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REDDITCH is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire , England, approximately 15 miles (24 km) south of Birmingham
Birmingham
. The district had a population of 84,300 in 2011. In the 19th century it became the international centre for the needle and fishing tackle industry . At one point 90% of the world's needles were manufactured in the town and its neighbourhoods. In the 1960s it became a model for modern new town planning. It is known locally by the nickname The Ditch.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Governance

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Districts of Redditch

* 4 Transport

* 4.1 Railway * 4.2 Buses * 4.3 Road system

* 5 Education * 6 Amenities * 7 In popular culture

* 8 Places of interest

* 8.1 Kingfisher Shopping Centre * 8.2 Arrow Valley Country
Country
Park * 8.3 Royal Enfield motorcycles

* 9 Notable people

* 10 Town
Town
twinning

* 10.1 Friendship links

* 11 Sport * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

HISTORY

Commemorative pavement plaque in Alcester Street

The first recorded mention of Redditch
Redditch
(Red-Ditch, thought to be a reference to the red clay of the nearby River Arrow ) is in 1348, the year of the outbreak of the Black Death . During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it became a centre of needle -making and later prominent industries were fish-hooks, fishing tackle, motorcycles and springs, the last of which was notably undertaken by Herbert Terry and Sons. Redditch
Redditch
was designated a new town on 10 April 1964, and the population increased dramatically from 32,000 to around 77,000. Housing developments such as Church Hill, Matchborough, Winyates, Lodge Park and Woodrow were created to accommodate a large overspill from the industrially expanding Birmingham. Redditch
Redditch
was built as a "flagship" town using new methods and new town planning: all the main roads (mostly new dual carriageways as well as a ring road for the town centre) were banked to reduce noise to the new housing estates, and the whole of Redditch was landscaped.

By the 21st century needle-making and other traditional industries had been replaced by modern light industry and services, with Redditch also functioning as a dormitory town for Birmingham. The automotive retailer Halfords and engineering giant GKN
GKN
both have their headquarters in Redditch. Manufacturer of precious metal contacts Samuel Taylor Ltd has manufacturing plants within the town. Following the redevelopment of the flagship Kingfisher Shopping Centre in 2002 Redditch
Redditch
is undergoing an economic and cultural renaissance.

The town is home to several historical sites. The National Needle Museum and the ruins of Bordesley Abbey are located in the Abbey Ward district, and the remains of a medieval moated settlement called Moons Moat are within the Church Hill estate.

GOVERNANCE

The parliamentary constituency of Redditch
Redditch
is represented by Karen Lumley of the Conservatives , who defeated the Labour incumbent and former Home Secretary
Home Secretary
Jacqui Smith in the 2010 General Election .

Redditch
Redditch
has a Borough Council with councillors elected from the Wards of Redditch.

GEOGRAPHY

Redditch
Redditch
is in Worcestershire , just south of the West Midlands urban area. It is 15 miles (24 km) north of Evesham
Evesham
on the A435 , which skirts it to the east. The main access routes are the A441 via junction 2 of the M42 Motorway , the A435 from junction 3 of the M42 and the A448 via junctions 4 or 5 of the M5 . The Roman Road
Roman Road
known as Icknield Street is prominent, running north to south through the eastern side of the town.

CLIMATE

Redditch
Redditch
has an oceanic climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.

CLIMATE DATA FOR REDDITCH

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7 (45) 8 (46) 11 (52) 13 (55) 16 (61) 19 (66) 22 (72) 22 (72) 18 (64) 14 (57) 10 (50) 7 (45) 14 (57)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 3 (37) 2 (36) 4 (39) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 8 (46) 5 (41) 3 (37) 7 (45)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 37.6 (1.48) 25.4 (1) 24.3 (0.957) 32.4 (1.276) 27.1 (1.067) 35.8 (1.409) 31.0 (1.22) 38.5 (1.516) 39.9 (1.571) 43.8 (1.724) 36.7 (1.445) 33.1 (1.303) 405.6 (15.969)

Source:

DISTRICTS OF REDDITCH

The Borough of Redditch
Redditch
is divided into several districts. To the east of the town are "New Town
Town
Districts" built in the 1970s and 1980s. To the west of the Borough are older "Former Village Districts" that dominate the south and west.

See: Districts of Redditch

Since 2011, Redditch
Redditch
has participated in the Greater Birmingham
Birmingham
"> The former Redditch
Redditch
Bus Station, circa 1996

There is an extensive network of local bus services run by Diamond and other operators (including Stagecoach, Johnsons Excel Bus and a community run bus). Many services run from the bus station in the town centre, a postcard of which was voted Britain's most boring postcard in a competition run by the photographer Martin Parr . The bus station was rebuilt as part of the 2002 shopping centre expansion.

Some areas of Redditch
Redditch
have dedicated bus routes; however, there have been issues with safety on these routes and 3 children have died over the past 15 years.

ROAD SYSTEM

Redditch
Redditch
is occasionally noted for its confusing road system dominated by a system of dual carriageways built when it became a New Town
Town
, including the only cloverleaf interchange in England
England
at the junction of the A441 and the Bromsgrove-bound A448 . The system is designed to allow rapid flow of large volumes of traffic around the various districts and into the town centre, whilst keeping fast moving vehicles separated from residential streets. Due to the self-similar appearance of the road layout, some drivers find it disorientating, although the story of an elderly couple admitted to hospital with severe dehydration after spending more than sixty hours trying to navigate the highway system is an urban legend . Redditch
Redditch
was briefly famous (via The Graham Norton Show ) for a tongue-in-cheek calendar featuring its "picturesque" roundabouts created by a local printing company. The calendar was called, unsurprisingly, 'Roundabouts of Redditch' and it proved so successful that it sparked a national series. This self-similar pattern is found on a smaller scale in many of the modern estates in the town, which follow a Radburn style of planned community.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Worcestershire

Redditch
Redditch
is one of the few areas of the country where the three-tier system of first, middle and high schools still exists. Students attend first school from the age of 4, middle school from the age of 9, and secondary school at the age of 13. Other areas of Worcestershire adopted this system at the same time as Redditch
Redditch
(in the 1970s), but many have reverted to the traditional 5–7 infant, 7–11 junior and 11-16/18 secondary schools.

Redditch
Redditch
currently has four high schools ( RSA Academy Arrow Vale , Saint Augustine\'s Catholic High School , Tudor Grange Academy , Trinity High School ) and six middle schools.

Heart of Worcestershire College (often referred to locally as "HOW College") is a large general further education college: one of its three campuses is in central Redditch; the other two are in Bromsgrove and Worcester.

AMENITIES

St Stephen's Church (Church of England)

Since June 2013 the swimming pool at Abbey Stadium leisure centre has been heated using waste heat diverted from Redditch
Redditch
Crematorium. Redditch Borough Council expects the scheme to reduce the leisure centre's gas bill by more than 40%, equivalent to an annual saving of about £15,000.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Malcolm Bradbury 's novel The History Man , which was dramatised by the BBC
BBC
in 1981, contained a reference to Redditch
Redditch
when Flora Beniform, a sociologist , mentioned to the hero Howard Kirk that she was studying an outbreak of troilism in Redditch. It is also sometimes reported as being mentioned in the John Cooper Clarke song, 'Burnley', however Reddish
Reddish
(a district in Greater Manchester) is the more likely interpretation.

Rik Mayall 's Kevin Turvey — The Man Behind The Green Door was set and filmed in Redditch.

The 2012 film Sightseers is partly set in Redditch.

Redditch
Redditch
is featured in a section heading in An Utterly Impartial History of Britain by John O\'Farrell .

Birmingham
Birmingham
and national TV comedian Jasper Carrott makes Redditch
Redditch
a repeated butt of his jokes, for example over the difficulty of escaping the Redditch
Redditch
ring road.

There is thriving listed theatre in Redditch
Redditch
called the Palace Theatre
Theatre
.

PLACES OF INTEREST

Play media Redditch
Redditch
Landmarks

* Bordesley Abbey : remains of a former Cistercian abbey, later used as a Royal Swannery. * Forge Mill Needle Museum : exhibition of traditional needle making. * Morton Stanley Park : A public park in the village of Callow Hill with views of the Malvern Hills
Malvern Hills
and wider Worcestershire .

KINGFISHER SHOPPING CENTRE

Worcester
Worcester
Square

Kingfisher Shopping Centre was opened in 1976 by the then Prime Minister James Callaghan
James Callaghan
and now forms the town's primary retail centre.

The centre has over 1,100,000 square feet (100,000 m2) of retail space, with stores like Debenhams , Primark , Next plc , Marks and Spencers , Argos , Boots UK , H"> View across Arrow Valley Lake

Redditch
Redditch
has 900 acres (3.6 km2) of public open space in Arrow Valley Country
Country
Park . This incorporates the 30-acre (120,000 m2) Arrow Valley Lake, fed by the River Arrow . The park incorporates a Local Nature Reserve, Proctor's Barn Meadow. The Arrow Valley Countryside centre, opened in 2000 in the Country
Country
Park, has a lakeside café, gift shop and an interactive exhibition. The lake is also used for water sports. There are four waymarked trails for walking and cycling around the lake and through the Country
Country
Park. There is a skate park in the south of the park with walks along the river Arrow through the Country
Country
Park to the Forge Mill Museum in the north. There are interactive events and family activities at the Countryside Centre and a comprehensive children's play area.

ROYAL ENFIELD MOTORCYCLES

Redditch
Redditch
was the home of the Royal Enfield motorcycle. This is where the main factory of the original company was located and the business continued manufacturing until the 1960s, the last model being the Interceptor . The Redditch
Redditch
factory was closed in 1967 and production was moved to the Bradford on Avon factory, which closed in 1970, ending English Enfield manufacturing. In the mid 1950s, the company established a partner, Madras
Madras
Motors , in Madras
Madras
, India, who manufactured the Bullet 350 model. The Indian factory is still very successful, with new Indian models and has taken Royal Enfield into its third century of manufacturing. Some of the original factory buildings in Redditch
Redditch
still remain, most are in a derelict state and can be seen from Hewell Road. Some buildings have been taken over and now make the old part of Enfield Industrial Estate close to the town centre on Hewell Road.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* John Bonham (1948–1980), musician with Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
, was born in Redditch
Redditch
and attended Bridley Moor High School. * Lionel Britton (1887–1971), novelist and writer of science fiction plays was born at Astwood Bank now a suburb of Redditch. * Russell Brookes (born 1945), British rally champion * Nigel Clark from band Dodgy grew up in Redditch
Redditch
and went to The Leys High school, now Tudor Grange Academy Redditch
Redditch
* Stacy Coldicott (born 1974), footballer, West Bromwich Albion and Grimsby Town
Town
F.C. was born in Redditch. * Charles Dance (born 1946), actor, born in Redditch * Jimmy Davis (1982–2003), footballer, Manchester United , Swindon Town
Town
and Watford F.C. . Born in Bromsgrove , his funeral took place at Redditch
Redditch
Crematorium. * Jonathan Dow , actor was born in Redditch. * Ruth England
England
(born 1970), TV presenter, educated in Redditch * Luke Johnson , musician, Lostprophets was born in Redditch. * Antony Johnston , author, was raised in Redditch. * Zoë Lister , actor Hollyoaks trained at the Starlight School of Dance in Winyates, Redditch. * Joe Lolley , footballer, Huddersfield Town
Town
and Kidderminster Harriers was born in Redditch. * Tony Martin (born 1957), singer, Black Sabbath frontman 1987–1991, 1994–1997 * Tom Paddock (1822–1863) was born in Redditch, and known as the " Redditch
Redditch
Needlepointer", champion heavyweight bare-knuckle boxer of England
England
in 1856 * Freddie Starr (born 1943) lives in Mappleborough Green, just outside Redditch. * Harry Styles
Harry Styles
(born 1994) born in Redditch. Raised in Holmes Chapel . Member of boy band One Direction . * Jacqui Smith , former MP for Redditch
Redditch
and first female British Home Secretary
Home Secretary
* Alan Styler , (1925–1970) D'Oyly Carte Opera Company baritone, 1947–1968 was born and raised in Redditch. * John Taylor (born 1960), musician, Duran Duran , went to Abbey High School in Redditch * Raymond Thompson , scriptwriter and TV producer, born in Redditch. Creator of hit New Zealand teen/sci-fi television series The Tribe * Charlie Clemmow
Charlie Clemmow
, soap actress who is best known for her role as Imogen Hollins in the BBC
BBC
soap, Doctors . She grew up in Astwood Bank .

TOWN TWINNING

In 1956 Redditch
Redditch
was twinned with Auxerre
Auxerre
in Burgundy, France. This twinning proved sufficiently popular to form an organisation named The Friends of Auxerre
Auxerre
(FoA). At the beginning of June each year the coupling of these two towns is officially celebrated.

In 1986 Redditch
Redditch
was twinned with Mtwara in Tanzania. Frequent events are organised with assistance from the community of Tanzanian students at Birmingham
Birmingham
University and Selly Oak College .

* Auxerre
Auxerre
, France * Mtwara , Tanzania
Tanzania

FRIENDSHIP LINKS

Redditch
Redditch
also has formal "Friendship" links with:

* St. Elizabeth , Jamaica
Jamaica
, West Indies
West Indies
* Gruchet-le-Valasse , France * Gujar Khan , Pakistan
Pakistan

SPORT

Redditch
Redditch
sport teams include:

* Redditch United F.C. playing Football in the Southern Football League Premier Division * NEW Ravens playing Rugby League in the Midlands Rugby League Premier Division * Redditch
Redditch
RFC playing Rugby Union in the Midlands 4 West (South) * Redditch
Redditch
CC playing Cricket
Cricket
in the Worcestershire County Cricket League * Redditch
Redditch
Arrows American football Team * Longmeadow Redditch
Redditch
Badminton
Badminton
Club playing Badminton
Badminton
with 8 teams in the Worcestershire and Solihull Leagues. * Redditch
Redditch
Roller Sports Club Roller Derby and Recretational Roller Skating Instruction * Bromsgrove and Redditch
Redditch
Athletic Club * Redditch
Redditch
Rockets Skater Hockey Club * Redditch
Redditch
Swimming Club * The Redditch
Redditch
Road and Path Cycling Club * Thaitans Martial Arts Academy

SEE ALSO

* Districts of Redditch

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Ditch youngsters make a big difference to their community". Redditch
Redditch
Advertiser. * ^ "Councillor Bill Hartnett". Redditch
Redditch
Borough Council. Retrieved 7 March 2016. * ^ "Councillor Joe Baker". Redditch
Redditch
Borough Council. Retrieved 7 March 2016. * ^ "Standard Area Measurements (2016) for Administrative Areas in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. * ^ " Population
Population
Estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. * ^ A B Worcestershire Demographic Report – Census 2011 (PDF), Worcestershire County Council , 2013, p. 10, retrieved 6 March 2017 * ^ "First Census 2011 figures published by Office for National Statistics" (PDF). Worcestershire County Council. 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-04. * ^ " Forge Mill Needle Museum and Bordesley Abbey Visitor Centre, Redditch". Forge Mill Needle Museum. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ "No. 43296". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
. 14 April 1964. p. 3202. * ^ "Former home secretary Jacqui Smith loses seat to Tories". BBC News. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010. * ^ "Averages for Redditch". * ^ " Redditch
Redditch
Crematorium begins to heat town pool". BBC
BBC
News. * ^ "Sightseers". Independent Film Office . November 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2014. Tina's mother's house is in Redditch; many Internet sources describe Chris and Tina as "a Redditch
Redditch
couple" * ^ England
England
Divided into Separate Kingdoms: no one wants Redditch, p49 * ^ "Are these the worst ring roads in England?". BBC
BBC
News. * ^ "Major UK Shopping Transaction with Prudential" (PDF). Liberty International. March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2008-02-29. * ^ "Habitats". Redditch Borough Council . 2013-11-22. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ Bonham, Mick. Bonham by Bonham: My Brother John (Solihull: Icarus Publications, 2003). ISBN 0-9545717-0-3 * ^ Clute and Nicholls's Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1993) * ^ "RallyBase". Rallybase. 1945-08-16. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography * ^ Fricker, Martin (2013-04-26). "Freddie Starr: Police are after me because they failed to nail Jimmy Savile – Mirror Online". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ Des Styles (@des styles) (22 December 2013). "Des Styles, \'Funny stuff.. Bromsgrove Advertiser says H might be born there? He was born in Redditch, we were there just in time!We lived in Evesham. X\'". * ^ " Harry Styles
Harry Styles
born in Redditch
Redditch
– confirmed". Redditch Standard. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ See Jacqui Smith MP\'s web site archived on Wayback Machine. Note though Ms Smith's actual place of residence was subject to some controversy in 2009, see her article . * ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. * ^ Archived 27 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ " Redditch
Redditch
Roller Sports Club homepage". * ^ " Bromsgrove and Redditch
Redditch
Athletic Club homepage". * ^ " Redditch
Redditch
Swimming Club". Redditch
Redditch
Swimming Club. Retrieved 2014-02-28. * ^ " Redditch
Redditch
Road & Path Cycling Club – Home". Redditch
Redditch
Road & Path Cycling Club. Retrieved 2014-02-28.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Website of

.