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Calvinism
Calvinism
(also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things.[1][2] As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism
Calvinism
can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called Calvinism
Calvinism
by Lutherans who opposed it referring to French reformer John Calvin, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word Reformed.[3][4] Early influential Reformed theologians include Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham
Abraham
Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, and Gordon Clark were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, R. C. Sproul, Timothy J. Keller, John Piper, David Wells, and Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity; most are presbyterian or congregationalist, though some are episcopalian. Calvinism
Calvinism
is largely represented by Continental Reformed, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches
World Communion of Reformed Churches
with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world.[5][6] There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Spread

3 Theology

3.1 Revelation and Scripture 3.2 Covenant 3.3 God 3.4 Christ
Christ
and atonement 3.5 Sin 3.6 Salvation 3.7 Predestination

3.7.1 Five points of Calvinism 3.7.2 Comparison among Protestants

3.8 Church 3.9 Worship

3.9.1 Regulative principle of worship

3.10 Sacraments 3.11 Logical order of God's decree

4 Variants

4.1 Amyraldism 4.2 Hyper-Calvinism 4.3 Neo-Calvinism 4.4 Christian Reconstructionism 4.5 New Calvinism

5 Social and economic influences 6 Politics and society 7 See also

7.1 Doctrine 7.2 Related 7.3 Similar groups in other traditions 7.4 Opposing views

8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Calvinism
Calvinism
is named after John Calvin. It was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to name what they perceived to be heresy after its founder. Nevertheless, the term first came out of Lutheran
Lutheran
circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself:

They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism. It is not hard to guess where such a deadly hatred comes from that they hold against me. — John Calvin, Leçons ou commentaires et expositions sur les Revelations du prophete Jeremie 1565[7]

Despite its negative connotation, this designation became increasingly popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant
Protestant
branches that emerged later. The vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin (including Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and a row of other Calvinist churches) do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more generally accepted and preferred, especially in the English-speaking world. Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian
Arminian
controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians
Arminians
and Calvinists.[8][9] However, it is now rare to call Arminians
Arminians
a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism
Calvinism
is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism. Some have also argued that Calvinism
Calvinism
as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God
God
in all things including salvation. History[edit] Main article: History of Calvinism

Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva

Calvin's magnum opus: Institutio Christianae religionis

First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531), Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer
(1491–1551), Wolfgang Capito (1478–1541), John Oecolampadius
John Oecolampadius
(1482–1531), and Guillaume Farel (1489–1565). These reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but later distinctions within Reformed theology can already be detected in their thought, especially the priority of scripture as a source of authority. Scripture was also viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper
Lord's Supper
as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ
Christ
in the Lord's supper. Each of these theologians also understood salvation to be by grace alone, and affirmed a doctrine of particular election (the teaching that some people are chosen by God
God
for salvation). Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and his successor Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, and to a larger extent later Reformed theologians. The doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther.[10] John Calvin
John Calvin
(1509–64), Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
(1504–75), Wolfgang Musculus (1497–1563), Peter Martyr Vermigli
Peter Martyr Vermigli
(1500–62), and Andreas Hyperius (1511–64) belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
Institutes of the Christian Religion
(1536–59) was one of the most influential theologies of the era.[11] Toward the middle of the 16th century, the Reformed began to commit their beliefs to confessions of faith, which would shape the future definition of the Reformed faith. The 1549 Consensus Tigurinus
Consensus Tigurinus
brought together those who followed Zwingli and Bullinger's memorialist theology of the Lord's supper, which taught that the supper simply serves as a reminder of Christ's death, and Calvin's view that the supper serves as a means of grace with Christ
Christ
actually present, though spiritually rather than bodily. The document demonstrates the diversity as well as unity in early Reformed theology. The remainder of the 16th century saw an explosion of confessional activity. The stability and breadth of Reformed theology during this period stand in marked contrast to the bitter controversy experienced by Lutherans prior to the 1579 Formula of Concord.[12] Due to Calvin's missionary work in France, his programme of reform eventually reached the French-speaking provinces of the Netherlands. Calvinism
Calvinism
was adopted in the Electorate of the Palatinate
Electorate of the Palatinate
under Frederick III, which led to the formulation of the Heidelberg Catechism in 1563, and in Navarre by Jeanne d'Albret. This and the Belgic Confession
Belgic Confession
were adopted as confessional standards in the first synod of the Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church
in 1571. Leading divines, either Calvinist or those sympathetic to Calvinism, settled in England (Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and Jan Łaski) and Scotland
Scotland
(John Knox). During the English Civil War, the Calvinistic Puritans
Puritans
produced the Westminster Confession, which became the confessional standard for Presbyterians
Presbyterians
in the English-speaking world. Having established itself in Europe, the movement continued to spread to other parts of the world including North America, South Africa, and Korea.[13] Calvin did not live to see the foundation of his work grow into an international movement; but his death allowed his ideas to break out of their city of origin, to succeed far beyond their borders, and to establish their own distinct character.[14] Spread[edit]

Calvinism
Calvinism
has been known at times for its simple, unadorned churches and lifestyles, as depicted in this painting of the interior of the Oude kerk in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
by Emanuel de Witte
Emanuel de Witte
c. 1661

Although much of Calvin's work was in Geneva, his publications spread his ideas of a correctly Reformed church to many parts of Europe. In Switzerland, some cantons are still Reformed and some are Catholic. Calvinism
Calvinism
became the theological system of the majority in Scotland (see John Knox), the Netherlands
Netherlands
(see William Ames, T. J. Frelinghuysen and Wilhelmus à Brakel), some communities in Flanders, and parts of Germany (especially these adjacent to the Netherlands) in the Palatinate, Kassel
Kassel
and Lippe
Lippe
with the likes of Olevianus
Olevianus
and his colleague Zacharias Ursinus. In Hungary
Hungary
and the then-independent Transylvania, Calvinism
Calvinism
was a significant religion. In the 16th century, the Reformation
Reformation
gained many supporters in Eastern Hungary
Hungary
and Hungarian-populated regions in Transylvania. In these parts, the Reformed nobles protected the faith. Almost all Transylvanian dukes were Reformed. Today there are about 3.5 million Hungarian Reformed people worldwide.[15] It was influential in France, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland
Poland
before being mostly erased due to the counter-reformational activities taken up by the monarch in each country. Calvinism
Calvinism
gained some popularity in Scandinavia, especially Sweden, but was rejected in favor of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
after the Synod of Uppsala
Synod of Uppsala
in 1593.[16] Most settlers in the American Mid-Atlantic and New England
New England
were Calvinists, including the English Puritans, the French Huguenots
Huguenots
and Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(New York), and the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians
Presbyterians
of the Appalachian back country. Nonconforming Protestants, Puritans, Separatists, Independents, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, and other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed, held overwhelmingly Reformed views. They are often cited among the primary founders of the United States of America. Dutch Calvinist settlers were also the first successful European colonizers of South Africa, beginning in the 17th century, who became known as Boers or Afrikaners. Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
was largely colonized by Calvinist settlers from Nova Scotia, who were largely Black Loyalists, blacks who had fought for the British during the American War of Independence. John Marrant had organized a congregation there under the auspices of the Huntingdon Connection. Some of the largest Calvinist communions were started by 19th and 20th century missionaries. Especially large are those in Indonesia, Korea
Korea
and Nigeria. In South Korea
Korea
there are 20,000 Presbyterian
Presbyterian
congregations with about 9–10 million church members, scattered in more than 100 Presbyterian
Presbyterian
denominations. In South Korea, Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is the largest Christian denomination.[17]

A Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia. Protestantism
Protestantism
in Indonesia is largely a result of Calvinist and Lutheran
Lutheran
missionary efforts during the colonial period.[18]

A 2011 report of the Pew Forum
Pew Forum
on Religious and Public Life estimated that members of Presbyterian
Presbyterian
or Reformed churches make up 7% of the estimated 801 million Protestants globally, or approximately 56 million people.[19] Though the broadly defined Reformed faith is much larger, as it constitutes Congregationalist (0.5%), most of the United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7.2%) and most likely some of the other Protestant
Protestant
denominations (38.2%). All three are distinct categories from Presbyterian
Presbyterian
or Reformed (7%) in this report. The Reformed family of churches is one of the largest Christian denominations. According to adherents.com the Reformed/Presbyterian/Congregational/United churches represent 75 million believers worldvide.[20] The World Communion of Reformed Churches, which includes some United Churches (most of these are primarily Reformed; see Uniting and united churches for details), has 80 million believers.[21] WCRC is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.[20] Many conservative Reformed churches which are strongly Calvinistic formed the World Reformed Fellowship which has about 70 member denominations. Most are not part of the World Communion of Reformed Churches because of its ecumenial attire. The International Conference of Reformed Churches is another conservative association. Church of Tuvalu is the only officially established state church in the Calvinist tradition in the world. Theology[edit] Revelation and Scripture[edit] See also: General revelation, Biblical inspiration, and Sola scriptura Reformed theologians believe that God
God
communicates knowledge of himself to people through the Word of God. People are not able to know anything about God
God
except through this self-revelation. Speculation about anything which God
God
has not revealed through his Word is not warranted. The knowledge people have of God
God
is different from that which they have of anything else because God
God
is infinite, and finite people are incapable of comprehending an infinite being. While the knowledge revealed by God
God
to people is never incorrect, it is also never comprehensive.[22]

The seal of the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian
Presbyterian
church

According to Reformed theologians, God's self-revelation is always through his son Jesus
Jesus
Christ, because Christ
Christ
is the only mediator between God
God
and people. Revelation of God
God
through Christ
Christ
comes through two basic channels. The first is creation and providence, which is God's creating and continuing to work in the world. This action of God gives everyone knowledge about God, but this knowledge is only sufficient to make people culpable for their sin; it does not include knowledge of the gospel. The second channel through which God
God
reveals himself is redemption, which is the gospel of salvation from condemnation which is punishment for sin.[23] In Reformed theology, the Word of God
God
takes several forms. Jesus Christ
Christ
himself is the Word Incarnate. The prophecies about him said to be found in the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the ministry of the apostles who saw him and communicated his message are also the Word of God. Further, the preaching of ministers about God
God
is the very Word of God
God
because God
God
is considered to be speaking through them. God
God
also speaks through human writers in the Bible, which is composed of texts set apart by God
God
for self-revelation.[24] Reformed theologians emphasize the Bible as a uniquely important means by which God
God
communicates with people. People gain knowledge of God
God
from the Bible
Bible
which cannot be gained in any other way.[25] Reformed theologians affirm that the Bible
Bible
is true, but differences emerge among them over the meaning and extent of its truthfulness.[26] Conservative followers of the Princeton theologians
Princeton theologians
take the view that the Bible
Bible
is true and inerrant, or incapable of error or falsehood, in every place.[27] This view is very similar to that of Catholic orthodoxy as well as modern Evangelicalism.[28] Another view, influenced by the teaching of Karl Barth
Karl Barth
and Neo-Orthodoxy, is found in the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church (U.S.A.)'s Confession of 1967. Those who take this view believe the Bible
Bible
to be the primary source of our knowledge of God, but also that some parts of the Bible
Bible
may be false, not witnesses to Christ, and not normative for today's church.[27] In this view, Christ
Christ
is the revelation of God, and the scriptures witness to this revelation rather than being the revelation itself.[29] Dawn DeVries, a professor at Union Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Seminary, has written that Barth's doctrine of Scripture is not capable of resolving conflicts in contemporary churches,[30] and proposed that Scripture not be thought of as the Word of God
God
at all, but only human reports of the revealed Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[31] Covenant[edit]

Fall of Man
Fall of Man
by Jacob Jordaens

See also: Covenant theology Reformed theologians use the concept of covenant to describe the way God
God
enters fellowship with people in history.[32] The concept of covenant is so prominent in Reformed theology that Reformed theology as a whole is sometimes called "covenant theology".[33] However, sixteenth and seventeenth-century theologians developed a particular theological system called "covenant theology" or "federal theology" which many conservative Reformed churches continue to affirm today.[32] This framework orders God's life with people primarily in two covenants: the covenant of works and the covenant of grace.[34] The covenant of works is made with Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
in the Garden of Eden. The terms of the covenant are that God
God
provides a blessed life in the garden on condition that Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
obey God's law perfectly. Because Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
broke the covenant by eating the forbidden fruit, they became subject to death and were banished from the garden. This sin was passed down to all mankind because all people are said to be in Adam as a covenantal or "federal" head. Federal theologians usually infer that Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
would have gained immortality had they obeyed perfectly.[35] A second covenant, called the covenant of grace, is said to have been made immediately following Adam and Eve's sin. In it, God
God
graciously offers salvation from death on condition of faith in God. This covenant is administered in different ways throughout the Old and New Testaments, but retains the substance of being free of a requirement of perfect obedience.[36] Through the influence of Karl Barth, many contemporary Reformed theologians have discarded the covenant of works, along with other concepts of federal theology. Barth saw the covenant of works as disconnected from Christ
Christ
and the gospel, and rejected the idea that God
God
works with people in this way. Instead, Barth argued that God always interacts with people under the covenant of grace, and that the covenant of grace is free of all conditions whatsoever. Barth's theology and that which follows him has been called "monocovenantal" as opposed to the "bi-covenantal" scheme of classical federal theology.[37] Conservative contemporary Reformed theologians, such as John Murray, have also rejected the idea of covenants based on law rather than grace. Michael Horton, however, has defended the covenant of works as combining principles of law and love.[38] God[edit] See also: God
God
in Christianity
Christianity
and Trinity For the most part, the Reformed tradition did not modify the medieval consensus on the doctrine of God.[39] God's character is described primarily using three adjectives: eternal, infinite, and unchangeable.[40] Reformed theologians such as Shirley Guthrie have proposed that rather than conceiving of God
God
in terms of his attributes and freedom to do as he pleases, the doctrine of God
God
is to be based on God's work in history and his freedom to live with and empower people.[41]

The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity

Traditionally, Reformed theologians have also followed the medieval tradition going back to before the early church councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon on the doctrine of the Trinity. God
God
is affirmed to be one God
God
in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy
Holy
Spirit. The Son (Christ) is held to be eternally begotten by the Father and the Holy
Holy
Spirit eternally proceeding from the Father and Son.[42] However, contemporary theologians have been critical of aspects of Western views here as well. Drawing on the Eastern tradition, these Reformed theologians have proposed a "social trinitarianism" where the persons of the Trinity
Trinity
only exist in their life together as persons-in-relationship.[42] Contemporary Reformed confessions such as the Barmen Confession
Barmen Confession
and Brief Statement of Faith
Faith
of the Presbyterian Church (USA) have avoided language about the attributes of God
God
and have emphasized his work of reconciliation and empowerment of people.[43] Feminist theologian Letty Russell used the image of partnership for the persons of the Trinity. According to Russell, thinking this way encourages Christians to interact in terms of fellowship rather than reciprocity.[44] Conservative Reformed theologian Michael Horton, however, has argued that social trinitarianism is untenable because it abandons the essential unity of God
God
in favor of a community of separate beings.[45] Christ
Christ
and atonement[edit] See also: Christ, Hypostatic union, Extra calvinisticum, Substitutionary atonement, and Threefold office Reformed theologians affirm the historic Christian belief that Christ is eternally one person with a divine and a human nature. Reformed Christians have especially emphasized that Christ
Christ
truly became human so that people could be saved.[46] Christ's human nature has been a point of contention between Reformed and Lutheran
Lutheran
Christology. In accord with the belief that finite humans cannot comprehend infinite divinity, Reformed theologians hold that Christ's human body cannot be in multiple locations at the same time. Because Lutherans believe that Christ
Christ
is bodily present in the Eucharist, they hold that Christ
Christ
is bodily present in many locations simultaneously. For Reformed Christians, such a belief denies that Christ
Christ
actually became human.[47] Some contemporary Reformed theologians have moved away from the traditional language of one person in two natures, viewing it as unintelligible to contemporary people. Instead, theologians tend to emphasize Jesus' context and particularity as a first-century Jew.[48]

This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ
Christ
ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith
Faith
is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ
Christ
the way of salvation.

John Calvin
John Calvin
and many Reformed theologians who followed him describe Christ's work of redemption in terms of three offices: prophet, priest, and king. Christ
Christ
is said to be a prophet in that he teaches perfect doctrine, a priest in that he intercedes to the Father on believers' behalf and offered himself as a sacrifice for sin, and a king in that he rules the church and fights on believers' behalf. The threefold office links the work of Christ
Christ
to God's work in ancient Israel.[49] Many, but not all, Reformed theologians continue to make use of the threefold office as a framework because of its emphasis on the connection of Christ's work to Israel. They have, however, often reinterpreted the meaning of each of the offices.[50] For example, Karl Barth
Karl Barth
interpreted Christ's prophetic office in terms of political engagement on behalf of the poor.[51] Christians believe Jesus' death
Jesus' death
and resurrection makes it possible for believers to attain forgiveness for sin and reconciliation with God through the atonement. Reformed Protestants generally subscribe to a particular view of the atonement called substitutionary atonement, which explains Christ's death as a sacrificial payment for sin. Christ is believed to have died in place of the believer, who is accounted righteous as a result of this sacrificial payment.[52] Contemporary Reformed theologians such as William Placher and Nancy Duff have criticized this view, claiming it makes God
God
appear abusive or vindictive and sanctions violence by the strong against the weak.[53] Sin[edit] See also: Christian views on sin
Christian views on sin
and Total depravity In Christian theology, people are created good and in the image of God but have become corrupted by sin, which causes them to be imperfect and overly self-interested.[54] Reformed Christians, following the tradition of Augustine
Augustine
of Hippo, believe that this corruption of human nature was brought on by Adam and Eve's first sin, a doctrine called original sin. Reformed theologians emphasize that this sinfulness affects all of a person's nature, including their will. This view, that sin so dominates people that they are unable to avoid sin, has been called total depravity.[55] In colloquial English, the term "total depravity" can be easily misunderstood to mean that people are absent of any goodness or unable to do any good. However the Reformed teaching is actually that while people continue to bear God's image and may do things that appear outwardly good, their sinful intentions affect all of their nature and actions so that they are not pleasing to God.[56] Some contemporary theologians in the Reformed tradition, such as those associated with the PC(USA)'s Confession of 1967, have emphasized the social character of human sinfulness. These theologians have sought to bring attention to issues of environmental, economic, and political justice as areas of human life that have been affected by sin.[57] Salvation[edit]

The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness

See also: Sola fide, Justification (theology), and Sanctification Reformed theologians, along with other Protestants, believe salvation from punishment for sin is to be given to all those who have faith in Christ.[58] Faith
Faith
is not purely intellectual, but involves trust in God's promise to save.[59] Protestants do not hold there to be any other requirement for salvation, but that faith alone is sufficient.[58] Justification is the part of salvation where God
God
pardons the sin of those who believe in Christ. It is historically held by Protestants to be the most important article of Christian faith, though more recently it is sometimes given less importance out of ecumenical concerns.[60] People are not on their own able even to fully repent of their sin or prepare themselves to repent because of their sinfulness. Therefore, justification is held to arise solely from God's free and gracious act.[61] Sanctification is the part of salvation in which God
God
makes the believer holy, by enabling them to exercise greater love for God
God
and for other people.[62] The good works accomplished by believers as they are sanctified are considered to be the necessary outworking of the believer's salvation, though they do not cause the believer to be saved.[59] Sanctification, like justification, is by faith, because doing good works is simply living as the son of God
God
one has become.[63] Predestination[edit] Main article: Predestination
Predestination
in Calvinism Reformed theologians teach that sin so affects human nature that they are unable even to exercise faith in Christ
Christ
by their own will. While people are said to retain will, in that they willfully sin, they are unable not to sin because of the corruption of their nature due to original sin. Reformed Christians believe that God
God
predestined some people to be saved. This choice by God
God
to save some is held to be unconditional and not based on any characteristic or action on the part of the person chosen. This view is opposed to the Arminian
Arminian
view that God's choice of whom to save is conditional or based on his foreknowledge of who would respond positively to God.[64] Karl Barth
Karl Barth
reinterpreted the Reformed doctrine of predestination to apply only to Christ. Individual people are only said to be elected through their being in Christ.[65] Reformed theologians who followed Barth, including Jürgen Moltmann, David Migliore, and Shirley Guthrie, have argued that the traditional Reformed concept of predestination is speculative and have proposed alternative models. These theologians claim that a properly trinitarian doctrine emphasizes God's freedom to love all people, rather than choosing some for salvation and others for damnation. God's justice towards and condemnation of sinful people is spoken of by these theologians as out of his love for them and a desire to reconcile them to himself.[66] Five points of Calvinism[edit]

The Five Points of Calvinism

(TULIP)

Total depravity

Unconditional election

Limited atonement

Irresistible grace

Perseverance of the saints

v t e

Most objections to and attacks on Calvinism
Calvinism
focus on the "five points of Calvinism", also called the doctrines of grace, and remembered by the mnemonic "TULIP".[67] The five points are popularly said to summarize the Canons of Dort;[68] however, there is no historical relationship between them, and some scholars argue that their language distorts the meaning of the Canons, Calvin's theology, and the theology of 17th-century Calvinistic orthodoxy, particularly in the language of total depravity and limited atonement.[69] The five points were more recently popularized in the 1963 booklet The Five Points of Calvinism
Calvinism
Defined, Defended, Documented by David N. Steele and Curtis C. Thomas. The origins of the five points and the acronym are uncertain, but they appear to be outlined in the Counter Remonstrance of 1611, a less known Reformed reply to the Arminians
Arminians
that occurred prior to the Canons of Dort.[70] The acronym was used by Cleland Boyd McAfee as early as circa 1905.[71] An early printed appearance of the T-U-L-I-P acronym is in Loraine Boettner's 1932 book, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination.[72] The acronym was very cautiously if ever used by Calvinist apologists and theologians before the booklet by Steele and Thomas.[73] More recently, a broad range of theologians have sought to reformulate the TULIP terminology to reflect more accurately the Canons of Dort; one of the more popular efforts has been PROOF, standing for Planned Grace, Resurrecting Grace, Outrageous Grace, Overcoming Grace, and Forever Grace.[74] The central assertion of these points is that God
God
saves every person upon whom he has mercy, and that his efforts are not frustrated by the unrighteousness or inability of humans.

"Total depravity", also called "total inability", asserts that as a consequence of the fall of man into sin, every person is enslaved to sin. People are not by nature inclined to love God, but rather to serve their own interests and to reject the rule of God. Thus, all people by their own faculties are morally unable to choose to trust God
God
for their salvation and be saved (the term "total" in this context refers to sin affecting every part of a person, not that every person is as evil as they could be).[75] This doctrine is derived from Augustine's explanation of Original Sin.[76] While the phrases "totally depraved" and "utterly perverse" were used by Calvin, what was meant was the inability to save oneself from sin rather than being absent of goodness. Phrases like "total depravity" cannot be found in the Canons of Dort, and the Canons as well as later Reformed orthodox theologians arguably offer a more moderate view of the nature of fallen humanity than Calvin.[77] "Unconditional election" asserts that God
God
has chosen from eternity those whom he will bring to himself not based on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith in those people; rather, his choice is unconditionally grounded in his mercy alone. God
God
has chosen from eternity to extend mercy to those he has chosen and to withhold mercy from those not chosen. Those chosen receive salvation through Christ
Christ
alone. Those not chosen receive the just wrath that is warranted for their sins against God.[78] "Limited atonement", also called "particular redemption" or "definite atonement", asserts that Jesus's substitutionary atonement was definite and certain in its purpose and in what it accomplished. This implies that only the sins of the elect were atoned for by Jesus's death. Calvinists do not believe, however, that the atonement is limited in its value or power, but rather that the atonement is limited in the sense that it is intended for some and not all. Some Calvinists have summarized this as "The atonement is sufficient for all and efficient for the elect."[79] "Irresistible grace", also called "efficacious grace", asserts that the saving grace of God
God
is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (that is, the elect) and overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to a saving faith. This means that when God
God
sovereignly purposes to save someone, that individual certainly will be saved. The doctrine holds that this purposeful influence of God's Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
cannot be resisted, but that the Holy
Holy
Spirit, "graciously causes the elect sinner to cooperate, to believe, to repent, to come freely and willingly to Christ." This is not to deny the fact that the Spirit's outward call (through the proclamation of the Gospel) can be, and often is, rejected by sinners; rather, it's that inward call which cannot be rejected. "Perseverance of the saints" (also known as "perseverance of God
God
with the saints" and "preservation of the believing") (the word "saints" is used to refer to all who are set apart by God, and not of those who are exceptionally holy, canonized, or in heaven) asserts that since God
God
is sovereign and his will cannot be frustrated by humans or anything else, those whom God
God
has called into communion with himself will continue in faith until the end. Those who apparently fall away either never had true faith to begin with (1 John 2:19), or, if they are saved but not presently walking in the Spirit, they will be divinely chastened (Hebrews 12:5–11) and will repent (1 John 3:6–9).[80]

Comparison among Protestants[edit] This table summarizes the classical views of three Protestant
Protestant
beliefs about salvation.[81]

Topic Calvinism Lutheranism Arminianism

Human will Total depravity:[82] Humanity possesses "free will",[83] but it is in bondage to sin,[84] until it is "transformed".[85] Total depravity:[82] Humanity possesses free will in regard to "goods and possessions", but is sinful by nature and unable to contribute to its own salvation. [86][87][88] Humanity possesses freedom from necessity, but not "freedom from sin” unless enabled by "prevenient grace".[89]

Election Unconditional election. Unconditional election.[82][90] Conditional election
Conditional election
in view of foreseen faith or unbelief.[91]

Justification and atonement Justification by faith
Justification by faith
alone. Various views regarding the extent of the atonement.[92] Justification for all men,[93] completed at Christ's death and effective through faith alone.[94][95][96][97] Justification made possible for all through Christ's death, but only completed upon choosing faith in Jesus.[98]

Conversion Monergistic,[99] through the means of grace, irresistible. Monergistic,[100][101] through the means of grace, resistible.[102] Synergistic, resistible due to the common grace of free will.[103]

Perseverance and apostasy Perseverance of the saints: the eternally elect in Christ
Christ
will certainly persevere in faith.[104] Falling away is possible,[105] but God
God
gives gospel assurance.[106][107] Preservation is conditional upon continued faith in Christ; with the possibility of a final apostasy.[108]

Church[edit] See also: Protestant
Protestant
ecclesiology Reformed Christians see the Christian Church
Christian Church
as the community with which God
God
has made the covenant of grace, a promise of eternal life and relationship with God. This covenant extends to those under the "old covenant" whom God
God
chose, beginning with Abraham
Abraham
and Sarah.[109] The church is conceived of as both invisible and visible. The invisible church is the body of all believers, known only to God. The visible church is the institutional body which contains both members of the invisible church as well as those who appear to have faith in Christ, but are not truly part of God's elect.[110] In order to identify the visible church, Reformed theologians have spoken of certain marks of the Church. For some, the only mark is the pure preaching of the gospel of Christ. Others, including John Calvin, also including the right administration of the sacraments. Others, such as those following the Scots Confession, include a third mark of rightly administered church discipline, or exercise of censure against unrepentant sinners. These marks allowed the Reformed to identify the church based on its conformity to the Bible
Bible
rather than the Magisterium
Magisterium
or church tradition.[110] Worship[edit] Main article: Reformed worship Regulative principle of worship[edit] Main article: Regulative principle of worship

The Bay Psalm Book
Bay Psalm Book
was used by the Pilgrims

The regulative principle of worship is a teaching shared by some Calvinists and Anabaptists on how the Bible
Bible
orders public worship. The substance of the doctrine regarding worship is that God
God
institutes in the Scriptures everything he requires for worship in the Church and that everything else is prohibited. As the regulative principle is reflected in Calvin's own thought, it is driven by his evident antipathy toward the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and its worship practices, and it associates musical instruments with icons, which he considered violations of the Ten Commandments' prohibition of graven images.[111] On this basis, many early Calvinists also eschewed musical instruments and advocated a cappella exclusive psalmody in worship,[112] though Calvin himself allowed other scriptural songs as well as psalms,[111] and this practice typified presbyterian worship and the worship of other Reformed churches for some time. The original Lord's Day service designed by John Calvin
John Calvin
was a highly liturgical service with the Creed, Alms, Confession and Absolution, the Lord's supper, Doxologies, prayers, Psalms being sung, the Lords prayer being sung, Benedictions.[113] Since the 19th century, however, some of the Reformed churches have modified their understanding of the regulative principle and make use of musical instruments, believing that Calvin and his early followers went beyond the biblical requirements[111] and that such things are circumstances of worship requiring biblically rooted wisdom, rather than an explicit command. Despite the protestations of those who hold to a strict view of the regulative principle, today hymns and musical instruments are in common use, as are contemporary worship music styles with elements such as worship bands.[114] Sacraments[edit] See also: Reformed teaching on sacraments, Reformed baptismal theology, and Lord's Supper
Lord's Supper
in Reformed theology The Westminster Confession
Westminster Confession
of Faith
Faith
limits the sacraments to baptism and the Lord's Supper. Sacraments
Sacraments
are denoted "signs and seals of the covenant of grace."[115] Westminster speaks of "a sacramental relation, or a sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to pass that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other."[116] Baptism
Baptism
is for infant children of believers as well as believers, as it is for all the Reformed except Baptists
Baptists
and some Congregationalists. Baptism
Baptism
admits the baptized into the visible church, and in it all the benefits of Christ are offered to the baptized.[116] On the Lord's supper, Westminster takes a position between Lutheran
Lutheran
sacramental union and Zwinglian memorialism: "the Lord's supper really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet, as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance as the elements themselves are to their outward senses."[115] The 1689 London Baptist Confession of Faith does not use the term sacrament, but describes baptism and the Lord's supper as ordinances, as do most Baptists
Baptists
Calvinist or otherwise. Baptism
Baptism
is only for those who "actually profess repentance towards God", and not for the children of believers.[117] Baptists
Baptists
also insist on immersion or dipping, in contradistinction to other Reformed Christians.[118] The Baptist Confession describes the Lord's supper as "the body and blood of Christ
Christ
being then not corporally or carnally, but spiritually present to the faith of believers in that ordinance", similarly to the Westminster Confession.[119] There is significant latitude in Baptist congregations regarding the Lord's supper, and many hold the Zwinglian view. Logical order of God's decree[edit] Main article: Logical order of God's decree There are two schools of thought regarding the logical order of God's decree to ordain the fall of man: supralapsarianism (from the Latin: supra, "above", here meaning "before" + lapsus, "fall") and infralapsarianism (from the Latin: infra, "beneath", here meaning "after" + lapsus, "fall"). The former view, sometimes called "high Calvinism", argues that the Fall occurred partly to facilitate God's purpose to choose some individuals for salvation and some for damnation. Infralapsarianism, sometimes called "low Calvinism", is the position that, while the Fall was indeed planned, it was not planned with reference to who would be saved. Supralapsarians believe that God
God
chose which individuals to save logically prior to the decision to allow the race to fall and that the Fall serves as the means of realization of that prior decision to send some individuals to hell and others to heaven (that is, it provides the grounds of condemnation in the reprobate and the need for salvation in the elect). In contrast, infralapsarians hold that God planned the race to fall logically prior to the decision to save or damn any individuals because, it is argued, in order to be "saved", one must first need to be saved from something and therefore the decree of the Fall must precede predestination to salvation or damnation. These two views vied with each other at the Synod
Synod
of Dort, an international body representing Calvinist Christian churches from around Europe, and the judgments that came out of that council sided with infralapsarianism (Canons of Dort, First Point of Doctrine, Article 7). The Westminster Confession
Westminster Confession
of Faith
Faith
also teaches (in Hodge's words "clearly impl[ies]") the infralapsarian[120] view, but is sensitive to those holding to supralapsarianism.[121] The Lapsarian controversy has a few vocal proponents on each side today, but overall it does not receive much attention among modern Calvinists. Variants[edit] Amyraldism[edit] Main article: Amyraldism Amyraldism
Amyraldism
(or sometimes Amyraldianism, also known as the School of Saumur, hypothetical universalism,[122] post redemptionism,[123] moderate Calvinism,[124] or four-point Calvinism) is the belief that God, prior to his decree of election, decreed Christ's atonement for all alike if they believe, but seeing that none would believe on their own, he then elected those whom he will bring to faith in Christ, thereby preserving the Calvinist doctrine of unconditional election. The efficacy of the atonement remains limited to those who believe. Named after its formulator Moses Amyraut, this doctrine is still viewed as a variety of Calvinism
Calvinism
in that it maintains the particularity of sovereign grace in the application of the atonement. However, detractors like B. B. Warfield
B. B. Warfield
have termed it "an inconsistent and therefore unstable form of Calvinism."[125] Hyper-Calvinism[edit] Main article: Hyper-Calvinism Hyper-Calvinism first referred to a view that appeared among the early English Particular Baptists
Baptists
in the 18th century. Their system denied that the call of the gospel to "repent and believe" is directed to every single person and that it is the duty of every person to trust in Christ
Christ
for salvation. The term also occasionally appears in both theological and secular controversial contexts, where it usually connotes a negative opinion about some variety of theological determinism, predestination, or a version of Evangelical Christianity or Calvinism
Calvinism
that is deemed by the critic to be unenlightened, harsh, or extreme. The Westminster Confession
Westminster Confession
of Faith
Faith
says that the gospel is to be freely offered to sinners, and the Larger Catechism makes clear that the gospel is offered to the non-elect.[126][127] Neo-Calvinism[edit] Main article: Neo-Calvinism Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham
Abraham
Kuyper. James Bratt has identified a number of different types of Dutch Calvinism: The Seceders—split into the Reformed Church "West" and the Confessionalists; and the Neo-Calvinists—the Positives and the Antithetical Calvinists. The Seceders were largely infralapsarian and the Neo-Calvinists usually supralapsarian.[128] Kuyper wanted to awaken the church from what he viewed as its pietistic slumber. He declared:

No single piece of our mental world is to be sealed off from the rest and there is not a square inch in the whole domain of human existence over which Christ, who is sovereign over all, does not cry: 'Mine!'[129]

This refrain has become something of a rallying call for Neo-Calvinists. Christian Reconstructionism[edit] Main article: Christian Reconstructionism Christian Reconstructionism is a fundamentalist[130] Calvinist theonomic movement that has remained rather obscure.[131] Founded by R. J. Rushdoony, the movement has had an important influence on the Christian Right in the United States.[132][133] The movement declined in the 1990s and was declared dead in a 2008 Church History journal article.[134] However, it lives on in small denominations such as the Reformed Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in the United States and as a minority position in other denominations. Christian Reconstructionists are usually postmillennialists and followers of the presuppositional apologetics of Cornelius Van Til. They tend to support a decentralized political order resulting in laissez-faire capitalism.[135][citation not found] New Calvinism[edit] Main article: New Calvinism The New Calvinism is a growing perspective within conservative Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
that embraces the fundamentals of 16th century Calvinism
Calvinism
while also trying to be relevant in the present day world.[136] In March 2009, Time magazine described the New Calvinism as one of the "10 ideas changing the world".[137] Some of the major figures in this area are John Piper, Mark Driscoll, Al Mohler,[137] Mark Dever,[138] C. J. Mahaney, Joshua Harris,[136] and Tim Keller.[139] New Calvinists have been criticized for blending Calvinist soteriology with popular Evangelical positions on the sacraments and continuationism.[140] Social and economic influences[edit] Calvin expressed himself on usury in a 1545 letter to a friend, Claude de Sachin, in which he criticized the use of certain passages of scripture invoked by people opposed to the charging of interest. He reinterpreted some of these passages, and suggested that others of them had been rendered irrelevant by changed conditions. He also dismissed the argument (based upon the writings of Aristotle) that it is wrong to charge interest for money because money itself is barren. He said that the walls and the roof of a house are barren, too, but it is permissible to charge someone for allowing him to use them. In the same way, money can be made fruitful.[141] He qualified his view, however, by saying that money should be lent to people in dire need without hope of interest, while a modest interest rate of 5% should be permitted in relation to other borrowers.[142] Politics and society[edit]

Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania

Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn
Koudekerk aan den Rijn
(Netherlands), 19th century

Calvin's concept of God
God
and man contained strong elements of freedom that were gradually put into practice after his death, in particular in the fields of politics and society. After the successful fight for independence from Spain (1579), the Netherlands, under Calvinist leadership, became the freest country in Europe. It granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, e.g. French Huguenots, English Independents (Congregationalists), and Jews
Jews
from Spain and Portugal. The ancestors of philosopher Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
were Portuguese Jews. Aware of the trial against Galileo, René Descartes
René Descartes
lived in the Netherlands, out of reach of the Inquisition.[143] Pierre Bayle, a Reformed Frenchman, also felt safer in the Netherlands
Netherlands
than in his home country. He was the first prominent philosopher who demanded tolerance for atheists. Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
was able to publish a rather liberal interpretation of the Bible
Bible
and his ideas about natural law.[144][145] Moreover, the Calvinist Dutch authorities allowed the printing of books that could not be published elsewhere, e.g. Galileo's Discorsi.[146]

The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs
Guernsey Martyrs
during the Marian persecutions
Marian persecutions
in 1556

Even more important than the liberal development of the Netherlands was the rise of modern democracy in England and North America. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
state and church had been closely connected. Martin Luther's doctrine of the two kingdoms separated state and church in principle.[147] His doctrine of the priesthood of all believers raised the laity to the same level as the clergy.[148] Going one step further, Calvin included elected laymen (church elders, presbyters) in his concept of church government. The Huguenots
Huguenots
added synods whose members were also elected by the congregations. The other Reformed churches took over this system of church self-government which was essentially a representative democracy.[149] Baptists, Quakers, and Methodists
Methodists
are organized in a similar way. These denominations and the Anglican Church
Anglican Church
were influenced by Calvin's theology in varying degrees.[150] Another precondition for the rise of democracy in the Anglo-American world was the fact that Calvin favored a mixture of democracy and aristocracy as the best form of government (mixed government). He appreciated the advantages of democracy.[151] The aim of his political thought was to safeguard the rights and freedoms of ordinary men and women. In order to minimize the misuse of political power he suggested dividing it among several institutions in a system of checks and balances (separation of powers). Finally, Calvin taught that if worldly rulers rise up against God
God
they should be put down. In this way, he and his followers stood in the vanguard of resistance to political absolutism and furthered the cause of democracy.[152] The Congregationalists
Congregationalists
who founded Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
(1620) and Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
(1628) were convinced that the democratic form of government was the will of God.[153][154] Enjoying self-rule they practiced separation of powers.[155][156] Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, founded by Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker, and William Penn, respectively, combined democratic government with freedom of religion. These colonies became safe havens for persecuted religious minorities, including Jews.[157][158][159]

The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

In England, Baptists
Baptists
Thomas Helwys
Thomas Helwys
and John Smyth influenced the liberal political thought of Presbyterian
Presbyterian
poet and politician John Milton and philosopher John Locke, who in turn had both a strong impact on the political development in their home country (English Civil War, Glorious Revolution) as well as in North America.[160][161] The ideological basis of the American Revolution
American Revolution
was largely provided by the radical Whigs, who had been inspired by Milton, Locke, James Harrington, Algernon Sidney, and other thinkers. The Whigs' "perceptions of politics attracted widespread support in America because they revived the traditional concerns of a Protestantism
Protestantism
that had always verged on Puritanism."[162] The United States Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
and (American) Bill of Rights initiated a tradition of human and civil rights that was continued in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen and the constitutions of numerous countries around the world, e. g. Latin America, Japan, India, Germany, and other European countries. It is also echoed in the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[163] In the nineteenth century, the churches that were based on Calvin's theology or influenced by it were deeply involved in social reforms, e.g. the abolition of slavery (William Wilberforce, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham
Abraham
Lincoln, and others), women suffrage, and prison reforms.[164][165] Members of these churches formed co-operatives to help the impoverished masses.[166] Henry Dunant, a Reformed pietist, founded the Red Cross
Red Cross
and initiated the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions.[167][168] Some sources would view Calvinist influence as not always being solely positive. The Boers and Afrikaner Calvinists combined ideas from Calvinism
Calvinism
and Kuyperian
Kuyperian
theology to justify apartheid in South Africa.[169] As late as 1974, the majority of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa was convinced that their theological stances (including the story of the Tower of Babel) could justify apartheid.[170] In 1990, the Dutch Reformed Church
Dutch Reformed Church
document Church and Society maintained that although they were changing their stance on apartheid, they believed that within apartheid and under God's sovereign guidance, "...everything was not without significance, but was of service to the Kingdom of God."[171] It should be noted that these views were not universal and were condemned by many Calvinists outside South Africa. It was pressure from both outside and inside the Dutch Reformed Calvinist church which helped reverse apartheid in South Africa. Throughout the world, the Reformed churches operate hospitals, homes for handicapped or elderly people, and educational institutions on all levels. For example, American Congregationalists
Congregationalists
founded Harvard (1636), Yale
Yale
(1701), and about a dozen other colleges.[172] Princeton was a Presbyterian
Presbyterian
foundation. See also[edit]

Calvinism
Calvinism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal

List of Calvinist educational institutions in North America List of Reformed denominations Synod
Synod
of Jerusalem (1672): Eastern Orthodox council rejecting Calvinist beliefs Criticism of Protestantism

Doctrine[edit]

Common grace Reformed confessions of faith

Related[edit]

Boer
Boer
Calvinists: Boere-Afrikaners that hold to Reformed theology. Huguenots: followers of Calvinism
Calvinism
in France, originating in the 16th and 17th century. Pilgrims: Puritan
Puritan
separatists who left Europe for America in search of religious toleration, eventually settling in New England. Presbyterians: Calvinists in Scotland, Ireland and England. Puritans: English separatists. Continental Reformed
Continental Reformed
church: Calvinist churches originating in continental Europe. Waldensians: Italian Protestants, preceded Calvinism
Calvinism
but today identify with Reformed theology

Similar groups in other traditions[edit]

Crypto-Calvinism: German Protestants accused of Calvinist leanings within the Lutheran
Lutheran
church in the late 16th century Jansenism: a radical, Roman Catholic
Catholic
Augustinian group with some doctrinal distinctives similar to those of Calvinism Calvinistic Methodists Molinism

Opposing views[edit]

Lutheranism Arminianism Open theism Free Grace theology Roman Catholicism

References[edit]

^ Schaff, Philip. "Protestantism". New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. IX. pp. 297–299.  ^ Muller, Richard A. (2006). Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant
Protestant
Scholastic Theology
Theology
(1st ed.). Baker Book House. pp. 320–321. ISBN 978-0801020643.  ^ Hägglund, Bengt (2007). Teologins Historia [History of Theology] (in German). Translated by Gene J. Lund (Fourth Revised ed.). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.  ^ Muller 2004, p. 130. ^ " Theology
Theology
and Communion". Wcrc.ch. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ "Member Churches". Wcrc.ch. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2013.  ^ Bernard Cottret (22 May 2003). Calvin, A Biography. A&C Black. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-0-567-53035-6.  ^ "Reformed Churches". Christian Cyclopedia.  ^ Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Vol. Two: The Reformation
Reformation
to the Present Day (New York: HarperCollins, 1985; reprint – Peabody: Prince Press, 2008) 180 ^ Muller 2004, pp. 131–132. ^ Muller 2004, p. 132. ^ Muller 2004, p. 135. ^ Holder 2004, pp. 246–256; McGrath 1990, pp. 198–199 ^ Pettegree 2004, p. 222 ^ "The Reformed Church". Hungarian Reformed Church of Australia. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.  ^ "The Reformation
Reformation
In Germany And Scandinavia". Vlib.iue.it. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Chris Meehan (2010-10-04). "Touched by Devotion in South Korea". Christian Reformed Church. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Goh, Robbie B.H. (2005). Christianity
Christianity
in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 80. ISBN 981-230-297-2.  ^ Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion
Religion
and Public Life (December 19, 2011), Global Christianity
Christianity
(PDF), pp. 21, 70.  ^ a b "Major Branches of Religions".  ^ "WCRC History". World Communion of Reformed Churches. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) and the Reformed Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Council (REC) have merged to form a new body representing more than 80 million Reformed Christians worldwide.  ^ Allen 2010, pp. 18–20. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 22–23. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 24–25. ^ McKim 2001, p. 12. ^ Allen 2010, p. 28. ^ a b Allen 2010, p. 31. ^ Farley & Hodgson 1994, p. 77. ^ McKim 2001, p. 20. ^ DeVries 2003, p. 295. ^ DeVries 2003, p. 309. ^ a b Allen 2010, pp. 34–35. ^ McKim 2001, p. 230 n. 28. ^ Allen 2010, p. 44. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 41–42. ^ Allen 2010, p. 43. ^ Allen 2010, p. 48. ^ Horton 2011a, pp. 420–421. ^ Allen 2010, p. 54. ^ Allen 2010, p. 55. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 57–58. ^ a b Allen 2010, pp. 61–62. ^ Guthrie 2008, pp. 32–33. ^ McKim 2001, p. 29. ^ Horton 2011a, pp. 298–299. ^ McKim 2001, p. 82. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 65–66. ^ Stroup 1993, p. 142. ^ McKim 2001, p. 94. ^ Stroup 1993, p. 156–157. ^ Stroup 1993, p. 164. ^ McKim 2001, p. 93. ^ McKim 2001, p. 222 n. 19. ^ McKim 2001, p. 66. ^ McKim 2001, pp. 71–72. ^ Muller, Richard A. (2012). Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. p. 51.  ^ McKim 2001, p. 73. ^ a b Allen 2010, pp. 77–78. ^ a b McKim 2001, p. 114. ^ Allen 2010, p. 80. ^ McKim 2001, p. 113. ^ Allen 2010, p. 84. ^ Allen 2010, p. 85. ^ Allen 2010, pp. 100–101. ^ McKim 2001, pp. 229–230. ^ Guthrie 2008, pp. 47–49. ^ Horton 2011b, p. 15. ^ Sproul, R C (1997). What is Reformed Theology?. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. pp. 27–28.  ^ Muller, Richard A. (2012). Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. pp. 50–51. 

Stewart, Kenneth J. (2008). "The Points of Calvinism: Retrospect and Prospect" (PDF). Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology. 26 (2): 189. 

^ Document translated in DeJong, Peter Y. (1968). Crisis In The Reformed Churches: Essays in Commemoration of the Synod
Synod
of Dort (1618-1619). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Reformed Fellowship, Inc. pp. 52–58. . ^ William H. Wail (1913). The Five Points of Calvinism
Calvinism
Historically Considered, The New Outlook 104 (1913).  ^ Boettner, Loraine. "The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination" (PDF). Bloomingtonrpchurch.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2013.  ^ Stewart, Kenneth J. (2008). "The Points of Calvinism: Retrospect and Prospect" (PDF). Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology. 26 (2): 189–193.  ^ See Daniel Montgomery and Timothy Paul Jones, PROOF: Finding Freedom Through the Intoxicating Joy of Irresistible Grace. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014. ^ Steele, David; Thomas, Curtis (1963). The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented. p. 25. The adjective 'total' does not mean that each sinner is as totally or completely corrupt in his actions and thoughts as it is possible for him to be. Instead, the word 'total' is used to indicate that the "whole" of man's being has been affected by sin  ^ Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2005). "Original sin". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903.  ^ Muller, Richard A. (2012). "Was Calvin a Calvinist?". Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4412-4254-9.  ^ WCF 1646. ^ "The Five Points of Calvinism, TULIP". Calvinistcorner.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Loraine Boettner. "The Perseverance of the Saints". The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination.  ^ Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W. God
God
So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448. ^ a b c " Calvinism
Calvinism
and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Compared". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2015. Both (Lutherans and Calvinists) agree on the devastating nature of the fall and that man by nature has no power to aid in his conversions...and that election to salvation is by grace. In Lutheranism
Lutheranism
the German term for election is Gnadenwahl, election by grace--there is no other kind.  ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.23.2. ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, II.3.5. ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.3.6. ^ WELS Topical Q&A: WELS vs Assembly of God: "[P]eople by nature are dead in their tranbsgressions (sic) and sin and therefore have no ability to decide of Christ
Christ
(Ephesians 2:1, 5). We do not choose Christ, rather he chose us (John 15:16) We believe that human beings are purely passive in conversion." ^ Augsburg Confessional, Article XVIII, Of Free Will, saying: "(M)an's will has some liberty to choose civil righteousness, and to work things subject to reason. But it has no power, without the Holy
Holy
Ghost, to work the righteousness of God, that is, spiritual righteousness; since the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God
God
(1 Cor. 2:14); but this righteousness is wrought in the heart when the Holy
Holy
Ghost is received through the Word." ^ Henry Cole, trans, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
on the Bondage of the Will (London, T. Bensley, 1823), 66. The controversial term liberum arbitrium was translated "free-will" by Cole. However Ernest Gordon Rupp and Philip Saville Watson, Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation (Westminister, 1969) chose "free choice" as their translation. ^ Keith D. Stanglin and Thomas H. McCall, Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace (Oxford University, 2012), 157-158. ^ The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church, XI. Election. "Predestination" means "God's ordination to salvation". ^ Roger E. Olson, Arminian
Arminian
Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 63. “ Arminians
Arminians
accepts divine election, [but] they believe it is conditional." ^ The Westminster Confession, III:6, says that only the "elect" are "effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved." However in his Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Baker, 2012), 45, Richard A. Muller observes that "a sizeable body of literature has interpreted Calvin as teaching "limited atonement", but "an equally sizeable body . . . [interprets] Calvin as teaching "unlimited atonement". ^ "Justification / Salvation". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2015. Romans 3:23-24, 5:9, 18 are other passages that lead us to say that it is most appropriate and accurate to say that universal justification is a finished fact. God
God
has forgiven the sins of the whole world whether people believe it or not. He has done more than "made forgiveness possible." All this is for the sake of the perfect substitutionary work of Jesus
Jesus
Christ.  ^ "IV. Justification by Grace through Faith". This We Believe. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Retrieved 5 February 2015. We believe that God
God
has justified all sinners, that is, he has declared them righteous for the sake of Christ. This is the central message of Scripture upon which the very existence of the church depends. It is a message relevant to people of all times and places, of all races and social levels, for "the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men" (Romans 5:18). All need forgiveness of sins before God, and Scripture proclaims that all have been justified, for "the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men" (Romans 5:18). We believe that individuals receive this free gift of forgiveness not on the basis of their own works, but only through faith (Ephesians 2:8–9). ... On the other hand, although Jesus
Jesus
died for all, Scripture says that "whoever does not believe will be condemned" (Mark 16:16). Unbelievers forfeit the forgiveness won for them by Christ
Christ
(John 8:24).  ^ Becker, Siegbert W. "Objective Justification" (PDF). Wisconsin Lutheran
Lutheran
Seminary. p. 1. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "Universal Justification". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Christ
Christ
paid for all our sins. God
God
the Father has therefore forgiven them. But to benefit from this verdict we need to hear about it and trust in it. If I deposit money in the bank for you, to benefit from it you need to hear about it and use it. Christ
Christ
has paid for your sins, but to benefit from it you need to hear about it and believe in it. We need to have faith but we should not think of faith as our contribution. It is a gift of God
God
which the Holy Spirit works in us.  ^ Augsburg Confession, Article V, Of Justification. People "cannot be justified before God
God
by their own strength, merits, or works, but are freely justified for Christ's sake, through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and that their sins are forgiven for Christ's sake. ..." ^ " Faith
Faith
is a condition of justification". Keith D. Stanglin and Thomas H. McCall, Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace (Oxford University, 2012), 136. ^ Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation
Reformation
Theology
Theology
to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustine’s "monergistic view". ^ Diehl, Walter A. "The Age of Accountability". Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. Retrieved 10 February 2015. In full accord with Scripture the Lutheran
Lutheran
Confessions teach monergism. "In this manner, too, the Holy
Holy
Scriptures ascribe conversion, faith in Christ, regeneration, renewal and all the belongs to their efficacious beginning and completion, not to the human powers of the natural free will, neither entirely, nor half, nor in any, even the least or most inconsiderable part, but in solidum, that is, entirely, solely, to the divine working and the Holy
Holy
Ghost" (Trigl. 891, F.C., Sol. Decl., II, 25).  ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Monergism ^ " Calvinism
Calvinism
and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Compared". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ Roger E. Olson, Arminian
Arminian
Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 18. " Arminian
Arminian
synergism" refers to "evangelical synergism, which affirms the prevenience of grace." ^ The Westminster Confession
Westminster Confession
of Faith, Ch XVII, "Of the Perseverance of the Saints". ^ "Once saved always saved". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. People can fall from faith. The Bible warns, "If you think you are standing firm, be careful that you don't fall" (! Corinthians 10:12). Some among the Galatians had believed for a while, but had fallen into soul-destroying error. Paul warned them, "You who are trying to be justified by law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace" (Galatians 5:4). In his explanation of the parable of the sower, Jesus
Jesus
says, "Those on the rock are the ones who receive the word with joy when they hear it, but they have no root. They believe for a while, but in time of testing they fall away" (Luke 8:13). According to Jesus
Jesus
a person can believe for a while and then fall away. While they believed they possessed eternal salvation, but when they fell from faith they lost God's gracious gift.  ^ "Perseverence of the Saints (Once Saved Always Saved)". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. We cannot contribute one speck to our salvation, but by our own arrogance or carelessness we can throw it away. Therefore, Scripture urges us repeatedly to fight the good fight of faith (Ephesians 6 and 2 Timothy 4 for example). My sins threaten and weaken my faith, but the Spirit through the gospel in word and sacraments strengthens and preserves my faith. That’s why Lutherans typically speak of God’s preservation of faith and not the perseverance of the saints. The key is not our perseverance but the Spirit’s preservation.  ^ Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation (Crossway, 1997), 437-438. ^ “Many Arminians
Arminians
deny the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints." Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation
Salvation
(Crossway, 1997), 35. ^ McKim 2001, p. 125. ^ a b McKim 2001, p. 126. ^ a b c John Barber (25 June 2006). "Luther and Calvin on Music and Worship". Reformed Perspectives Magazine. 8 (26). Retrieved 2008-05-06.  ^ Brian Schwertley (1998). "Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God". Retrieved 2007-11-16.  ^ Maxwell, William D. (1936). An Outline of Christian Worship: Its Development and Forms. London: Oxford University Press.  ^ John Frame (1996). Worship
Worship
in Spirit and Truth. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Pub. ISBN 0-87552-242-4.  ^ a b WCF 1646, XXVII.I. ^ a b WCF 1646, XXVII.II. ^  1689 Baptist Confession of Faith. Wikisource. Ch. 28 Sec. 2.  ^  1689 Baptist Confession of Faith. Wikisource. Ch. 28 Sec. 4.  ^ WCF 1646, XXIX.VII. ^ Hodge, Charles (1871). "Systematic Theology
Theology
– Volume II – Supralapsarianism". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2007-06-04.  ^ Hodge, Charles (1871). "Systematic Theology
Theology
– Volume II – Infralapsarianism". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2007-06-04.  ^ "Systematic Theology
Theology
– Volume II – Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org. 2005-07-21. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Benjamin B. Warfield, Works vol. V,Calvin and Calvinism, pp. 364–365, and vol. VI, The Westminster Assembly and Its Work, pp. 138–144. ^ Michael Horton in J. Matthew Pinson (ed.), Four Views on Eternal Security, 113. ^ Warfield, B. B., The Plan of Salvation
Salvation
(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973) ^ WCF 1646, VII.III. ^  Westminster Larger Catechism. Wikisource. Question 68.  ^ James Bratt, Dutch Calvinism
Calvinism
in Modern America. Wipf and Stock; original Eerdmans (1984) ^ James E. McGoldrick, Abraham
Abraham
Kuyper: God's Renaissance Man. (Welwyn, UK: Evangelical Press, 2000). ^ Duncan, J. Ligon, III (15 October 1994). Moses' Law for Modern Government. Annual national meeting of the Social Science History Association. Atlanta. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ Ingersoll, Julie (2013). "Religiously Motivated Violence in the Abortion Debate". In Juergensmeyer, Mark; Kitts, Margo; Jerryson, Michael. Oxford Handbook of Religion
Religion
and Violence. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 316–317. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199759996.013.0020.  ^ Clarkson, Frederick (1995). "Christian Reconstructionism". In Berlet, Chip. Eyes Right!: Challenging the Right Wing Backlash. Boston: South End Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780896085237.  ^ Ingersoll, Julie (2009). "Mobilizing Evangelicals: Christian Reconstructionism and the Roots of the Religious Right". In Brint, Steven; Schroedel, Jean Reith. Evangelicals and Democracy
Democracy
in America: Religion
Religion
and politics. 2. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. p. 180. ISBN 9780871540683.  ^ Worthen, Molly (2008). "The Chalcedon Problem: Rousas John Rushdoony and the Origins of Christian Reconstructionism". Church History. 77 (2). doi:10.1017/S0009640708000590.  ^ North & DeMar 1991, p. 81. ^ a b Collin (2006-09-22). "Young, Restless, Reformed". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  ^ a b David van Biema (2009). "10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now: The New Calvinism". Time. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  ^ Burek, Josh (27 March 2010). "Christian faith: Calvinism
Calvinism
is back". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ Chew, David (June 2010). "Tim Keller and the New Calvinist idea of "Gospel eco-systems"". Christian Research Network. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011.  ^ Clark, R. Scott (15 March 2009). " Calvinism
Calvinism
Old and "New"". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015.  ^ The letter is quoted in Le Van Baumer, Franklin, editor (1978). Main Currents of Western Thought: Readings in Western Europe Intellectual History from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Present. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02233-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ See Haas, Guenther H. (1997). The Concept of Equity in Calvin's Ethics. Waterloo, Ont., Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 117ff. ISBN 0-88920-285-0.  ^ Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Descartes, René, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band II, col. 88 ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), p. 396-397 ^ H. Knittermeyer, Bayle, Pierre, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band I, col. 947 ^ Bertolt Brecht, Leben des Galilei, Bild 15 ^ Heinrich Bornkamm, Toleranz, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI, col. 941 ^ B. Lohse, Priestertum, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V, col. 579–580 ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, p. 325 ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, pp. 329–330, 382, 422–424 ^ Jan Weerda, Calvin, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage (1958), Stuttgart (Germany), col. 210 ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion
Religion
in the United States, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., p. 10 ^ M. Schmidt, Pilgerväter, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V, col. 384 ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion
Religion
in the United States, p. 18 ^ " Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
Legal Structure". Histarch.uiuc.edu. 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Weinstein, Allen; Rubel, David (2002). The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower. New York, N.Y.: DK Publishing, Inc. pp. 56–62. ISBN 0-7894-8903-1.  ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion
Religion
in America, pp. 74–76, 99–117 ^ Hans Fantel (1974), William Penn: Apostle of Dissent, William Morrow and Co., New York, N.Y. ^ Edwin S. Gaustad (1999), Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America, Judson Press, Valley Forge ^ G. Müller-Schwefe, Milton, John, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band IV, col. 954–955 ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, p. 398 ^ Middlekauff, Robert (2005). The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789 (Revised and Enlarged ed.). New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. pp. 52, 136. ISBN 978-0-19-531588-2.  ^ Douglas K. Stevenson (1987), American Life and Institutions, Stuttgart (Germany), p. 34 ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion
Religion
in the United States, pp. 353–375 ^ M. Schmidt, Kongregationalismus, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band III, col. 1769–1771 ^ Wilhelm Dietrich, Genossenschaften, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage (1958), col. 411–412 ^ Ulrich Scheuner, Genfer Konventionen, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage, col. 407–408 ^ R. Pfister, Schweiz, in Die Religion
Religion
in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V, col. 1614–1615 ^ Swart, Ignatius (2012). Welfare, Religion
Religion
and Gender in Post-apartheid South Africa: Constructing a South-North Dialogue. AFRICAN SUN MeDIA. p. 326. ISBN 9781920338688. Retrieved 2016-10-18.  ^ Weisse & Anthonissen 2004, pp. 124-126. ^ Weisse & Anthonissen 2004, p. 131. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion
Religion
in the United States, pp. 80, 89, 257

Bibliography[edit]

Allen, R. Michael (2010). Reformed Theology. Doing Theology. New York: T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0567034304.  Bagchi, David V. N.; Steinmetz, David Curtis, eds. (2004), The Cambridge Companion to Reformation
Reformation
Theology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-77662-7  Busch, Eberhard (December 2008). Visser, Douwe, ed. "Reformed Identity" (PDF). Reformed World. 58 (4): 207–218. Retrieved 20 September 2014.  Cottret, Bernard (2000) [1995], Calvin: Biographie [Calvin: A Biography] (in French), Translated by M. Wallace McDonald, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-3159-1 . DeVries, Dawn (2003). "Rethinking the Scripture Principle". In Alston, Wallace M. Jr.; Welker, Michael. Reformed Theology: Identity and Ecumenicity. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 294–310. ISBN 978-0802847768.  – via Questia (subscription required) Farley, Edward; Hodgson, Peter C. (1994). "Scripture and Tradition". In Hodgson, Peter C.; King, Robert H. Christian Theology: An Introduction to Its Traditions and Tasks. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.   – via  Questia (subscription required) Furcha, E. J., ed. (1985), Huldrych Zwingli, 1484–1531: A Legacy of Radical Reform: Papers from the 1984 International Zwingli Symposium McGill University, Montreal: Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University, ISBN 0-7717-0124-1 . Guthrie, Shirlie C., Jr. (2008). Always Being Reformed (Second ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox.  Holder, R. Ward (2004), "Calvin's heritage", in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-01672-8  Gäbler, Ulrich (1986), Huldrych Zwingli: His Life and Work, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, ISBN 0-8006-0761-9  Ganoczy, Alexandre (2004), "Calvin's life", in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-01672-8  Horton, Michael (2011a). The Christian Faith. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-28604-2.  Horton, Michael (2011b), For Calvinism, Zondervan Books, ISBN 978-0-310-32465-2, retrieved 17 January 2013  McGrath, Alister E. (1990), A Life of John Calvin, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-16398-0  McKim, Donald K. (2001). Introducing the Reformed Faith. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox.  Montgomery, Daniel, and Timothy Paul Jones. (2014). PROOF: Finding Freedom through the Intoxicating Joy of Irresistible Grace. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0310513898.  Muller, Richard A. (2004). " John Calvin
John Calvin
and later Calvinism". In Bagchi, David; Steinmetz, David C. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation
Reformation
Theology. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521776622.  ———————— (9 November 1993). Confessing the Reformed Faith: Our Identity in Unity and Diversity. North American Presbyterian
Presbyterian
and Reformed Council. Escondido, CA: Westminster Seminary California.  Parker, T. H. L. (2006), John Calvin: A Biography, Oxford: Lion Hudson plc, ISBN 978-0-7459-5228-4 . Pettegree, Andrew (2004), "The spread of Calvin's thought", in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-01672-8  Stephens, W. P. (1986), The Theology
Theology
of Huldrych Zwingli, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-826677-4 . Stroup, George W. (1996). Reformed Reader. 2. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox.  Stroup, George W. (2003). "Reformed Identity in an Ecumenical
Ecumenical
World". In Alston, Wallace M. Jr.; Welker, Michael. Reformed Theology: Identity and Ecumenicity. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 257–270.  – via  Questia (subscription required) Weisse, Wolfram; Anthonissen, Carel Aaron (2004). Maintaining Apartheid Or Promoting Change?: The Role of the Dutch Reformed Church in a Phase of Increasing Conflict in South Africa. Waxmann Verlag.    Westminster Confession
Westminster Confession
of Faith. Wikisource. 1646. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Reformed systematic theology bibliography

Alston, Wallace M. Jr.; Welker, Michael, eds. (2003). Reformed Theology: Identity and Ecumenicity. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0802847768.  Balserak, Jon (2017). Calvinism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198753711.  Benedict, Philip (2002). Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. New Haven: Yale
Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0300105070.  Bratt, James D. (1984) Dutch Calvinism
Calvinism
in Modern America: A History of a Conservative Subculture excerpt and text search Eire, Carlos (2017). Reformations: The Early Modern World, 1450-1650. New Haven: Yale
Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0300111927.  Hart, D.G. (2013). Calvinism: A History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, excerpt and text search McNeill, John Thomas (1967) [1954]. The History and Character of Calvinism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195007435.  Leith, John H. (1980). An Introduction to the Reformed Tradition: A Way of Being the Christian Community. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. ISBN 978-0804204798.  Muller, Richard A. (2001). The Unaccommodated Calvin: Studies in the Foundation of a Theological
Theological
Tradition. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195151688.  ———————— (2003). After Calvin: Studies in the Development of a Theological
Theological
Tradition. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195157017.  Picken, Stuart D.B. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Calvinism. ISBN 978-0810872240.  Small, Joseph D., ed. (2005). Conversations with the Confessions: Dialogue in the Reformed Tradition. Geneva
Geneva
Press. ISBN 978-0664502485. 

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