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The RED SEA (also the ERYTHRAEAN SEA) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden
Aden
. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, the Gulf of Aqaba , and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion . The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley .

The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2), is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide. It has a maximum depth of 3,040 m (9,970 ft) in the central _ Suakin Trough_, and an average depth of 490 m (1,608 ft). However, there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals . The sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species, and 200 soft and hard corals. It is the world's northernmost tropical sea.

CONTENTS

* 1 Extent * 2 Names

* 3 History

* 3.1 Ancient era * 3.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern era

* 4 Oceanography

* 4.1 Salinity
Salinity
* 4.2 Tidal range * 4.3 Current * 4.4 Wind regime

* 5 Geology

* 5.1 Mineral resources

* 6 Ecosystem * 7 Desalination
Desalination
plants * 8 Security * 9 Facts and figures * 10 Tourism * 11 Bordering countries * 12 Towns and cities * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

EXTENT

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Red Sea
Red Sea
as follows: _On the North._ The Southern limits of the Gulfs of Suez
Suez
and Aqaba
Aqaba
. _On the South._ A line joining Husn Murad (12°40′N 43°30′E / 12.667°N 43.500°E / 12.667; 43.500 ) and Ras Siyyan (12°29′N 43°20′E / 12.483°N 43.333°E / 12.483; 43.333 ).

NAMES

Tihama on the Red Sea
Red Sea
near Khaukha, Yemen
Yemen

_Red Sea_ is a direct translation of the Greek _Erythra Thalassa_ (Ερυθρὰ Θάλασσα), Latin
Latin
_Mare Rubrum_ (alternatively _Sinus Arabicus_, literally "Arabian Gulf"), Arabic : البحر الأحمر‎, translit. _Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar_‎ (alternatively بحر القلزم _Baḥr Al-Qulzum_, literally "the Sea of Clysma "), Somali _Badda Cas_ and Tigrinya _Qeyyiḥ bāḥrī_ (ቀይሕ ባሕሪ). The name of the sea may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured _ Trichodesmium erythraeum _ near the water's surface. A theory favored by some modern scholars is that the name _red_ is referring to the direction south, just as the Black Sea
Black Sea
's name may refer to north. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions . Herodotus
Herodotus
on one occasion uses Red Sea
Red Sea
and Southern Sea interchangeably.

Historically, it was also known to western geographers as _Mare Mecca_ (Sea of Mecca), and _Sinus Arabicus_ (Gulf of Arabia). Some ancient geographers called the Red Sea
Red Sea
the Arabian Gulf or Gulf of Arabia.

The association of the Red Sea
Red Sea
with the biblical account of the Israelites
Israelites
crossing the Red Sea
Red Sea
is ancient, and was made explicit in the Septuagint translation of the Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus
from Hebrew
Hebrew
to Koine Greek in approximately the third century B.C. In that version, the _ Yam Suph _ ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ים סוף‎, lit. 'Sea of Reeds'‎) is translated as _Erythra Thalassa_ (Red Sea). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is one of four seas named in English after common color terms — the others being the Black Sea
Black Sea
, the White Sea and the Yellow Sea . The direct rendition of the Greek _Erythra thalassa_ in Latin
Latin
as Mare Erythraeum refers to the north-western part of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, and also to a region on Mars
Mars
.

HISTORY

ANCIENT ERA

Ancient Egyptian expedition to the Land of Punt
Land of Punt
on the Red Sea coast during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut

The earliest known exploration of the Red Sea
Red Sea
was conducted by ancient Egyptians , as they attempted to establish commercial routes to Punt . One such expedition took place around 2500 BC, and another around 1500 BC (by Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
). Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea. Historically, scholars argued whether these trips were possible. The biblical Book of Exodus
Book of Exodus
tells the tale of the Israelites
Israelites
' crossing of a body of water , which the Hebrew
Hebrew
text calls _ Yam Suph _ ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: יַם סוּף‎). _Yam Suph_ was traditionally identified as the Red Sea. Rabbi Saadia Gaon
Saadia Gaon
(882‒942 CE), in his Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch, identifies the crossing place of the Red Sea
Red Sea
as _Baḥar al-Qulzum_, meaning the Gulf of Suez
Suez
. (The story is part of the larger biblical lore about an Exodus of Israelites
Israelites
under Moses ). _Yam Suph_ can also been translated as Sea of Reeds . _ Settlements and commercial centers in the vicinity of the Red Sea
Red Sea
involved in the spice trade , as described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _

In the 6th century BC, Darius the Great of Persia sent reconnaissance missions to the Red Sea, improving and extending navigation by locating many hazardous rocks and currents. A canal was built between the Nile
Nile
and the northern end of the Red Sea
Red Sea
at Suez
Suez
. In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
sent Greek naval expeditions down the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the Indian Ocean. Greek navigators continued to explore and compile data on the Red Sea. Agatharchides collected information about the sea in the 2nd century BC. The _ Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _ (" Periplus of the Red Sea"), a Greek periplus written by an unknown author around the 1st century AD, contains a detailed description of the Red Sea's ports and sea routes. The Periplus also describes how Hippalus first discovered the direct route from the Red Sea
Red Sea
to India.

The Red Sea
Red Sea
was favored for Roman trade with India starting with the reign of Augustus
Augustus
, when the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
gained control over the Mediterranean, Egypt
Egypt
, and the northern Red Sea. The route had been used by previous states but grew in the volume of traffic under the Romans. From Indian ports goods from China
China
were introduced to the Roman world. Contact between Rome and China
China
depended on the Red Sea, but the route was broken by the Aksumite Empire around the 3rd century AD.

MIDDLE AGES AND MODERN ERA

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the Red Sea
Red Sea
was an important part of the spice trade route. In 1513, trying to secure that channel to Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
laid siege to Aden
Aden
but was forced to retreat. They cruised the Red Sea
Red Sea
inside the Bab al-Mandab , as the first European fleet to have sailed these waters.

In 1798, France
France
ordered General Napoleon to invade Egypt
Egypt
and take control of the Red Sea. Although he failed in his mission, the engineer Jean-Baptiste Lepère , who took part in it, revitalised the plan for a canal which had been envisaged during the reign of the Pharaohs . Several canals were built in ancient times from the Nile
Nile
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
along or near the line of the present Sweet Water Canal , but none lasted for long. The Suez Canal
Suez Canal
was opened in November 1869. At the time, the British, French, and Italians shared the trading posts. The posts were gradually dismantled following the First World War . After the Second World War
Second World War
, the Americans and Soviets exerted their influence whilst the volume of oil tanker traffic intensified. However, the Six Day War
Six Day War
culminated in the closure of the Suez
Suez
Canal from 1967 to 1975. Today, in spite of patrols by the major maritime fleets in the waters of the Red Sea, the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
has never recovered its supremacy over the Cape route, which is believed to be less vulnerable.

OCEANOGRAPHY

Annotated view of the Nile
Nile
and Red Sea, with a dust storm

The Red Sea
Red Sea
is between arid land, desert and semi-desert . Reef systems are better developed along the Red Sea
Red Sea
mainly because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern. The Red Sea water mass-exchanges its water with the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
, Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
via the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
. These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation in the north and relatively hot water in the south.

The climate of the Red Sea
Red Sea
is the result of two monsoon seasons; a northeasterly monsoon and a southwesterly monsoon. Monsoon winds occur because of differential heating between the land and the sea. Very high surface temperatures and high salinities make this one of the warmest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world. The average surface water temperature of the Red Sea
Red Sea
during the summer is about 26 °C (79 °F ) in the north and 30 °C (86 °F) in the south, with only about 2 °C (3.6 °F) variation during the winter months. The overall average water temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). Temperature and visibility remain good to around 200 m (656 ft). The sea is known for its strong winds and unpredictable local currents.

The rainfall over the Red Sea
Red Sea
and its coasts is extremely low, averaging 0.06 m (2.36 in) per year. The rain is mostly short showers, often with thunderstorms and occasionally with dust storms . The scarcity of rainfall and no major source of fresh water to the Red Sea result in excess evaporation as high as 205 cm (81 in) per year and high salinity with minimal seasonal variation. A recent underwater expedition to the Red Sea
Red Sea
offshore from Sudan
Sudan
and Eritrea
Eritrea
found surface water temperatures 28 °C in winter and up to 34 °C in the summer, but despite that extreme heat the coral was healthy with much fish life with very little sign of coral bleaching , with only 9% infected by _Thalassomonas loyana _, the 'white plague' agent. _Favia favus_ coral there harbours a virus, BA3, which kills T. loyana. Plans are afoot to use samples of these corals' apparently heat-adapted commensal algae to salvage bleached coral elsewhere.

SALINITY

The Red Sea
Red Sea
is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world, owing to high evaporation. Salinity
Salinity
ranges from between ~36 ‰ in the southern part because of the effect of the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
water and reaches 41 ‰ in the northern part, owing mainly to the Gulf of Suez water and the high evaporation. The average salinity is 40 ‰. (Average salinity for the world's seawater is ~35 ‰ on the Practical Salinity
Salinity
Scale, or PPS; that translates to 3.5% actual dissolved salts.)

The salinity of the Red Sea
Red Sea
is greater than the world average, approximately 4 percent. This is due to several factors:

* High rate of evaporation and very little precipitation. * Lack of significant rivers or streams draining into the sea. * Limited connection with the Indian Ocean, which has lower water salinity.

TIDAL RANGE

In general tide ranges between 0.6 m (2.0 ft) in the north, near the mouth of the Gulf of Suez and 0.9 m (3.0 ft) in the south near the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
but it fluctuates between 0.20 m (0.66 ft) and 0.30 m (0.98 ft) away from the nodal point. The central Red Sea
Red Sea
( Jeddah
Jeddah
area) is therefore almost tideless, and as such the annual water level changes are more significant. Because of the small tidal range the water during high tide inundates the coastal sabkhas as a thin sheet of water up to a few hundred metres rather than flooding the sabkhas through a network of channels. However, south of Jeddah
Jeddah
in the Shoiaba area the water from the lagoon may cover the adjoining sabkhas as far as 3 km (2 mi), whereas, north of Jeddah
Jeddah
in the Al-Kharrar area the sabkhas are covered by a thin sheet of water as far as 2 km (1.2 mi). The prevailing north and northeast winds influence the movement of water in the coastal inlets to the adjacent sabkhas, especially during storms. Winter mean sea level is 0.5 m (1.6 ft) higher than in summer. Tidal velocities passing through constrictions caused by reefs, sand bars and low islands commonly exceed 1–2 m/s (3–6.5 ft/s). Coral reefs in the Red Sea
Red Sea
are near Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan.

CURRENT

In the Red Sea
Red Sea
detailed current data is lacking, partially because they are weak and variable both spatially and temporally. Temporal and spatial currents variation is as low as 0.5 m (1.6 ft) and are governed all by wind. During the summer, NW winds drive surface water south for about four months at a velocity of 15–20 cm/s (6–8 in/s), whereas in winter the flow is reversed resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
into the Red Sea. The net value of the latter predominates, resulting in an overall drift to the north end of the Red Sea. Generally, the velocity of the tidal current is between 50–60 cm/s (20–23.6 in/s) with a maximum of 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) at the mouth of the al-Kharrar Lagoon. However, the range of the north-northeast current along the Saudi coast is 8–29 cm/s (3–11.4 in/s).

WIND REGIME

The north part of the Red Sea
Red Sea
is dominated by persistent north-west winds , with speeds ranging between 7 km/h (4.3 mph) and 12 km/h (7.5 mph). The rest of the Red Sea
Red Sea
and the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
are subjected to regular and seasonally reversible winds. The wind regime is characterized by seasonal and regional variations in speed and direction with average speed generally increasing northward.

Wind is the driving force in the Red Sea
Red Sea
to transport material as suspension or as bedload. Wind-induced currents play an important role in the Red Sea
Red Sea
in resuspending bottom sediments and transferring materials from sites of dumping to sites of burial in quiescent environment of deposition. Wind-generated current measurement is therefore important in order to determine the sediment dispersal pattern and its role in the erosion and accretion of the coastal rock exposure and the submerged coral beds.

GEOLOGY

Dust storm
Dust storm
over the Red Sea
Red Sea

The Red Sea
Red Sea
was formed by the Arabian peninsula being split from the Horn of Africa
Africa
by movement of the Red Sea Rift . This split started in the Eocene
Eocene
and accelerated during the Oligocene
Oligocene
. The sea is still widening, and it is considered that it will become an ocean in time (as proposed in the model of John Tuzo Wilson ). In 1949, a deep water survey reported anomalously hot brines in the central portion of the Red Sea. Later work in the 1960s confirmed the presence of hot, 60 °C (140 °F), saline brines and associated metalliferous muds. The hot solutions were emanating from an active subseafloor rift . The high salinity of the waters was not hospitable to living organisms.

Sometime during the Tertiary
Tertiary
period, the Bab el Mandeb closed and the Red Sea
Red Sea
evaporated to an empty hot dry salt-floored sink. Effects causing this would have been:

* A "race" between the Red Sea
Red Sea
widening and Perim Island erupting filling the Bab el Mandeb with lava . * The lowering of world sea level during the Ice Ages because of much water being locked up in the ice caps .

A number of volcanic islands rise from the center of the sea. Most are dormant. However, in 2007, Jabal al-Tair island in the Bab el Mandeb strait erupted violently. Two new islands were formed in 2011 and 2013 in the Zubair Archipelago , a small chain of islands owned by Yemen. The first island, Sholan Island, emerged in an eruption in December 2011, the second island, Jadid, emerged in September 2013.

MINERAL RESOURCES

Red Sea
Red Sea
coast in Taba , Egypt
Egypt

In terms of mineral resources the major constituents of the Red Sea sediments are as follows:

* Biogenic constituents:

Nanofossils, foraminifera , pteropods , siliceous fossils

* Volcanogenic constituents:

Tuffites , volcanic ash , montmorillonite , cristobalite , zeolites

* Terrigenous constituents:

Quartz
Quartz
, feldspars , rock fragments, mica , heavy minerals, clay minerals

* Authigenic minerals:

Sulfide minerals , aragonite , Mg-calcite , protodolomite, dolomite , quartz, chalcedony .

* Evaporite minerals:

Magnesite , gypsum , anhydrite , halite , polyhalite

* Brine precipitate:

Fe-montmorillonite, goethite , hematite , siderite , rhodochrosite , pyrite , sphalerite , anhydrite.

ECOSYSTEM

See also: Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
§ Wildlife Ain Sukhna beach, Suez
Suez
- Mollusca collection

The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a rich and diverse ecosystem . More than 1200 species of fish have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10% of these are found nowhere else. This also includes 42 species of deepwater fish . Red Sea
Red Sea
coral and marine fish

The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline ; these fringing reefs are 5000–7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab
Dahab
). These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea
Red Sea
fish, including some of the 44 species of shark .

The Red Sea
Red Sea
also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls. Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic (i.e., Darwinian) coral reef classification schemes, and are generally attributed to the high levels of tectonic activity that characterize the area.

The special biodiversity of the area is recognized by the Egyptian government, who set up the Ras Mohammed National Park in 1983. The rules and regulations governing this area protect local marine life, which has become a major draw for diving enthusiasts.

Divers and snorkellers should be aware that although most Red Sea species are innocuous, a few are hazardous to humans: see Red Sea species hazardous to humans .

Other marine habitats include sea grass beds, salt pans , mangroves and salt marshes .

DESALINATION PLANTS

There is extensive demand for desalinated water to meet the needs of the population and the industries along the Red Sea.

There are at least 18 desalination plants along the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
which discharge warm brine and treatment chemicals (chlorine and anti-scalants ) that bleach and kill corals and cause diseases to the fish. This is only localized, but it may intensify with time and profoundly impact the fishing industry.

The water from the Red Sea
Red Sea
is also used by oil refineries and cement factories for cooling. Used water drained back into the coastal zones may harm the nearshore environment of the Red Sea.

SECURITY

The Red Sea
Red Sea
is part of the sea roads between Europe
Europe
, the Persian Gulf and East Asia
Asia
, and as such has heavy shipping traffic . Government-related bodies with responsibility to police the Red Sea area include the Port Said Port Authority , Suez Canal
Suez Canal
Authority and Red Sea Ports Authority of Egypt
Egypt
, Jordan Maritime Authority , Israel Port Authority , Saudi Ports Authority and Sea Ports Corporation of Sudan
Sudan
.

FACTS AND FIGURES

* Length: ~2,250 km (1,398.1 mi) - 79% of the eastern Red Sea
Red Sea
with numerous coastal inlets * Maximum Width: ~ 306–355 km (190–220 mi)– Massawa (Eritrea) * Minimum Width: ~ 26–29 km (16–18 mi)- Bab el Mandeb Strait (Yemen) * Average Width: ~ 280 km (174.0 mi) * Average Depth: ~ 490 m (1,607.6 ft) * Maximum Depth: ~2,211 m (7,253.9 ft) * Surface Area: 438-450 x 102 km2 (16,900–17,400 sq mi) * Volume: 215–251 x 103 km3 (51,600–60,200 cu mi)

* Approximately 40% of the Red Sea
Red Sea
is quite shallow (under 100 m/330 ft), and about 25% is under 50 m (164 ft) deep. * About 15% of the Red Sea
Red Sea
is over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) depth that forms the deep axial trough. * Shelf breaks are marked by coral reefs * Continental slope has an irregular profile (series of steps down to ~500 m or 1,640 ft) * Centre of Red Sea
Red Sea
has a narrow trough (_ Suakin Trough_) (~ 1,000 m or 3,281 ft; with maximum depth 3,040 m or 9,974 ft)

TOURISM

_ Hotels in Eilat
Eilat
, Israel
Israel

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The sea is known for its spectacular recreational diving sites, such as Ras Mohammed , SS Thistlegorm (shipwreck), Elphinstone Reef , The Brothers , Daedalus Reef , St.John\'s Reef , Rocky Island in Egypt
Egypt
and less known sites in Sudan
Sudan
such as Sanganeb , Abington , Angarosh and Shaab Rumi .

The Red Sea
Red Sea
became a sought-after diving destination after the expeditions of Hans Hass
Hans Hass
in the 1950s, and later by Jacques-Yves Cousteau . Popular tourist resorts include El Gouna , Hurghada , Safaga , Marsa Alam , on the west shore of the Red Sea, and Sharm-el-Sheikh , Dahab
Dahab
, and Taba on the Egyptian side of Sinaï , as well as Aqaba
Aqaba
in Jordan
Jordan
and Eilat
Eilat
in Israel
Israel
in an area known as the Red Sea Riviera .

The popular tourist beach of Sharm el-Sheikh was closed to all swimming in December 2010 due to several serious shark attacks , including a fatality. As of December 2010, scientists are investigating the attacks and have identified, but not verified, several possible causes including over-fishing which causes large sharks to hunt closer to shore, tourist boat operators who chum offshore for shark-photo opportunities, and reports of ships throwing dead livestock overboard. The sea's narrowness, significant depth, and sharp drop-offs, all combine to form a geography where large deep-water sharks can roam in hundreds of meters of water, yet be within a hundred meters of swimming areas.

BORDERING COUNTRIES

The Red Sea
Red Sea
may be geographically divided into three sections: the Red Sea
Red Sea
proper, and in the north, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez. The six countries bordering the Red Sea
Red Sea
proper are:

* Eastern shore:

* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Yemen
Yemen

* Western shore:

* Egypt
Egypt
* Sudan
Sudan
* Eritrea
Eritrea
* Djibouti
Djibouti

The Gulf of Suez is entirely bordered by Egypt. The Gulf of Aqaba borders Egypt, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
and Saudi Arabia.

In addition to the standard geographical definition of the six countries bordering the Red Sea
Red Sea
cited above, areas such as Somalia
Somalia
are sometimes also described as Red Sea
Red Sea
territories. This is primarily due to their proximity to and geological similarities with the nations facing the Red Sea
Red Sea
and/or political ties with said areas.

TOWNS AND CITIES

Towns and cities on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast (including the coasts of the Gulfs of Aqaba
Aqaba
and Suez) include:

* Al Hudaydah (الحديدة) * Al Lith (الليِّث) * Al Qunfudhah (القنفذة) * Al-Qusair (القصير) * Al Wajh (الوجه) * Aqaba
Aqaba
(العقبة) * Asseb (ዓሳብ) * Dahab
Dahab
(دهب) * Duba (ضباء) * Eilat
Eilat
(אילת ، ايلات) * El Gouna (الجونة)

* El Suweis (السويس) * / Hala\'ib (حلايب) (disputed) * Haql
Haql
(حقل) * Hirgigo (ሕርጊጎ) * Hurghada (الغردقة) * Jeddah
Jeddah
(جدة) * Jazan (جازان) * Marsa Alam (مرسى علم) * Massawa (ምጽዋ) * Moulhoule (مول هولة )

* Nuweiba
Nuweiba
(نويبع) * Port Safaga (ميناء سفاجا) * Port Sudan
Sudan
(بورت سودان) * Rabigh (رابغ) * Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) * Soma Bay (سوما باي) * Suakin (سواكن) * Taba (طابا) * Thuwal (ثول) * Yanbu (ينبع)

SEE ALSO

* Benjamin Kahn * MS _al-Salam Boccaccio 98_ ferry disaster * Red Sea Dam * Robert Moresby

REFERENCES

* ^ "The Red Sea". Retrieved 6 January 2009. * ^ "Red Sea" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2009. * ^ Robert Dinwiddie: Ocean_ The World's Last Wilderness Revealed. Dorling Kindersley, London 2008, p. 452 * ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. * ^ "Red Sea". _Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition_. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ Smithsonianjourneys.org * ^ Schmitt 1996 * ^ "Arabia". World Digital Library. Retrieved 11 August 2013. * ^ Michael D. Oblath (2004). _ The Exodus itinerary sites: their locations from the perspective of the biblical sources_. Peter Lang. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8204-6716-0 . * ^ Herodotus, _ed._ George Rawlinson (2009), _The histories_, p.105 * ^ Andrew E. Hill, John H. Walton (2000), _A survey of the Old Testament_, p.32 * ^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). _Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration_. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 24. ISBN 0-393-06259-7 . * ^ Louis, Jaucourt de chevalier (1765). _Red Sea_. pp. 367–368. * ^ _Tafsir_, Saadia Gaon, s.v. Exodus 15:22, _et al_. * ^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). _Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration_. W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-393-06259-7 . * ^ East, W. Gordon (1965). _The Geography behind History_. W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-393-00419-8 . * ^ By M. D. D. Newitt, "A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400-1668", p.87, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-415-23979-6 * ^ Egyptian Dust Plume, Red Sea * ^ BBC 2 television program "_Oceans 3/8 The Red Sea_", 8 pm - 9 pm Wednesday 26 November 2008 * ^ \'Virus protects coral from \'white plague\',\' at New Scientist , 7 July 2012.p.17. * ^ Degens, Egon T. (ed.), 1969, _Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea,_ 600 pp, Springer-Verlag * ^ MSNBC (accessed 29 December 2011) * ^ Israel, Brett (December 28, 2011). "New Island Rises in the Red Sea". _LiveScience.com_. Retrieved 2015-07-31. * ^ Oskin, Becky; SPACE.com (May 30, 2015). " Red Sea
Red Sea
Parts for 2 New Islands". _Scientific American_. Retrieved 2015-07-31. * ^ _A_ _B_ Froese, Ranier; Pauly, Daniel (2009). "FishBase". Retrieved 2009-03-12. * ^ Siliotti, A. (2002). Verona, Geodia, ed. _Fishes of the red sea_. ISBN 88-87177-42-2 . * ^ Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. (2004) _ Coral
Coral
reef guide; Red Sea_ London, HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-715986-2 * ^ Mabrook, B. "Environmental Impact of Waste Brine Disposal of Desalination
Desalination
Plants, Red Sea, Egypt", Desalination, 1994, Vol.97, pp.453-465. * ^ Scuba Diving in Egypt
Egypt
- The Red Sea: Holidays in Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, The Brothers, Daedalus Reef and St. John\'s - Liveaboard and Day Trips * ^ Barth, Hans-Jörg (2002). _ Sabkha ecosystems, Volume 2_. Spr