A rector ("ruler", from Latin: regerre and rector meaning "ruler") is
a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an
official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the
English-speaking world the rector is often the most senior official in
a university, whilst in the
United States the most senior official is
often referred to as President and in the
United Kingdom and
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor,
whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office
of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used
widely in universities in Europe.[Notes 1] and is very common in Latin
American countries.[Notes 2] It is also used in Brunei, Turkey,
Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia,
Israel and the Middle
East. In the ancient universities of
Scotland the office is sometimes
referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, and is
usually responsible for chairing the
1.1 Austrian Empire
1.3 Czech Republic
1.14.1 Ancient universities
1.14.2 High schools
1.18 Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey
2 North America
2.2 United States
4 New Zealand
7 South America
8 Compound titles
9 See also
12 External links
The head of a university in
Germany is called a president, rector
magnificus (men) or rectrix magnifica (women), as in some Belgian
universities (notably the oldest, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). In
Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly
prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda
of the university. In the Netherlands, the rector is, however, not the
chair of the university board. The chair has, in practice, the most
influence over the management of the University.
In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in
secondary schools is also designated as rector. In the Netherlands,
the terms "rector" and "conrector" (assistant head) are used commonly
for high school directors. This is also the case in some Maltese
In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium
(higher secondary schools) is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway,
this term is also used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland,
the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector
(rehtori) provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of
faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster
(koulunjohtaja), while the head of larger universities is chancellor
In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or
presidents have the title . Those universities whose foundation has
been historically approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the
University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred
to as Magnífico Reitor (Rector's name) ("Rector Magnificus (Rector's
Name)"). The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor.
In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico
according to the law (Ley Orgánica 4/2007), but the Rector of the
University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is
usually styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y
Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don (Rector's name), Rector
Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca ("The Most Excellent and
Most Illustrious Lord
Professor Doctor Don (Rector's name), Rector
Magnificus of the
University of Salamanca").
In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag
(regional legislature of semi-feudal type) was reserved for the rector
of the capital's university, notably: Graz in
Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien (Vienna) in
Austria); in Bohemia, two Rectors seated in the equivalent
Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of
one Rector (elected by the Universitätsrat) and 3-5 additional
Vizerectors. The Rector is the CEO of the
university.[better source needed]
The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor. The rector acts
in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs
unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University
Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators,
while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all
senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret. The term of
office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two
The rector appoints vice-rectors (pro-rektor), who act as deputies to
the extent the Rector determines. Rectors' salaries are determined
directly by the Minister of Education.
Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer
Jan Hus, physician
Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment
Josef Vratislav Monse. The first female rector became in 1950 Jiřina
University of Olomouc).
The rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Mister Rector" ("Vaše
Magnificence pane rektore").
In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of
universities, gymnasiums, schools of commerce and construction, etc.
Generally rektor may be used for the head of any educational
institution above the primary school level, where the head is commonly
referred to as a 'skoleinspektør' (Headmaster; Inspector of the
school). In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is
known as prorektor.
Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors";
University of Oxford and
University of Cambridge, most
colleges are headed by a "master" or a "principal" as the chief
academic. In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a
"president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln
College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and
Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but
this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each
university is the "vice-chancellor".
At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges"
University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head (the
Dean of Durham Cathedral ex officio) while the academic head is the
University of London has a chancellor (a ceremonial post) and a
vice-chancellor (equivalent to a managing director). All colleges have
a chief academic as head, using a variety of titles. At University
College London, the head is the "provost"; at King's College London
the head is the "principal"; at
Imperial College London
Imperial College London the head is
the "rector"; and the
London School of Economics
London School of Economics is headed by a
At most other universities in England, the chancellor is the
ceremonial head whilst the vice-chancellor is the chief academic. The
vice-chancellor of Liverpool Hope University, also takes the role of
Prior to their conversion to universities, polytechnics often had the
rector as the head of the establishment; following their transition to
universities, the rector became the vice-chancellor.
The head of a German university is either called “Rektor” (rector)
or "Präsident" (president). The difference is usually that a "Rektor"
is elected by the Senate from among the professors of the university
(which is the traditional method of choosing the head of a German
university), while a "Präsident" need neither be a professor nor a
member of the university (or of any university) prior to appointment.
The "Rektor" is traditionally addressed as "Magnifizenz".
The rektor is term used for the headmaster or headmistress of
Icelandic universities and of some gymnasia.
Italy the rector is the head of the university and Rappresentante
Legale (Legal representative) of the university. He or she is elected
by an electoral body composed of all Professori ordinari ed associati
(full and associate professors), the two highest ranks of the Italian
university faculty, all the Ricercatori (lowest rank of departments)
and representatives of the staff, students and PhD students.
The term of a rettore is now six years, in accordance with the new
national regulation and the statuto (constitution of the university).
The Rettore is styled and formally greeted as Magnifico Rettore
In the Netherlands, the rector is the principal of a high school. The
rector is supported by conrectors (deputy rectors who can take his
In Dutch universities, the Rector Magnificus is responsible for the
scientific vision and quality of the university. The rector magnificus
is one of the members of the executive board of a university. The
rector magnificus is a full professor. The ceremonial responsibilities
of the rector magnificus are to open the academic year, and to preside
over the ceremonial PhD defenses and inaugural lectures of newly
appointed (full) professors. During PhD defenses the rector is usually
replaced by another full professor who is acting rector during the
A rector (Norwegian: rektor), in the context of academia, is the
democratically elected head of a university or university college. The
rector is the highest official of the university, and is traditionally
elected among the institution's professorship, originally by all the
(full) professors and in modern times by all academic employees, the
students and the non-academic employees. The rector is traditionally
the head of the Collegium Academicum, which has been renamed the
university board in the 2000s, and is also the university's chief
executive and ceremonial head. The elected deputy of the rector is
known as pro-rector (Norwegian: prorektor). Some institutions also
have vice rectors, who are appointed by the rector and subordinate to
the rector and pro-rector. All established universities have
democratic elections for the rector and pro-rector positions, but some
newer colleges or former colleges have abolished such elections.
Universities and colleges usually have a university director or
college director, who is the head of the administration (i.e., the
non-academic employees) and subordinate to the rectorate.
In Poland, the rector (Polish: rektor) is the elected head of a
university or university college. The rector is the highest official
of the university. Rector of the university can be a person with at
least a doctoral degree, employed by the university as the main place
of work. Rector is referred to as His/Her Magnificence (abbreviation:
JM). The outfit of rector is red or purple coat (robe) with ermine
fur, often with a scepter and a decorative string of symbols of the
university. Deputy rectors (Polish: prorektor) at official ceremonies
are dressed in the same gown, but with fewer decorations (usually
without the fur). Rectors of military universities - wear only uniform
of an officer and a necklace with symbols of the university.
The term of office of the rector of public universities since 2008
lasts for 4 years (previously 3 years) and begins on 1 September in an
election year and ends on 31 August of the year in which the term
ends. A person may not be elected to serve as rector for more than two
consecutive terms. In the case of private universities the rule is
regulated by university statute.
In Portugal, the rector (Portuguese: Reitor) is the highest official
of each university. The title of the rector of the universities whose
foundation has been historically approved by the Pope, as the
University of Coimbra, the Univ. of Évora or, in modern times, the
Catholic University, is called Magnífico Reitor (Magnificus Rector,
as the rector was called in the Latin documents). Each university
faculty is headed by a director or a president of the directorate
council, and the rector heads all of them.
Until 1974, the director of each Lyceum (high school) also had the
title of Rector.
In Russia, the rector (Russian:Ректор) as a term for a
university chancellor introduced in 1961. Before 1961 university
chancellor had title "director" (Russian:Директор).
Main article: Ancient university governance in Scotland
In Scotland, the position of rector exists in the four ancient
universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh) and at
Dundee, which is considered to have "ancient" status as a result of
its early connections to the
University of St Andrews.
The current office of Rector, sometimes termed Lord Rector, was
instituted by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1858, passed by the
Parliament of the United Kingdom. With the Universities (Scotland)
Act 1889 requiring an election for the Rector every 3 years in the
ancient universities. The rector is the third-ranking official of
university governance and chairs meetings of the university court, the
governing body of the university, and is elected every three years by
matriculated students at Aberdeen, Dundee, Glasgow and St Andrews, and
by the students and staff at Edinburgh.
The titular head of an ancient university in
Scotland is the
Chancellor, who appoints a Vice-
Chancellor to deputise in the awarding
of degrees. The Principal of each university is, by convention,
appointed as Vice-Chancellor, however the position of Vice-Chancellor
does not confer any other powers or responsibility on the Principal.
The authority to serve as chief executive of each university is vested
in the office of Principal, who holds both offices referred to as
Principal and Vice-Chancellor.
The role of the rector is considered by many students[by whom?] to be
integral to their ability to shape the universities' agenda, and one
of the main functions of the rector is to represent the interests of
the student body. To some extent the office of rector has evolved into
more of a figurehead role, with a significant number of celebrities
and personalities elected as rectors, such as
Stephen Fry and Lorraine
Kelly at Dundee,
Clarissa Dickson Wright
Clarissa Dickson Wright at Aberdeen, and John Cleese
Frank Muir at St. Andrews, and political figures, such as
Mordechai Vanunu at Glasgow. In many cases, particularly with
high-profile rectors, attendance at the university court in person is
rare; the Rector nominates an individual (normally a
member of the student body) with the title of Rector's Assessor, who
sits as a voting member of the
Rt. Hon. Gordon Brown, the former Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom, was Rector of the
University of Edinburgh while a student
there, but since then most universities have amended their procedures
to disqualify currently matriculated students from standing for
As of January 2018[update] the rector of the
University of Aberdeen is
Maggie Chapman, co-convenor of the Scottish Green Party. The rector of
University of Dundee is the long-distance cyclist Mark
Beaumont. The rector of Edinburgh is Ann Henderson. The rector
University of Glasgow is Aamer Anwar. The rector of the
University of St Andrews is Srđa Popović the political activist.
Some Scottish high school/secondary school have a head teacher whose
official title is Rector, an example being
Bell Baxter High School in
In Spain, Rector or Rector Magnífico (magnific rector, from Latin
Rector Magnificus) is the highest administrative and educational
office in a university, equivalent to that of president or chancellor
of an English-speaking university, but holding all the powers of a
vice-chancellor; they are thus the head of the academi in
universities. Formally styled as "Excelentísimo e Ilustrísimo Señor
Profesor Doctor Don N, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de X" (Most
Excellent and Illustrious Lord
Professor Doctor Don N, Rector
Magnificus of the
University of X), it is an office of high dignity
within Spanish society, usually being highly respected. It is not
strange to see them appear in the media, especially when some
academic-related subject is being discussed and their opinion is
Spanish rectors are chosen from within the body of university full
professors (Catedráticos in Spanish); it is compulsory for anyone
aspiring to become a rector to have been a doctor for at least six
years before his election, and to have achieved professor status,
holding it in the same university for which he is running. Usually,
when running for the election the rector will need to have chosen the
vice-rectors (vicerrectores in Spanish) who will occupy several
sub-offices in the university. Rectors are elected directly by free
and secret universal suffrage of all the members of the university,
including students, lecturers, readers, researchers, and civil
servants. However, the weight of the vote in each academic sector is
different: the total student vote usually represents 20% of the whole,
no matter how many students there are; the votes of the entire group
made up of professors and readers (members of what used to be known as
the Claustro (cloister)) usually count for about 40-50% of the total;
lecturers, researchers (including Ph.D. students and others) and
non-doctoral teachers, about 20% of the total; and the remainder
(usually some 5-10%) is left for non-scholarly workers (people in
administration, etc.) in the university. Spanish law allows those
percentages to be changed according to the situation of each
university, or even not to have a direct election system. Indeed, in a
few universities the Rector is chosen indirectly; the members of the
modern Claustro (a sort of electoral college or parliament in which
all the above-mentioned groups are represented) is chosen first, and
then the Claustro selects the Rector.
Rectors hold their office for four years before another election is
held, and there is no limit to the number of re-election terms.
However, only the most charismatic and respected rectors have been
able to hold their office for more than two or three terms. Of those,
some have been notable Spanish scholars, such as Basque writer Miguel
de Unamuno, Rector of the
University of Salamanca from 1901 until
Rektor is the title for the highest-ranked administrative and
educational leader for an academic institution, such as a primary
school, secondary school, private school, high school, college or
university. The rektors of state-run colleges and universities are
formally appointed by the government, i.e. the cabinet, but upon the
advice of the concerned institution's board, and usually following
some sort of democratic process at the concerned institution. The
adjunct of a rektor at a university is called a prorektor and is
appointed by the institution's board.
In the older universities,
Uppsala university and Lund university, the
rektor is titled rector magnificus (men), or rectrix magnifica
(women). Younger universities have in more recent years started using
the Latin honorary title in formal situations, such as in honorary
speeches or graduation ceremonies.
Chancellor of Sweden was until 2017 the title of the
head of the government accrediting agency, the National Agency for
Higher Education. From 2017, this position carries the title Director
General which is the usual title of the head of a government agency.
The people recruited to the position have in later times always been
former vice-chancellors (presidents) of a Swedish university. The
position does not include leadership of a university.
The heads of the universities in Switzerland, usually elected by the
college of professors, are titled rector (Rektor, recteur).
Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey
The rector is the head of most universities and other higher
educational institutions in at least parts of Central and Eastern
Europe, such as Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey,
Ukraine. The rector's deputies are known as "pro-rectors". Individual
departments of a university (called faculties) are headed by deans.
As in most Commonwealth and British-influenced countries, the term
"rector" is not commonly used in Canada.
Quebec's universities, both francophone (e.g., Université de
Montréal) and anglophone (e.g., Concordia University), use the term
(recteur or rectrice in French) to designate the head of the
institution. In addition, the historically French-Catholic, and now
bilingual, Saint Paul
University in Ottawa, Ontario uses the term to
denote its head. St. Paul's College, the Roman Catholic College of the
University of Manitoba, uses the term 'rector' to designate the head
of the College. St. Boniface College, the French College of the
University of Manitoba, uses 'recteur' or 'rectrice' to designate the
head of the College.
At the bilingual
University of Ottawa, the term president has been
used since 2008, but before that time rector was used for the English
name; however, recteur (or rectrice) continues to be used as the
French term for the head of the university.
University (Kingston, Ontario) uses the term "rector". The
term refers to a member of the student body elected to work as an
equal with the chancellor and principal. The Badge of Office of the
Rector of Queen's
University was registered with the Canadian Heraldic
Authority on October 15, 2004. See List of Rectors of Queen's
Most U.S. colleges use the titles "president" for the chief executive
of the college and "chair of the board of trustees" for the head of
the body that legally "owns" the college. The terms "president" and
"chancellor" are used for the chief executive of some universities and
university systems, depending on the institution's statutes (some
state university systems have both presidents of constituent colleges
and a chancellor of the overall system, or vice versa).
Several notable exceptions exist in Virginia: the
University of Mary Washington
(Fredericksburg), George Mason
University (Farmville), Washington and Lee University
College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary (Williamsburg), Old
University (Norfolk), Christopher Newport
Virginia Tech (Blacksburg) use the term "Rector" to
designate the head of the Board of Visitors. The College of William
and Mary also has a "Chancellor" who acts in a ceremonial capacity. As
far as American high schools, one notable case is the Rector of St.
Paul's School in New Hampshire, in which the Rector is equivalent to
University of California system, each of the ten campuses are
headed by a chancellor, however the leader of the system is given the
From 1701-1745, the head of the school that was to become Yale
University was termed the "rector". As head of Yale College, Thomas
Clap was both the last to be called "rector" (1740–1745) and the
first to be referred to as president (1745–1766). Modern custom
omits the use of the term "rector" and identifies
Abraham Pierson as
the first Yale president (1701–1707). Clap is construed to have been
the fifth in the sequence of men who were Yale's leaders.
Several Catholic colleges and universities, particularly those run by
religious orders of priests (such as the Jesuits) used to employ the
term "rector" to refer to the school's chief officer. In many cases,
the rector was also the head of the community of priests assigned to
the school, so the two posts – head of the university and local
superior of the priests – were merged in the role of rector (See
"Ecclesiastical rectors" below). This practice is no longer followed,
as the details of the governance of most of these schools have
changed. At the
University of Notre Dame, the title "rector" is used
for those in charge of individual residence halls.
The term "rector" is uncommon in Australian academic institutions. The
executive head of an Australian university has traditionally been
given the British title Vice-Chancellor, although in recent times the
American term President has also been adopted. The term rector is used
by some academic institutions, such as the
University of Melbourne
residential college, Newman College; the private boys' school, Xavier
College; and the
University of Sydney residential college, St John's
The title rector is sometimes used for the head of a subordinate and
geographically separate campus of a university. For example, the
executive head of the
Australian Defence Force Academy
Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra,
which is a campus of the
University of New South Wales in Sydney is a
Rector, as is the head of the Cairns campus of James Cook University,
based at Townsville.
The title is used in New Zealand for the headmaster of some
independent schools, such as Lindisfarne College and St. Patrick's
College, Silverstream, as well as a number of state schools for boys,
including Otago Boys' High School, King's High School, Dunedin,
Waitaki Boys' High School, Timaru Boys' High School, Palmerston North
Boys' High School and
Southland Boys' High School
Southland Boys' High School showing the Scots'
involvement in the foundation of those schools.
In Mauritius the term 'rector' is used to designate the head of a
secondary school.
The heads of certain Indian boarding schools are called rectors. The
head or principal of a Catholic school in India is also called a
Colonnade at the reconstructed
Yushima Seidō in Tokyo. The hereditary
rectors of this
Edo period institution were selected from the Hayashi
During the years of the
Tokugawa shogunate (1601–1868), the rector
of Edo’s Confucian Academy, the
Shōhei-kō (afterwards known at the
Yushima Seidō), was known by the honorific title Daigaku-no kami
which, in the context of the Tokugawa hierarchy, can effectively be
translated as "Head of the State University". The rector of the
Yushima Seidō stood at the apex of the country-wide educational and
training system which was created and maintained with the personal
involvement of successive shoguns. The position as rector of the
Yushima Seidō became hereditary in the Hayashi family. The
rectors' scholarly reputation was burnished by the publication in 1657
of the seven volumes of Survey of the Sovereigns of Japan
(日本王代一覧, Nihon Ōdai Ichiran) and by the publication
in 1670 of the 310 volumes of The Comprehensive History of Japan
In this Commonwealth nation, the term Rektor is used to refer to the
highest administrative official in several universities and higher
education institutions in Malaysia, such as the International Islamic
University Malaysia in
Gombak and the
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA in
Perak. A Rektor is comparable to the position of Naib Canselor, or
vice-chancellor, in other higher education institutions, as the Rektor
answers to the Canselor.
The term rector (Burmese:ပါမောက်ခချုပ်) is
used to refer to the highest official of universities in Myanmar. Each
university department is headed by a professor, who is responsible to
the rector. Nowadays, given the large dimensions of some universities,
the position of pro-rector has emerged, just below that of the rector.
Pro-rectors are in charge of managing particular areas of the
university, such as research or undergraduate education.
The heads of certain universities and colleges such as National
University of Sciences and Technology, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of
Engineering Sciences and Technology, Forman Christian College, Virtual
University of Pakistan, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
and PIEAS are all titled "Rector".
Herminio Dagohoy, the 96th Rector Magnificus of the Pontifical and
University of Santo Tomas, Manila
See also: Rector Magnificus of the
University of Santo Tomas
The term rector or Rector Magnificus is used to refer to the highest
official in prominent Catholic universities and colleges such as the
University of Santo Tomás, the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán, and
the San Beda University. The rector typically sits as chair of the
university board of trustees. He exercises policy-making, general
academic, managerial, and religious functions over all university
academic and non-academic staff.
During the Spanish colonial period, on May 20, 1865, a royal order
from Queen Isabella II gave the Rector Magnificus of the
Santo Tomas the power to direct and supervise all the educational
institutions in the
Philippines and thus, the Rector of the University
became the ex officio head of the secondary and higher education in
the Philippines. All diplomas issued by other schools were approved by
the Rector of the
University and examinations leading to the issuance
of such diplomas were supervised by the professors of the University
of Santo Tomas.
The term rector is not widely used to refer to the highest executive
position in Thai universities (Thai:อธิการบดี;
RTGS: Athikan Bodi ), compared to the term president. Thammasat
University adopts this term for this position to reflect its tradition
associated with the French education system where Pridi Banomyong,
Thammasat's founding father was educated.
Except Assumption University, the only International Catholic
University in Thailand, the position of the head of the executives and
administrators of the institute is "rector". A decade after the
present rector assume his duty, the title of Rector Magnificus was
bestowed on Rev. Bro. Bancha Saenghiran, f.s.g., Ph.D. at a solemn
Academic ceremony on November 1, 2011 at the Assumption University
Suvarnabhumi campus in the ornate Chapel of St. Louis Marie de
Montfort (founder of the Montfortian Brothers of St. Gabriel.)
The term rector is used to refer to the highest official of
universities, and university-owned high schools (e.g., Escuela
Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini) in Argentina. Each faculty
(Spanish:Facultad) has its own dean.
The term rector (Portuguese: Reitor) is used to refer to the highest
official of universities in Brazil. Each faculty is headed by a
director, who is under the authority of the rector. Nowadays, given
the large size of some universities, the position of pro-rector has
emerged below that of the rector. The pro-rector is in charge of
managing a particular area of the university, such as research or
A rector who has resigned is often given the title rector emeritus.
One who temporarily performs the functions usually fulfilled by a
rector is styled a pro-rector (in parishes, administrator).
Deputies of rectors in institutions are known as vice-rectors (in
parishes, as curates, assistant - or associate rectors, etc.). In some
universities the title vice-rector has, like vice-chancellor in many
Anglo-Saxon cases, been used for the de facto head when the
essentially honorary title of rector is reserved for a high externa
dignitary; until 1920, there was such a vice-recteur at the Parisian
Sorbonne as the French Minister of Education was its nominal recteur
^ European nations where the word rector or words like it (rektor,
recteur, etc.) is used in referring to university administrators
include Albania, the Benelux, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Scandinavia, Scotland, Serbia,
Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain,
Turkey and Ukraine.
^ "Rector" is used for university administrators in Latin American
nations such as: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico,
Peru and Venezuela.
^ de:Universitätsgesetz 2002
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 February 2013.
Retrieved 7 March 2015.
University of Cambridge - How the
University works - The Chancellor
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved
3 May 2013. Oxford
University - Key
University Officers - The
^ "The Scottish
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Aamer Anwar elected as new Glasgow
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Badge of Office
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