The INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers , members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organisations. The movement's parts are:
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private
humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland, by
* 1 History of the movement
* 1.1 The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
* 1.1.1 Solferino,
* 1.2 The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
* 1.2.1 History * 1.2.2 Presidents of the IFRC
* 2 Activities
* 2.1 Organization of the Movement * 2.2 Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement * 2.3 Activities and organization of the International Conference and the Standing Commission
* 2.4 Activities and organization of the ICRC
* 2.4.1 The mission of the ICRC and its responsibilities within the Movement * 2.4.2 Legal status and organization * 2.4.3 Funding and financial matters
* 2.5 Activities and organization of the International Federation
* 2.5.1 The Mission of the IFRC and its responsibilities within the Movement * 2.5.2 Legal status and organization * 2.5.3 Funding and financial matters
* 2.6 National societies within the movement
* 2.6.1 Official recognition of a national society * 2.6.2 Activities of national societies on a national and international stage
* 3 History of the emblems
* 3.1 Emblems in use
* 3.1.1 The Red Cross * 3.1.2 The Red Crescent * 3.1.3 The Red Crystal
* 3.2 Recognized emblems in disuse
* 3.2.1 The Red Lion and Sun
* 3.3 Unrecognized emblems
* 3.3.1 The Red
Star of David
* 4 1996 hostage crisis allegations * 5 See also * 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 7.1 Books * 7.2 Journal articles
* 8 External links
HISTORY OF THE MOVEMENT
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THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
Until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and/or
well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and
protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded
on the battlefield. A devout
Reformed Christian , the Swiss
Back in his home in Geneva, he decided to write a book entitled A Memory of Solferino which he published using his own money in 1862. He sent copies of the book to leading political and military figures throughout Europe, and people he thought could help him make a change. In addition to penning a vivid description of his experiences in Solferino in 1859, he explicitly advocated the formation of national voluntary relief organizations to help nurse wounded soldiers in the case of war, an idea that was inspired by Christian teaching regarding social responsibility, as well as his experience seeing the battlefield of Solferino. In addition, he called for the development of international treaties to guarantee the protection of neutral medics and field hospitals for soldiers wounded on the battlefield.
In 1863, Gustave Moynier, a
Among the proposals written in the final resolutions of the conference, adopted on October 29, 1863, were:
* The foundation of national relief societies for wounded soldiers; * Neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers; * The utilization of volunteer forces for relief assistance on the battlefield; * The organization of additional conferences to enact these concepts in legally binding international treaties; * The introduction of a common distinctive protection symbol for medical personnel in the field, namely a white armlet bearing a red cross.
Memorial commemorating the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict during the Battle of Dybbøl (Denmark) in 1864; jointly erected in 1989 by the national Red Cross societies of Denmark and Germany. A Red Cross nurse. (Theodor Grust , late 19th / early 20th century)
Only one year later, the Swiss government invited the governments of
all European countries, as well as the United States, Brazil, and
Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries
sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On August 22, 1864,
the conference adopted the first
Grand Duchy of Baden
* Kingdom of
The convention contained ten articles, establishing for the first time legally binding rules guaranteeing neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers, field medical personnel, and specific humanitarian institutions in an armed conflict. Furthermore, the convention defined two specific requirements for recognition of a national relief society by the International Committee:
* The national society must be recognized by its own national
government as a relief society according to the convention,
* The national government of the respective country must be a state
party to the
Directly following the establishment of the
Also in 1867,
In the following years, national societies were founded in nearly
every country in Europe. The project resonated well with patriotic
sentiments that were on the rise in the late-nineteenth-century, and
national societies were often encouraged as signifiers of national
moral superiority. In 1876, the committee adopted the name
"International Committee of the Red Cross" (ICRC), which is still its
official designation today. Five years later, the American Red Cross
was founded through the efforts of
When the first
Nobel Peace Prize
In 1906, the 1864
The ICRC During World War I
French postcard celebrating the role of Red Cross nurses during
the First World War, 1915
With the outbreak of
World War I
During the entire war, the ICRC monitored warring parties’
compliance with the
Between 1916 and 1918, the ICRC published a number of postcards with
scenes from the
A year before the end of the war, the ICRC received the 1917 Nobel
Peace Prize for its outstanding wartime work. It was the only Nobel
Peace Prize awarded in the period from 1914 to 1918. In 1923, the
International Committee of the Red Cross adopted a change in its
policy regarding the selection of new members. Until then, only
citizens from the city of
As early as in 1934, a draft proposal for an additional convention
for the protection of the civil population during an armed conflict
was adopted by the International Red Cross Conference. Unfortunately,
most governments had little interest in implementing this convention,
and it was thus prevented from entering into force before the
World War II
The ICRC And World War II
The legal basis of the work of the ICRC during
World War II
During the war, the ICRC was unable to obtain an agreement with Nazi
It is known that Swiss army officer Maurice Rossel during World War
II had been sent to Berlin as a delegate of the International Red
Cross, as such he visited Auschwitz 1943 and Theresienstadt 1944.
Claude Lanzmann recorded his experiences in 1979, producing a
documentary entitled Visitor from the living.
On March 12, 1945, ICRC president Jacob Burckhardt received a message from SS General Ernst Kaltenbrunner accepting the ICRC's demand to allow delegates to visit the concentration camps. This agreement was bound by the condition that these delegates would have to stay in the camps until the end of the war. Ten delegates, among them Louis Haefliger (Camp Mauthausen ), Paul Dunant (Camp Theresienstadt ) and Victor Maurer (Camp Dachau ), accepted the assignment and visited the camps. Louis Haefliger prevented the forceful eviction or blasting of Mauthausen-Gusen by alerting American troops, thereby saving the lives of about 60,000 inmates. His actions were condemned by the ICRC because they were deemed as acting unduly on his own authority and risking the ICRC's neutrality. Only in 1990, his reputation was finally rehabilitated by ICRC president Cornelio Sommaruga .
Another example of great humanitarian spirit was Friedrich Born
(1903–1963), an ICRC delegate in
In 1944, the ICRC received its second Nobel Peace Prize. As in World War I, it received the only Peace Prize awarded during the main period of war, 1939 to 1945. At the end of the war, the ICRC worked with national Red Cross societies to organize relief assistance to those countries most severely affected. In 1948, the Committee published a report reviewing its war-era activities from September 1, 1939 to June 30, 1947. Since January 1996, the ICRC archive for this period has been open to academic and public research.
The ICRC After World War II
The ICRC Headquarters in
On August 12, 1949, further revisions to the existing two Geneva
Conventions were adopted. An additional convention "for the
Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members
of Armed Forces at Sea", now called the second
In celebration of its centennial in 1963, the ICRC, together with the League of Red Cross Societies , received its third Nobel Peace Prize. Since 1993, non-Swiss individuals have been allowed to serve as Committee delegates abroad, a task which was previously restricted to Swiss citizens. Indeed, since then, the share of staff without Swiss citizenship has increased to about 35%.
On October 16, 1990, the
UN General Assembly
At the end of the
* Frédéric Maurice. He died on May 19, 1992 at the age of 39, one
day after a Red Cross transport he was escorting was attacked in the
Bosnian city of
ICRC is active in the
THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
In 1919, representatives from the national Red Cross societies of
Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the US came together in Paris to
found the "League of Red Cross Societies". The original idea was Henry
Davison 's, then president of the
American Red Cross
The formation of the League, as an additional international Red Cross
organization alongside the ICRC, was not without controversy for a
number of reasons. The ICRC had, to some extent, valid concerns about
a possible rivalry between both organizations. The foundation of the
League was seen as an attempt to undermine the leadership position of
the ICRC within the movement and to gradually transfer most of its
tasks and competencies to a multilateral institution. In addition to
that, all founding members of the League were national societies from
countries of the Entente or from associated partners of the Entente.
The original statutes of the League from May 1919 contained further
regulations which gave the five founding societies a privileged status
and, due to the efforts of Henry P. Davison, the right to permanently
exclude the national Red Cross societies from the countries of the
Central Powers , namely Germany, Austria, Hungary,
The first relief assistance mission organized by the League was an
aid mission for the victims of a famine and subsequent typhus epidemic
in Poland. Only five years after its foundation, the League had
already issued 47 donation appeals for missions in 34 countries, an
impressive indication of the need for this type of Red Cross work. The
total sum raised by these appeals reached 685 million Swiss francs,
which were used to bring emergency supplies to the victims of famines
in Russia, Germany, and Albania; earthquakes in Chile, Persia , Japan,
Colombia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, and Turkey; and refugee flows in Greece
and Turkey. The first large-scale disaster mission of the League came
after the 1923 earthquake in
A joint mission of the ICRC and the League in the Russian Civil War
from 1917 to 1922 marked the first time the movement was involved in
an internal conflict, although still without an explicit mandate from
During the Abyssinian war between
In 1952, the 1928 common statute of the movement was revised for the first time. Also, the period of decolonization from 1960 to 1970 was marked by a huge jump in the number of recognized national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. By the end of the 1960s, there were more than 100 societies around the world. On December 10, 1963, the Federation and the ICRC received the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1983, the League was renamed to the "League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies" to reflect the growing number of national societies operating under the Red Crescent symbol. Three years later, the seven basic principles of the movement as adopted in 1965 were incorporated into its statutes. The name of the League was changed again in 1991 to its current official designation the "International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies". In 1997, the ICRC and the IFRC signed the Seville Agreement which further defined the responsibilities of both organizations within the movement. In 2004, the IFRC began its largest mission to date after the tsunami disaster in South Asia . More than 40 national societies have worked with more than 22,000 volunteers to bring relief to the countless victims left without food and shelter and endangered by the risk of epidemics.
Presidents Of The IFRC
As of November 2009, the president of the IFRC is Tadateru Konoe
Japanese Red Cross
Former presidents (until 1977 titled "Chairman") have been:
ORGANIZATION OF THE MOVEMENT
Entry to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum in Geneva.
Altogether, there are about 97 million people worldwide who serve with the ICRC, the International Federation, and the National Societies, the majority with the latter.
The 1965 International Conference in
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT
At the 20th International Conference in Neue Hofburg,
That makes it even more important to note that the text that appears under each "heading" is an integral part of the Principle in question and not an interpretation that can vary with time and place.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples.
It makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress.
In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.
The Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement.
It is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain.
There can be only one Red Cross or one Red Crescent Society in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other, is worldwide.
ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND THE STANDING COMMISSION
Main article: Standing Commission of the Red Cross and Red Crescent
The International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which occurs once every four years, is the highest institutional body of the Movement. It gathers delegations from all of the national societies as well as from the ICRC, the IFRC and the signatory states to the Geneva Conventions. In between the conferences, the Standing Commission of the Red Cross and Red Crescent acts as the supreme body and supervises implementation of and compliance with the resolutions of the conference. In addition, the Standing Commission coordinates the cooperation between the ICRC and the IFRC. It consists of two representatives from the ICRC (including its president), two from the IFRC (including its president), and five individuals who are elected by the International Conference. The Standing Commission convenes every six months on average. Moreover, a convention of the Council of Delegates of the Movement takes place every two years in the course of the conferences of the General Assembly of the International Federation. The Council of Delegates plans and coordinates joint activities for the Movement.
ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE ICRC
The Mission Of The ICRC And Its Responsibilities Within The Movement
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la croix-rouge).
The official mission of the ICRC as an impartial, neutral, and
independent organization is to stand for the protection of the life
and dignity of victims of international and internal armed conflicts.
According to the 1997 Seville Agreement, it is the "Lead Agency" of
the Movement in conflicts. The core tasks of the Committee, which are
derived from the
* to monitor compliance of warring parties with the Geneva Conventions * to organize nursing and care for those who are wounded on the battlefield * to supervise the treatment of prisoners of war * to help with the search for missing persons in an armed conflict (tracing service ) * to organize protection and care for civil populations * to arbitrate between warring parties in an armed conflict
Legal Status And Organization
The ICRC is headquartered in the Swiss city of
According to Swiss law, the ICRC is defined as a private association.
Contrary to popular belief, the ICRC is not a non-governmental
organization in the most common sense of the term, nor is it an
international organization. As it limits its members (a process called
cooptation) to Swiss nationals only, it does not have a policy of open
and unrestricted membership for individuals like other legally defined
NGOs. The word "international" in its name does not refer to its
membership but to the worldwide scope of its activities as defined by
According to its statutes it consists of 15 to 25 Swiss-citizen members, which it coopts for a period of four years. There is no limit to the number of terms an individual member can have although a three-quarters majority of all members is required for re-election after the third term.
The leading organs of the ICRC are the Directorate and the Assembly. The Directorate is the executive body of the Committee. It consists of a general director and five directors in the areas of "Operations", "Human Resources", "Resources and Operational Support", "Communication", and "International Law and Cooperation within the Movement". The members of the Directorate are appointed by the Assembly to serve for four years. The Assembly, consisting of all of the members of the Committee, convenes on a regular basis and is responsible for defining aims, guidelines, and strategies and for supervising the financial matters of the Committee. The president of the Assembly is also the president of the Committee as a whole. Furthermore, the Assembly elects a five-member Assembly Council which has the authority to decide on behalf of the full Assembly in some matters. The Council is also responsible for organizing the Assembly meetings and for facilitating communication between the Assembly and the Directorate.
Due to Geneva's location in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the ICRC usually acts under its French name Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR). The official symbol of the ICRC is the Red Cross on white background with the words "COMITE INTERNATIONAL GENEVE" circling the cross.
Funding And Financial Matters
The 2009 budget of the ICRC amounts more than 1 billion Swiss francs.
Most of that money comes from the States, including
The ICRC is asking donors for more than 1.1 billion Swiss francs to
fund its work in 2010.
ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION
The Mission Of The IFRC And Its Responsibilities Within The Movement
Emblem of the IFRC
The IFRC coordinates cooperation between national Red Cross and Red
Crescent societies throughout the world and supports the foundation of
new national societies in countries where no official society exists.
On the international stage, the IFRC organizes and leads relief
assistance missions after emergencies such as natural disasters,
manmade disasters, epidemics, mass refugee flights, and other
emergencies. As per the 1997 Seville Agreement, the IFRC is the Lead
Agency of the Movement in any emergency situation which does not take
place as part of an armed conflict. The IFRC cooperates with the
national societies of those countries affected – each called the
Operating National Society (ONS) – as well as the national societies
of other countries willing to offer assistance – called
Participating National Societies (PNS). Among the 187 national
societies admitted to the General Assembly of the International
Federation as full members or observers, about 25–30 regularly work
as PNS in other countries. The most active of those are the American
Red Cross , the
British Red Cross , the
German Red Cross , and the Red
Cross societies of
The tasks of the IFRC can therefore be summarized as follows:
* to promote humanitarian principles and values * to provide relief assistance in emergency situations of large magnitude, such as natural disasters * to support the national societies with disaster preparedness through the education of voluntary members and the provision of equipment and relief supplies * to support local health care projects * to support the national societies with youth-related activities
Legal Status And Organization
The IFRC has its headquarters in Geneva. It also runs five zone offices (Africa, Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East-North Africa), 14 permanent regional offices and has about 350 delegates in more than 60 delegations around the world. The legal basis for the work of the IFRC is its constitution. The executive body of the IFRC is a secretariat, led by a secretary general. The secretariat is supported by five divisions including "Programme Services", "Humanitarian values and humanitarian diplomacy", "National Society and Knowledge Development" and "Governance and Management Services".
The highest decision making body of the IFRC is its General Assembly, which convenes every two years with delegates from all of the national societies. Among other tasks, the General Assembly elects the secretary general. Between the convening of General Assemblies, the Governing Board is the leading body of the IFRC. It has the authority to make decisions for the IFRC in a number of areas. The Governing Board consists of the president and the vice presidents of the IFRC, the chairpersons of the Finance and Youth Commissions, and twenty elected representatives from national societies.
The symbol of the IFRC is the combination of the Red Cross (left) and Red Crescent (right) on a white background surrounded by a red rectangular frame.
Funding And Financial Matters
The main parts of the budget of the IFRC are funded by contributions from the national societies which are members of the IFRC and through revenues from its investments. The exact amount of contributions from each member society is established by the Finance Commission and approved by the General Assembly. Any additional funding, especially for unforeseen expenses for relief assistance missions, is raised by "appeals" published by the IFRC and comes for voluntary donations by national societies, governments, other organizations, corporations, and individuals.
NATIONAL SOCIETIES WITHIN THE MOVEMENT
Official Recognition Of A National Society
An ambulance owned by the Mexican Red Cross
National Red Cross and Red Crescent societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Within their home country, they take on the duties and responsibilities of a national relief society as defined by International Humanitarian Law . Within the Movement, the ICRC is responsible for legally recognizing a relief society as an official national Red Cross or Red Crescent society. The exact rules for recognition are defined in the statutes of the Movement. Article 4 of these statutes contains the "Conditions for recognition of National Societies." In order to be recognized in terms of Article 5, paragraph 2 b) as a National Society, the Society shall meet the following conditions:
* Be constituted on the territory of an independent State where the
Once a National Society has been recognized by the ICRC as a component of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (the Movement), it is in principle admitted to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in accordance with the terms defined in the Constitution and Rules of Procedure of the International Federation.
There are today 190 National Societies recognized within the Movement and which are members of the International Federation.
The most recent National Societies to have been recognized within the
Movement are the Maldives Red Crescent Society (9 November 2011), the
Cyprus Red Cross Society and the South
Activities Of National Societies On A National And International Stage
Despite formal independence regarding its organizational structure and work, each national society is still bound by the laws of its home country. In many countries, national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies enjoy exceptional privileges due to agreements with their governments or specific "Red Cross Laws" granting full independence as required by the International Movement. The duties and responsibilities of a national society as defined by International Humanitarian Law and the statutes of the Movement include humanitarian aid in armed conflicts and emergency crises such as natural disasters through activities such as Restoring Family Links .
Depending on their respective human, technical, financial, and organizational resources, many national societies take on additional humanitarian tasks within their home countries such as blood donation services or acting as civilian Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers. The ICRC and the International Federation cooperate with the national societies in their international missions, especially with human, material, and financial resources and organizing on-site logistics.
HISTORY OF THE EMBLEMS
For more details on this topic, see Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement .
EMBLEMS IN USE
The Red Cross
The flag of
The RED CROSS emblem was officially approved in
The Red Cross flag is not to be confused with the Saint George\'s Cross which is on the flag of England , Barcelona , Georgia , Freiburg im Breisgau , and several other places. In order to avoid this confusion the protected symbol is sometimes referred to as the "Greek Red Cross" (now Hellenic Red Cross ); that term is also used in United States law to describe the Red Cross. The red cross of the Saint George cross extends to the edge of the flag, whereas the red cross on the Red Cross flag does not.
The Red Cross flag is the colour-switched version of the Flag of
The Red Crescent
Flag of the
The RED CRESCENT emblem was first used by ICRC volunteers during the
armed conflict between the
The Red Crystal
On December 8, 2005, in response to growing pressure to accommodate
Magen David Adom
RECOGNIZED EMBLEMS IN DISUSE
The Red Lion And Sun
The RED LION AND SUN SOCIETY OF IRAN was established in 1922 and
admitted to the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement in 1923. However,
some report the symbol was introduced at
Due to the emblem's association with the Iranian monarchy, the
Islamic Republic of
The Red Star Of David (Magen David Adom)
For over 50 years,
The Red Cross and Red Crescent movement repeatedly rejected Israel's
request over the years, stating that the Red Cross and Red Crescent
emblems were not meant to represent Christianity and Islam but was
colour reversals of the Swiss and the Ottoman flags, and also that if
Certain Arab nations, such as Syria, also protested against the entry
of MDA into the Red Cross movement, making consensus impossible for a
time. However, from 2000 to 2006 the
American Red Cross
Star of David
1996 HOSTAGE CRISIS ALLEGATIONS
The Australian TV network ABC and the indigenous rights group Friends
of Peoples Close to Nature released a documentary called Blood on the
Cross in 1999. It alleged the involvement of the Red Cross with the
British and Indonesian military in a massacre in the Southern
Highlands of West Papua during the
World Wildlife Fund
Following the broadcast of the documentary, the Red Cross announced publicly that it would appoint an individual outside the organization to investigate the allegations made in the film and any responsibility on its part. Piotr Obuchowicz was appointed to investigate the matter. The report categorically states that the Red Cross personnel accused of involvement were proven not to have been present; that a white helicopter was probably used in a military operation, but the helicopter was not a Red Cross helicopter, and must have been painted by one of several military organizations operating in the region at the time. Perhaps the Red Cross logo itself was also used, although no hard evidence was found for this; that this was part of the military operation to free the hostages, but was clearly intended to achieve surprise by deceiving the local people into thinking that a Red Cross helicopter was landing; and that the Red Cross should have responded more quickly and thoroughly to investigate the allegations than it did.
Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
First Aid Convention Europe
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
* International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
* List of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
World Red Cross and Red Crescent Day
Red Swastika Society
* ^ "IFRC annual report 2015" (PDF). * ^ "Take a Class". Red Cross. Retrieved 2016-08-18. * ^ A B "Nobel Laureates Facts — Organizations". Nobel Foundation . Retrieved 2009-10-13. * ^ A B Young, John; Hoyland, Greg (14 July 2016). Christianity: A Complete Introduction. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 354. ISBN 9781473615779 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Sending, Ole Jacob; Pouliot, Vincent; Neumann, Iver B. (20 August 2015). Diplomacy and the Making of World Politics. Cambridge University Press. p. 181. ISBN 9781316368787 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Stefon, Matt (2011). Christianity: History, Belief, and Practice. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 221. ISBN 9781615304936 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC. Retrieved 2017-06-11. * ^ Dromi, Shai M. (2016). "For good and country: nationalism and the diffusion of humanitarianism in the late nineteenth century". The Sociological Review. 64 (2): 79–97. doi :10.1002/2059-7932.12003 . * ^ "The Story of My Childhood". World Digital Library . 1907. Retrieved 2013-10-09. * ^ "VIVANT QUI PASSE. AUSCHWITZ 1943 - THERESIENSTADT 1944. R: Lanzmann ". Cine-holocaust.de. Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2009-04-14. * ^ "Swiss ICRC delegate murdered". www.irinnews.org. IRIN. 28 March 2003. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Ricardo Munguia, a Swiss citizen of Salvadorian origin was travelling with Afghan colleagues on an assignment to improve the water supply to the district. He was shot in cold blood on Thursday by a group of unidentified assailants who stopped the vehicles transporting them ... the assailants had shot the 39-year-old water and habitat engineer in the head and burned one car, warning two Afghans accompanying him not to work for foreigners ... Asked what action ICRC was taking, Bouvier explained that 'for the time being, the ICRC has decided to temporarily freeze all field trips in Afghanistan, calling all staff to the main delegation’s offices.'
* ^ "Afghanistan: first ICRC visit to detainees in Taliban
custody". Icrc.org. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
* ^ "Red Cross in
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* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-04.
* ^ "Protocol additional to the
* Bennett, Angela. The
* Bugnion, François. The emblem of the Red Cross: a brief history. ICRC (ref. 0316), Geneva, 1977. * Bugnion, François. Towards a comprehensive Solution to the Question of the Emblem. Revised 4th edition. ICRC (ref. 0778), Geneva, 2006. * Forsythe, David P. "The International Committee of the Red Cross and International Humanitarian Law." In: Humanitäres Völkerrecht – Informationsschriften. The Journal of International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict. 2/2003, German Red Cross and Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict, p. 64–77. ISSN 0937-5414 * Lavoyer, Jean-Philippe; Maresca, Louis. The Role of the ICRC in the Development of International Humanitarian Law. In: International Negotiation. 4(3)/1999. Brill Academic Publishers, p. 503–527. ISSN 1382-340X * Walters, William C. (2004). An assessment of the capacity of the Red Cross National Societies to address the psychological and social needs of survivors of disasters and complex emergencies in Central and South America] (M.S.W. thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University. * Wylie, Neville. The Sound of Silence: The History of the International Committee of the Red Cross as Past and Present. In: Diplomacy and Statecraft. 13(4)/2002. Routledge/ Taylor ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
* International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) * International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
Sources www.icrc.org www.ifrc.org/address/rclinks.asp
* Disasters portal * International relations portal * War portal
Coordinates : 46°13′40″N 6°8′14″E / 46.22778°N 6.13722°E / 46.22778; 6.13722
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 167237176
* LCCN : n2001131185
* ISNI : 0000 0001 1941 4682
* GND : 138093-X
* SUDOC : 028180585
* BNF : cb118683491 (data)