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The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III
George III
was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent. On the death of George III
George III
in 1820, the Prince Regent
Regent
became George IV. The term Regency (or Regency era) can refer to various stretches of time; some are longer than the decade of the formal Regency which lasted from 1811–1820. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III
George III
and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and culture. The Regency era
Regency era
ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
succeeded William IV.

Contents

1 Society 2 Events 3 Places 4 Important people 5 Newspapers, pamphlets, and publications 6 In popular culture 7 Images 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Society[edit] The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. This era encompassed a time of great social, political, and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon
Napoleon
and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare the Regency was also a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, shaping and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole. One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent
Regent
himself (the future George IV). Upper class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of culture and refinement. As one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent
Regent
ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture (see John Nash, James Burton, and Decimus Burton). Naturally, this required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, and later, the King's exuberance often outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense.[2] Society was also considerably stratified. In many ways there was a dark side to the beauty and fashion in England at this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, thievery, womanising, gambling, the existence of rookeries, and constant drinking ran rampant.[3] The population boom—the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820[3]—created a wild, roiling, volatile, and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed:

The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle. Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III
George III
saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, and gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one. This change was influenced by the Regent
Regent
himself, who was kept entirely removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father.[4]

Driving these changes was not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but also significant technological advancements. In 1814 The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand.[5] This development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories, rumours, and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals. The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something entirely out of reach yet tangibly there. Events[edit]

1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales,[6] began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era
Georgian era
began the formal Regency. The Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent
Regent
held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite
Luddite
uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
Spencer Perceval
was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812
War of 1812
between the United Kingdom and the United States. The British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca). Gas company (Gas Light and Coke Company) founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812. 1813 Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice
by Jane Austen
Jane Austen
was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry
Elizabeth Fry
started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey
Robert Southey
became Poet Laureate. 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated and was exiled to Elba. The Duke of Wellington
Duke of Wellington
was honored at Burlington House
Burlington House
in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair
River Thames Frost Fair
was held, which was the last time the river froze. Gas lighting
Gas lighting
introduced in London
London
streets. 1815 Napoleon
Napoleon
I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon
Napoleon
was exiled to St. Helena. The English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy
Sir Humphry Davy
patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley
wrote Frankenstein. William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet. The British returned Indonesia
Indonesia
to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, London, phase one of construction. Beau Brummell
Beau Brummell
escaped his creditors by fleeing to France. 1817 Antonin Carême
Antonin Carême
created a spectacular feast for the Prince Regent
Regent
at the Royal Pavilion
Royal Pavilion
in Brighton. The death of Princess Charlotte (the Prince Regent's daughter) from complications of childbirth changed obstetrical practices. Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
shown at the British Museum. Captain Bligh
Captain Bligh
died. 1818 Queen Charlotte died at Kew. Manchester cotton spinners went on strike. Riot in Stanhope between lead miners and the Bishop of Durham's men over Weardale gaming rights. Piccadilly Circus constructed in London. Frankenstein
Frankenstein
published. Emily Brontë
Emily Brontë
born. 1819 Peterloo Massacre. Princess Alexandrina Victoria (future Queen Victoria) was christened in Kensington Palace. Ivanhoe
Ivanhoe
by Walter Scott was published. Sir Stamford Raffles, a British administrator, founded Singapore. First steam-propelled vessel (the SS Savannah) crossed the Atlantic and arrived in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia. 1820 Death of George III
George III
and accession of The Prince Regent
Regent
as George IV. The House of Lords
House of Lords
passed a bill to grant George IV a divorce from Queen Caroline, but because of public pressure the bill was dropped. John Constable
John Constable
began work on The Hay Wain. Cato Street Conspiracy failed. Royal Astronomical Society
Royal Astronomical Society
founded. Venus de Milo
Venus de Milo
discovered.

Places[edit] The following is a list of places associated with the Regency era:[7]

Change in Bond Street, James Gillray

The Adelphi Theatre[8] Almack's Angelo's, a fencing parlor Astley's Amphitheatre Attingham Park[9] Bath, Somerset Brighton Pavilion Brighton and Hove Brooks's Burlington Arcade Bury St Edmunds Carlton House, London Chapel Royal, St. James's Cheltenham, Gloucestershire Circulating libraries, 1801–25[10] Covent Garden Custom Office, London
London
Docks Doncaster Races[11] Drury Lane Floris of London Fortnum & Mason Gretna Green[12] Gentleman Jackson's Saloon, a pugilist's parlor by bare-knuckle champion John Jackson Hatchard's Little Theatre, Haymarket Her Majesty's Theatre Holland House Houses of Parliament Hyde Park, London Jermyn Street Kensington Gardens[13] King of Clubs (Whig club) List of London's gentlemen's clubs Lloyd's of London London
London
Docks London
London
Institution London
London
Post Office[12] Lyme Regis Marshalsea, closed in 1811, new site opened in 1811 where White Lion Prison had been. Primarily a debtors' prison, also housed seditionists and political prisoners Mayfair, London Newgate Prison Newmarket Racecourse The Old Bailey Old Bond Street Opera House[14] Pall Mall, London The Pantheon Ranelagh Gardens Regent's Park Regent
Regent
Street Royal Circus[14] Royal Opera House Royal Parks of London Rundell and Bridge
Rundell and Bridge
Jewellery firm Savile Row St George's, Hanover Square St. James's Sydney Gardens, Bath[13] Temple of Concord, St. James's
St. James's
Park Tattersalls The Thames Tunnel Tunbridge Wells Vauxhall Gardens West End of London Watier's White's

Important people[edit]

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1814

For more names see Newman (1997).[15]

Rudolph Ackermann Arthur Aikin Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley Elizabeth Armistead Jane Austen Charles Babbage Joseph Banks Richard Barry, 7th Earl of Barrymore William Blake Beau Brummell Mary Brunton Lord Frederick Beauclerk Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough Marguerite, Countess of Blessington Bow Street Runners Caroline of Brunswick Frances Burney James Burton Decimus Burton George Gordon, Lord Byron George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh George Canning George Cayley Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales William Cobbett Samuel Taylor Coleridge Patrick Colquhoun John Constable Elizabeth Conyngham, Marchioness Conyngham Tom Cribb George Cruikshank John Dalton Humphry Davy John Disney David Douglas Maria Edgeworth Pierce Egan Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin Grace Elliott Maria Fitzherbert Elizabeth Fry David Garrick George IV of the United Kingdom, Prince of Wales, Prince Regent
Regent
then King James Gillray Frederick Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Emma, Lady Hamilton William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt William Hazlitt William Hedley Leigh Hunt Isabella Ingram-Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford John Jackson Edward Jenner Sarah, Countess of Jersey Edmund Kean John Keats Lady Caroline Lamb Charles Lamb Emily Lamb, Countess Cowper Sir Thomas Lawrence, PRA Princess Lieven Mary Linwood Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool Ada Byron Lovelace John Loudon McAdam Lord Melbourne Hannah More John Nash Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson George Ormerod Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey Thomas Paine John Palmer, Royal Mail Sir Robert Peel John Clare
John Clare
(poet) Spencer Perceval William Pitt the Younger Jane Porter Hermann, Fürst von Pückler-Muskau Thomas de Quincey Thomas Raikes Humphry Repton Samuel Rogers Thomas Rowlandson James Sadler Walter Scott Richard "Conversation" Sharp Percy Bysshe Shelley Mary Shelley Richard Sheridan Sarah Siddons John Soane Adam Sedgwick Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh John Wedgwood Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Joseph Mallord William Turner Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland Thomas Young (scientist) Benjamin West William Wilberforce William Hyde Wollaston Mary Wollstonecraft William Wordsworth Jeffry Wyattville

Newspapers, pamphlets, and publications[edit]

Ackermann's Repository The Gentleman's Magazine British Journalists 1750–1820[16] Newspapers in the Regency era[17] The Times The Observer Weekly Political Register, William Cobbett La Belle Assemblée

In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018)

Jane Austen, watercolour and pencil portrait by her sister Cassandra, 1810

The Madness of King George Regency Reenactment Groups Regency novels Regency romance Jane Austen
Jane Austen
in popular culture Republic of Pemberley The third season of the BBC
BBC
comedy series Blackadder is set in the Regency Period. The British Regency Period in film and costume dramas[18]

Images[edit]

Necklothitania,1818

Astley's Amphitheatre, 1808-1811

Brighton Pavilion, 1826

Carlton House, Pall Mall London.

Vauxhall Gardens, 1808–1811

Church of All Souls, architect John Nash, 1823

Regent's Canal, Limehouse, 1823

Frost Fair, Thames River, 1814

The Piccadilly entrance to the Burlington Arcade, 1819

Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
and Leopold I, 1817

Morning dress, Ackermann, 1820

Water at Wentworth, Humphry Repton, 1752–1818

Hanover Square, Horwood Map, 1819

Beau Brummell, 1805

Battle of Waterloo, 1815

Almack's
Almack's
Assembly Room, 1805–1825

Drury Lane
Drury Lane
interior. 1808

Balloon ascent, James Sadler, 1811

The Anatomist, Thomas Rowlandson, 1811

Regent's Park, Schmollinger map, 1833

100 Pall Mall, former location of National Gallery, 1824–1834

Cognocenti, Gillray Cartoon, 1801

Custom Office, London
London
Docks, 1811-1843

Custom and Excise, London
London
Docks, 1820

Mail coach, 1827

Assassination of Spencer Perceval, 1812

The pillory at Charing Cross, Ackermann's Microcosm of London, 1808–11

Covent Garden
Covent Garden
Theatre, 1827–28

See also[edit]

Regency architecture Regency fashions Regency dance Régence, the period of the early 18th-century regency in France Society of Dilettanti

References[edit]

^ E. B. Pryde (23 February 1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-56350-5.  ^ Parissien, Steven. George IV: Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001. p. 117. ^ a b Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999. p. x. ^ Smith p. 14. ^ Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. p. 34. ^ "George IV (r. 1820–1830)". The Royal Household. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ * Gerald Newman, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Nelson, Alfred L.; Cross, Gilbert B. "The Adelphi Theatre, 1806–1900". Archived from the original on 8 June 2007.  ^ "Attingham Park: History". National Trust. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Circulating Libraries, 1801–1825". Library History Database. Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Jane Austen: Sports". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ a b "Jane Austen: Places". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ a b "Jane Austen: Gardens". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ a b "Jane Austen: Theatre". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ Gerald Newman, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "British Journalists 1750–1820". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Newspapers and publishers at dawn of 19th century". Georgian Index. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "An Introduction to the British Regency Period". PeriodDramas.com. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Bowman, Peter James. The Fortune Hunter: A German Prince in Regency England. Oxford: Signal Books, 2010. David, Saul. Prince of Pleasure The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1998. Knafla, David, Crime, punishment, and reform in Europe, Greenwood Publishing, 2003 Lapp, Robert Keith. Contest for Cultural Authority – Hazlitt, Coleridge, and the Distresses of the Regency. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1999. Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999. Marriott, J. A. R. England Since Waterloo (1913) online Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. Newman, Gerald, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) online review; 904pp; 1121 short articles on Britain by 250 experts Parissien, Steven. George IV Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's P, 2001. Pilcher, Donald. The Regency Style: 1800–1830 (London: Batsford, 1947). Rendell, Jane. The pursuit of pleasure: gender, space & architecture in Regency London
London
(Bloomsbury, 2002). Simond, Louis. Journal of a tour and residence in Great Britain, during the years 1810 and 1811 online Smith, E. A. George IV. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1999. Webb, R.K. Modern England: from the 18th century to the present (1968) online widely recommended university textbook Wellesley, Lord Gerald. "Regency Furniture", The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 70, no. 410 (1973): 233–41. White, R.J. Life in Regency England (Batsford, 1963).

External links[edit]

Greenwood's Map of London, 1827 Horwood Map of London, 1792 – 1799 Results of the 1801 and 1811 Census of London, The European Magazine and London
London
Review, 1818, p. 50 The Bluestocking Archive End of an Era: 1815–1830 New York Public Library, England – The Regency Style Regen

.