The Hong River Delta or Red River Delta ( vi|Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or ''Châu Thổ Sông Hồng'') is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River
and its distributaries merging with the Thai Binh River in northern Vietnam
. ''Hồng'' in Sino-Vietnamese, means "red" or "crimson". The delta has the smallest area but highest population and population density of all regions. The region, measuring some is well protected by a network of dikes
. It is an agriculturally rich and densely populated area. Most of the land is devoted to rice cultivation.
together with two municipalities, the capital Hanoi
, and the port Haiphong
form the delta. It has a population of almost 23 million in 2019.
The Hong River Delta is the cradle of the Vietnamese nation. Water puppetry
originated in the rice paddies here.
The region was bombed by United States warplanes
during the Vietnam War
The region was designated as the Red River Delta Biosphere Reserve
as part of UNESCO
's Man and the Biosphere Programme
* Quảng Ninh Province
is sometimes included as a province of the Red River Delta. Alternatively, it is seen as part of the Northeast region
* Hà Tây Province
was merged into Hanoi
Spanning some 150 km in width, the Red River Delta is located in the western coastal zone of the Gulf of Tonkin
. The Red River is the second largest river in Vietnam and one of the five largest rivers on the East Asia coast. Its catchment covers parts of China and Vietnam and its water and sediment discharges greatly influence the hydrology in the Gulf of Tonkin.
In 2003, of the 78 million people in Vietnam, almost a third (24 million) live in the Red River basin, including over 17 million people in the delta itself. There are many large industrial zones in the Red River delta clustering in Viet Tri
, Hanoi, Haiphong and Nam Dinh
. Most of the population works in rice cultivation but the delta region hosts other important economic activities such as fisheries
, land reclamation
for agriculture, harbor construction, mangrove forestry
, etc. The socio-economic development in the delta is also affected by seasonal storms
, coastal erosion
, salt water intrusion
Though the Red River Delta makes up only 5% of Vietnam's land, 30% of the country's population live there, making it the most densely populated part of the country. 80% of the population are employed in agriculture, but the agricultural lands of the delta amount to only about .3-.5 hectare
s per household, making the limited supply of arable lands a significant constraint to improving living standards.
Agriculturally the Red River Delta is the second most important rice-producing
area in Vietnam, accounting for 20% of the national crop. Production of rice is close to optimal with very little yield gap
to exploit and employing double cropping
techniques to achieve close to maximum yields. However the rich soil of the delta does present a possibility of crop diversification and there is potential for further development of aquaculture. With these developmental pressures the estuarine environment and ecosystem face degradation due to threats of pollution, over-fishing and aquaculture destroying natural habitats.
See: Tran Duc Thanh, 2003. Researches in estuarine environment and ecosystem of red river: An overview on activities and results. Marine Resources and Environment. T.X: 34-53. Publishing House Science and Technology. Hanoi.
*Red River Delta coalfield
Notes and references
Category:Gulf of Tonkin
Category:Regions of Vietnam
Category:Biosphere reserves of Vietnam
Category:Landforms of Vietnam
Category:River deltas of Asia
Category:Landforms of Bắc Ninh Province
Category:Landforms of Hà Nam Province
Category:Landforms of Hải Dương Province
Category:Landforms of Hưng Yên Province
Category:Landforms of Nam Định Province
Category:Landforms of Ninh Bình Province
Category:Landforms of Thái Bình Province
Category:Landforms of Vĩnh Phúc Province
Category:Landforms of Hanoi
Category:Landforms of Haiphong