe Benessai and others.
The Piccolo Museo San Paolo, a museum with a collection of medieval
Byzantine and Russian artistic items.
Archaeological sites and natural sites
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Soprintendenza alle Antichità della Calabria, established in 1907 as
Archeological Superintendence of Bruttium and Lucania.
Riace bronzes, that can be seen at the important National Museum
of Greater Greece, are some of the main touristic destinations in
The Lungomare Falcomatà, a seaside promenade located in the downtown,
is a swimming destination and main symbol of the summer movida; it was
defined by Nando Martellini, quoting the poet Gabriele D'Annunzio, as
"the most beautiful kilometre of Italy".
The botanic gardens facing the sea.
The walls of the ancient city, one of the few remaining examples of
the original Greek walls, are divided into four separate sections. The
one at the Falcomatà Seaside dates to the 5th–4th century BC and is
attributed to the city's reconstruction by Dionysius II of Syracuse.
The remains of Roman baths, along the sea promenade.
The archaeological excavations of Piazza Italia, which was the central
square of Reggio since
Greater Greece age until today.
The archaeological site of Griso Laboccetta, an ancient Greek and
Roman sacred area.
The archaeological excavations nearby Church San Giorgio al Corso.
Other sites of archæological interest in the upper-eastern part of
the city, such as a Greek mansion, a necropolis, or some ancient Greek
Byzantine items of interest nearby Reggio Campi street.
New waterfront: Museum and Performing Arts Centre
The new waterfront, designed by architect Zaha Hadid, is located on a
narrow strait separating
Italy from Sicily. The museum (13,400 m2)
draws inspiration from the organic form of the starfish, utilizing a
radial symmetry to coordinate communication and circulation between
different program elements: exhibition spaces, restoration facilities,
archive, aquarium and library. A second, multifunctional building
(8,000 m2), comprises two separate elements, placed around a partially
covered piazza. It houses offices, gyms, craft laboratories, cinema
and flexible auditoria.
Arena dello Stretto, hosts musical and theatrical events.
Literature and theatre
Teatro Comunale "Francesco Cilea": Municipal Theatre, firstly
inaugurated in 1818 as Real Teatro Borbonio, it was rebuilt in a
different place after the 1908 earthquake.
Politeama "Siracusa": multi-purpose theatre inaugurated in 1922 inside
a Liberty style building.
Biblioteca Comunale "Pietro De Nava": the Municipal Library, the most
long-standing of its kind in Calabria, was inaugurated in 1818 as
Regia Biblioteca Ferdinandiana and set in its present-day building in
1928, after the last earthquake.
Università "Mediterranea": established in 1968, it is the first
Università per Stranieri "Dante Alighieri": it is one of the three
Italian Universities for Foreigners; created in 1984 it includes
several Linguistic and Philology courses.
Accademia di Belle Arti: the Academy of Fine Arts, established in 1967
is the most long-standing of its kind in
Calabria and the third one in
Conservatorio Musicale "Francesco Cilea": founded in 1927, the most
ancient Conservatory of Music in Calabria, was then dedicated to the
musician from Palmi.
Liceo Classico "Tommaso Campanella", established in 1814 as Real
Joachim Murat government; poet Diego Vitrioli, from
Reggio, attended this college.
Liceo Scientifico "Leonardo da Vinci", founded in the 1920s, under
For more information, see Category:People from Reggio Calabria
Learchus (end of 15th cenntury BC), sculptor
Iokastos (beginning of 13th century BC), probably king of Reggio
Clearchus (7th–6th century BC), sculptor
Ibycus (6th century BC), poet
Theagenes of Rhegium (6th century BC), literary critic
Pythagoras (6th–5th century BC), sculptor born in Samos
Glaucus of Rhegium (5th century BC), historian
Proclus of Rhegium (1st–2nd century AD), physician
Agatho (7th century AD), pope born in Sicily
Marc'Antonio Politi (1541-1626), medical doctor and historian
Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639), philosopher, theologian, astrologer,
writer and poet born in Stilo
Giuseppe Logoteta (1758–1799), politician
Raffaele Piria (1814–1865), chemist born in Scilla
Domenico Spanò Bolani (1815-1890), politician, historian and author
Rocco de Zerbi (1843–1924), born in Oppido Mamertina
Giuseppe De Nava (1858–1924), politician
Francesco Cilea (1866–1950), musician and composer born in Palmi
Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963), saint, priest born in Choriò
Alfonso Frangipane (1881–1970), painter and art scholar born in
Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916), painter/sculptor of Romagnol origin
Domingo Periconi (1883–1940), painter
Goffredo Zehender (1901–1958), Grand Prix driver
Tito Minniti (1909–1935), pilot
Leopoldo Trieste (1917–2003), actor and movie director
Diego Carpitella (1924–1990), ethno-musicologist
Nik Spatari (born 1929), painter, sculptor, architect and art scholar
born in Mammola
Luigi Malice (born 1937), painter and sculptor born in Naples
Marina Ripa di Meana
Marina Ripa di Meana (1941-2018), writer, actress, director, stylist
and activist born Maria Elide Punturieri
Italo Falcomatà (1943-2001), politician and university teacher
Mino Reitano (1944–2009), singer born in Fiumara
Santo Versace (born 1944), fashion designer and politician
Mia Martini (1947-1995), singer born in Bagnara
Gianni Versace (1946–1997), fashion designer
Antonio Strati (born 1949), organisational theorist, artist and
Loredana Bertè (born 1950), singer born in Bagnara
Nicola Calipari (1953-2005), mayor general and military intelligence
Nuccio Schepis (born 1955), sculptor and art restorer
Donatella Versace (born 1955), fashion designer
Giuseppe Filianoti, (born 1974), operatic tenor
Calabria metro area transport system
Reggio is a road junction on the SS18 Naples-Reggio and on the SS106
Taranto roads and also on the A2 Salerno-Reggio motorway.
The Tramway of Reggio was operative since 1918 until 1937.[citation
needed] Tramway line was 5.3 km long, from Sbarre district
(southern suburbs) until Annunziata bridge (northern part of town
centre) passing by the whole historical centre.
It has an important main central railway station, the largest in
Calabria, opened in 1866, with ten smaller stations.
Port of Reggio
Port of Reggio was enlarged after the 1908 earthquake.
View on Reggio
Reggio Calabria, served by air from the Reggio
Calabria Airport (IATA:
REG, ICAO: LICR) also known as Aeroporto dello Stretto or Tito Minniti
Airport, is located a few kilometres south of Reggio.
Fatti di Reggio
List of mayors of Reggio Calabria
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reggio-Bova
Urbs Sportiva Reggina 1914
^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da' Tempi Primitivi sino
all'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno, Napoli,
1857. ISBN 8874481535.
^ Spanò Bolani, Domenico. Storia di Reggio da' Tempi Primitivi sino
all'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno, Napoli,
1857. ISBN 8874481535.
^ "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia".
^ "E Reggio
Calabria diventa "metropoli"". Retrieved 26 March
^ "Area dello Stretto:
Messina rilancia". Retrieved 26 March
^ Corno, Massimo. "L'Italia è un paese ad alto rischio sismico -
Protezione Civile Imbersago".
^ Storia di Reggio di
Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 – Domenico
Spanň Bolani. Books.google.it. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h Alessandro Gioffrè d'Ambra and others Reggio Centro
del Mediterraneo - un excursus storico di 3500 anni, Club UNESCO 'Re
Italo', Provincia di Reggio, Tipografia Enotria, Reggio di Calabria,
^ a b c d e f Domenico Spanò Bolani, Storia di Reggio – da' tempi
primitivi sino all'anno 1797 • Stamperia e Cartiere del Fibreno,
Naples, 1857  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name
"books.google.it" defined multiple times with different content (see
the help page).
^ Lessico Universale Italiano XI, "Italo", Enciclopedia Italiana
Treccani, Roma, 1973.
^ De Gregorio, Lucia. "Le Terme Romane di Reggio Calabria. La ricerca
archeologica tra il 1881 e il 1924",
Calabria Sconosciuta n.
139/140– Azienda Grafica Biroccio, Reggio di Calabria
^ (Acts XXVIII:13)
^ AAVV "Reggio di Calabria" in "L'Italia - Basilicata e Calabria",
Touring Club Italiano, La Repubblica, Pioltello, 2005
^ Western Europe on the Eve of the Crusades, Sidney Painter, A History
of the Crusades, Vol. I, ed. Kenneth M. Setton and Marshall W.
Baldwin, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), p. 50.
^ a b c Mario Caligiuri, Breve Storia della Calabria. Newton &
Compton, Rome, 1996
^ "The Books of the People of the Book – Hebraic Collections",
Library of Congress, Washington, DC; accessed 26 March 2015.
^ Roger Crowley, Empires of the Sea, faber and faber 2008 p.58
^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period,
^ Edward Lear, Journals of a landscape painter in Southern Calabria,
R. Bentley, London, 1852
Calabria commemorates its 1908 earthquake victims, on
^ The 28 December 1908
Messina Straits Earthquake (Mw 7.1): A Great
Earthquake throughout a Century of Seismology, Historical
Seismologist, March/April 2009.
^ Partridge, Italian politics today, p. 50.
Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 198.
^ a b c Town the mafia shut down, The Independent, 4 February 1996.
^ Godfather's arrest fuels fear of bloody conflict, The Observer, 24
^ Dieci anni senza Italo, il sindaco della primavera di Reggio
Calabria Archived 2014-01-16 at the Wayback Machine., Corriere della
Calabria, 11 December 2011.
^ Sprechi e mafia in Calabria, repubblica.it, 23 September 2012.
Italy sacks Reggio
Calabria council over 'mafia ties', BBC News, 9
^ Il Viminale scioglie per mafia il comune di Reggio Calabria,
Repubblica.it, 9 October 2012.
'Ndrangheta cupola 'picked men for parliament', Ansa, July
^ Giuseppe Caruso, "Il Castello Aragonese di Reggio Calabria" ·
Caruso Edizioni, Reggio di C, 2016
^ AA VV (attualmente a cura di: Carmelina Sicari, Gaetanina Sicari
Ruffo, Luciana Polimeni, Sara Polimeni, Cettina Nostro, Antonio Maria
Leone; fondata da Giuseppe Polimeni)
Calabria Sconosciuta · case
editrici varie, redazione in Reggio di Calabria, 1978~2013
^ Richard A. Fuller, and Kevin J. Gaston, The scaling of green space
coverage in European cities, Biol Lett. 2009 Jun 23; 5(3): 352–355,
Published online 2009 Feb 25, retrieved 2016-04-07
Calabria (RC) 21 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)" (PDF). Servizio
Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
^ "Patto di amicizia tra Reggio e Montesilvano".
^ "Sister cities of Fairfield City". Archived from the original on
^ "Reggio di Calabria". Questia.com. January 8, 2008.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved
^ Giuseppe CARUSO, Il Castello Aragonese di Reggio
Calabria - Caruso
edizioni, Reggio di C, 2016
^ "E Nando Martellini lanciò il più bel chilometro d'Italia.
D'annunzio? Mai messo piede a Reggio". Archived from the original on
^ A Londra la firma per il waterfront di Reggio Calabria.
archiportale.com. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
Paoli, Letizia (2003).
Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian
Style, New York: Oxford University Press; ISBN 0-19-515724-9
(Organized-crime.de, Review by Klaus Von Lampe) (CCKA-ACJP.ca, Review
by Alexandra V. Orlova)
Partridge, Hilary (1998). Italian politics today, Manchester:
Manchester University Press; ISBN 0-7190-4944-X
See also: Bibliography of the history of Reggio Calabria
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Reggio di Calabria.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reggio Calabria.
Official tourist site
The City of Reggio di Calabria
Province of Reggio di Calabria[permanent dead link]
Sybaris on the Traeis
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria
Caraffa del Bianco
Feroleto della Chiesa
Laureana di Borrello
Marina di Gioiosa Ionica
Melito di Porto Salvo
Motta San Giovanni
Roccaforte del Greco
San Giorgio Morgeto
San Giovanni di Gerace
San Pietro di Caridà
Sant'Agata del Bianco
Sant'Alessio in Aspromonte
Sant'Ilario dello Ionio
Santa Cristina d'Aspromonte
Santo Stefano in Aspromonte
Terranova Sappo Minulio
Villa San Giovanni
Italy by population