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The REGENCY in Great Britain was a period when King George III
George III
was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent
Regent
. On the death of George III
George III
in 1820, the Prince Regent
Regent
became George IV . The term REGENCY (or REGENCY ERA) can refer to various stretches of time; some are longer than the decade of the formal Regency which lasted from 1811–1820. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III
George III
and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV , is often regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture , literature , fashions , politics, and culture. The Regency era
Regency era
ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
succeeded William IV.

CONTENTS

* 1 Society during the Regency * 2 Events during the Regency * 3 Places * 4 Important people * 5 Newspapers, pamphlets, and publications * 6 The British Regency in popular culture * 7 Images from the British Regency * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

SOCIETY DURING THE REGENCY

The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. This era encompassed a time of great social, political, and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon
Napoleon
and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare the Regency was also a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, shaping and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole.

One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent
Regent
himself (the future George IV ). Upper class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of culture and refinement. As one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent
Regent
ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion , the ornate Carlton House , as well as many other public works and architecture (see John Nash , James Burton , and Decimus Burton ). Naturally, this required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, and later, King's exuberance often outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense.

Society was also considerably stratified. In many ways there was a dark side to the beauty and fashion in England at this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London
London
, thievery, womanising, gambling, the existence of rookeries , and constant drinking ran rampant. The population boom—the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820 —created a wild, roiling, volatile, and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey
Robert Southey
, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed:

The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle. Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III
George III
saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, and gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one. This change was influenced by the Regent
Regent
himself, who was kept entirely removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father.

Driving these changes was not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but also significant technological advancements. In 1814 The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand. This development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories, rumours, and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals. The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something entirely out of reach yet tangibly there.

EVENTS DURING THE REGENCY

1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as THE PRINCE REGENT. This sub-period of the Georgian era
Georgian era
began the formal Regency. The Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuhera in the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
. The Prince Regent
Regent
held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite
Luddite
uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
arrived in England. Sarah Siddons
Sarah Siddons
retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812
War of 1812
between the United Kingdom and the United States. The British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Salamanca
). Gas company (Gas Light and Coke Company ) founded. Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era
Victorian era
, was born on 7 February 1812 1813 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
Jane Austen
was published. William Hedley 's Puffing Billy , an early steam locomotive , ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison . Robert Southey
Robert Southey
became Poet Laureate . 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris , ended one of the Napoleonic Wars . Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated and was exiled to Elba
Elba
. The Duke of Wellington was honored at Burlington House
Burlington House
in London. British soldiers burn the White House . Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, which was the last time the river froze. Gas lighting
Gas lighting
introduced in London streets. 1815 Napoleon
Napoleon
I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
. Napoleon
Napoleon
was exiled to St. Helena
St. Helena
. The English Corn Laws
Corn Laws
restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam 's road construction method adopted. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer " followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley
wrote Frankenstein
Frankenstein
. William Cobbett
William Cobbett
published his newspaper as a pamphlet. The British returned Indonesia
Indonesia
to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, London, phase one of construction. Beau Brummell
Beau Brummell
escaped his creditors by fleeing to France. 1817 Antonin Carême created a spectacular feast for the Prince Regent
Regent
at the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. The death of Princess Charlotte from complications of childbirth changed obstetrical practices. Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
shown at the British Museum
British Museum
. Captain Bligh died. 1818 Queen Charlotte died at Kew
Kew
. Manchester cotton spinners went on strike. Riot in Stanhope between lead miners and the Bishop of Durham
Bishop of Durham
's men over Weardale gaming rights. Piccadilly Circus
Piccadilly Circus
constructed in London. 1819 Peterloo Massacre
Peterloo Massacre
. Princess Alexandrina Victoria (future Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
) was christened in Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
. Ivanhoe
Ivanhoe
by Walter Scott
Walter Scott
was published. Sir Stamford Raffles , a British administrator, founded Singapore
Singapore
. First steam-propelled vessel (the SS Savannah ) crossed the Atlantic and arrived in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia
Savannah, Georgia
. 1820 Death of GEORGE III. Accession of The Prince Regent
Regent
as GEORGE IV. The House of Lords passed a bill to grant George IV a divorce from Queen Caroline , but because of public pressure the bill was dropped. John Constable
John Constable
began work on The Hay Wain . Cato Street Conspiracy failed. Royal Astronomical Society founded. Venus de Milo
Venus de Milo
discovered.

PLACES

The following is a list of places associated with the Regency era: Change in Bond Street, James Gillray
James Gillray
This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* The Adelphi Theatre
Adelphi Theatre
* Almack\'s * Angelo\'s - fencing parlor * Astley\'s Amphitheatre * Attingham Park * Bath, Somerset
Bath, Somerset
* Brighton Pavilion * Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
* Brooks\'s * Burlington Arcade
Burlington Arcade
* Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
* Carlton House, London * Chapel Royal
Chapel Royal
, St. James's * Cheltenham, Gloucestershire * Circulating libraries, 1801–25 * Covent Garden
Covent Garden
* Custom Office, London
London
Docks * Doncaster Races * Drury Lane
Drury Lane
* Floris of London
London
* Fortnum "> Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
, Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence
Thomas Lawrence
, 1814 This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* Rudolph Ackermann
Rudolph Ackermann
* Arthur Aikin * Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth * William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
, Prinny's set * Elizabeth Armistead * Jane Austen
Jane Austen
* Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
* Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
* Richard Barry, 7th Earl of Barrymore , Prinny's set * William Blake
William Blake
* Beau Brummell
Beau Brummell
* Mary Brunton * Lord Frederick Beauclerk
Lord Frederick Beauclerk
* Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough * Marguerite, Countess of Blessington * Bow Street Runners * Caroline of Brunswick
Caroline of Brunswick
, Prinny's wife * Frances Burney
Frances Burney
* James Burton * Decimus Burton * George Gordon, Lord Byron * George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll , Prinny's set * Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
* George Cayley
George Cayley
* Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire * Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
* William Cobbett
William Cobbett
* Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
* Patrick Colquhoun
Patrick Colquhoun
* John Constable
John Constable
* Elizabeth Conyngham, Marchioness Conyngham * Tom Cribb * George Cruikshank
George Cruikshank
* John Dalton
John Dalton
* Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
* John Disney * David Douglas * Maria Edgeworth * Pierce Egan * Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
* Grace Elliott * Maria Fitzherbert * Elizabeth Fry * David Garrick
David Garrick
* George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV of the United Kingdom
, Prince of Wales, Prince Regent then King * James Gillray
James Gillray
* Frederick Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich * William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville
William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville
* Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey * Emma, Lady Hamilton * William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt * William Hazlitt * William Hedley * Leigh Hunt * Isabella Ingram-Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford * John Jackson * Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
* Sarah, Countess of Jersey * Edmund Kean * John Keats
John Keats
* Lady Caroline Lamb * Charles Lamb * Emily Lamb, Countess Cowper * Sir Thomas Lawrence, PRA * Princess Lieven * Mary Linwood * Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool * Ada Byron Lovelace * John Loudon McAdam * Hannah More
Hannah More
* John Nash * Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
* George Ormerod * Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey
Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey
* John Palmer , Royal Mail * John Clare
John Clare
(poet) * Spencer Perceval
Spencer Perceval
* Jane Porter * Hermann, Fürst von Pückler-Muskau * Thomas de Quincey
Thomas de Quincey
* Thomas Raikes * Humphry Repton
Humphry Repton
* Samuel Rogers * Thomas Rowlandson
Thomas Rowlandson
* James Sadler * Walter Scott
Walter Scott
* Richard "Conversation" Sharp * Percy Bysshe Shelley * Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley
* Richard Sheridan
Richard Sheridan
* Sarah Siddons
Sarah Siddons
* John Soane
John Soane
* Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
* Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
* John Wedgwood * Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
* Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh * Benjamin Thompson
Benjamin Thompson
, Count Rumford * Joseph Mallord William Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner
* Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland
Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland
* Thomas Young (scientist) * Benjamin West
Benjamin West
* William Wilberforce
William Wilberforce
* William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
* William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
* Jeffry Wyattville
Jeffry Wyattville

NEWSPAPERS, PAMPHLETS, AND PUBLICATIONS

* Ackermann\'s Repository * The Gentleman\'s Magazine * British Journalists 1750–1820 * Newspapers in the Regency era
Regency era
* The Times
The Times
* The Observer * Weekly Political Register, William Cobbett
William Cobbett
* La Belle Assemblée

THE BRITISH REGENCY IN POPULAR CULTURE

Jane Austen, watercolour and pencil portrait by her sister Cassandra, 1810

* The Madness of King George * Regency Reenactment Groups * Regency novels * Regency romance * Jane Austen
Jane Austen
in popular culture * Republic of Pemberley * The third series of the BBC
BBC
comedy series Blackadder is set in the Regency Period. * The British Regency Period in film and costume dramas

IMAGES FROM THE BRITISH REGENCY

*

Necklothitania,1818 *

Astley's Amphitheatre, 1808-1811 *

Brighton Pavilion, 1826 *

Carlton House, Pall Mall London. *

Vauxhall Gardens, 1808–1811 *

Church of All Souls, architect John Nash, 1823 *

Regent's Canal, Limehouse, 1823 *

Frost Fair, Thames River, 1814 *

The Piccadilly entrance to the Burlington Arcade, 1819 *

Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
and Leopold I, 1817 *

Morning dress, Ackermann, 1820 *

Water at Wentworth, Humphry Repton, 1752–1818 *

Hanover Square, Horwood Map, 1819 *

Beau Brummell, 1805 *

Battle of Waterloo, 1815 *

Almack's Assembly Room, 1805–1825 *

Drury Lane
Drury Lane
interior. 1808 *

Balloon ascent, James Sadler, 1811 *

The Anatomist, Thomas Rowlandson, 1811 *

Regent's Park, Schmollinger map, 1833 *

100 Pall Mall, former location of National Gallery, 1824–1834 *

Cognocenti, Gillray Cartoon, 1801 *

Custom Office, London
London
Docks, 1811-1843 *

Custom and Excise, London
London
Docks, 1820 *

Mail coach, 1827 *

Assassination of Spencer Perceval, 1812 *

The pillory at Charing Cross, Ackermann's Microcosm of London, 1808–11 *

Covent Garden
Covent Garden
Theatre, 1827–28

SEE ALSO

* Regency architecture
Regency architecture
* Regency fashions * Regency dance * Régence
Régence
, the period of the early 18th-century regency in France * Society of Dilettanti
Society of Dilettanti

REFERENCES

* ^ Parissien, Steven. George IV: Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001. p. 117. * ^ A B Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999. p. x. * ^ Smith p. 14. * ^ Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. p. 34. * ^ "George IV (r. 1820–1830)". The Royal Household. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ Nelson, Alfred L.; Cross, Gilbert B. "The Adelphi Theatre, 1806–1900". Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. * ^ "Attingham Park: History". National Trust. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ "Circulating Libraries, 1801–1825". Library History Database. Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ "Jane Austen: Sports". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ A B "Jane Austen: Places". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ A B "Jane Austen: Gardens". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ A B "Jane Austen: Theatre". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ "British Journalists 1750–1820". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ "Newspapers and publishers at dawn of 19th century". Georgian Index. Retrieved 12 April 2015. * ^ "An Introduction to the British Regency Period". PeriodDramas.com. Retrieved 12 April 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Bowman, Peter James. The Fortune Hunter: A German Prince in Regency England. Oxford: Signal Books, 2010. * David, Saul. Prince of Pleasure The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1998. * Knafla, David, Crime, punishment, and reform in Europe, Greenwood Publishing, 2003 * Lapp, Robert Keith. Contest for Cultural Authority – Hazelitt, Coleridge, and the Distresses of the Regecy. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1999. * Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999. * Marriott, J. A. R. England Since Waterloo (1913) online * Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's P, 1994. * Parissien, Steven. George IV Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's P, 2001. * Pilcher, Donald. The Regency Style: 1800–1830 (London: Batsford, 1947). * Rendell, Jane. The pursuit of pleasure: gender, space

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