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Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user. When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it induces an intoxicating effect. Generally, recreational drugs are in three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calm); stimulants (drugs that induce a sense of energy and alertness); and hallucinogens (drugs that induce perceptual distortions such as hallucination). In popular practice, recreational drug use generally is a tolerated social behaviour, rather than perceived as the serious medical condition of self-medication. However, heavy use of some drugs is socially stigmatized. Recreational drugs include alcohol (as found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits); cannabis and hashish; nicotine (tobacco); caffeine (coffee and black tea); and the controlled substances listed as illegal drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
(1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Convention on Psychotropic Substances
(1971) of the United Nations. What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamines, heroin, cocaine, and club drugs. In 2009, it was estimated that about 3% to 6% of people aged 15 to 65 had used illegal drugs at least once (149 to 270 million).[1]

Contents

1 Reasons for use

1.1 Evolution

2 Risks

2.1 Responsible use

3 Prevention 4 Demographics

4.1 Australia 4.2 United States

5 Society and culture 6 Common recreational drugs 7 Routes of administration 8 Types

8.1 Depressants

8.1.1 Antihistamines 8.1.2 Analgesics 8.1.3 Tranquilizers

8.2 Stimulants 8.3 Euphoriants 8.4 Hallucinogens 8.5 Inhalants

9 List of drugs which can be smoked 10 List of psychoactive plants, fungi and animals 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Reasons for use[edit]

Hadzabe tribe members smoking.

Many researchers have explored the etiology of recreational drug use. Some of the most common theories are: genetics, personality type, psychological problems, self-medication, gender, age, instant gratification, basic human need, curiosity, rebelliousness, a sense of belonging to a group, family and attachment issues, history of trauma, failure at school or work, socioeconomic stressors, peer pressure, juvenile delinquency, availability, historical factors, or sociocultural influences.[2] There has not been agreement around any one single cause. Instead, experts tend to apply the biopsychosocial model. Any number of these factors are likely to influence an individual’s drug use as they are not mutually exclusive.[2][3] Regardless of genetics, mental health or traumatic experiences, social factors play a large role in exposure to and availability of certain types of drugs and patterns of drug use.[2] According to addiction researcher Martin A. Plant, many people go through a period of self-redefinition before initiating recreational drug use. They tend to view using drugs as part of a general lifestyle that involves belonging to a subculture that they associate with heightened status and the challenging of social norms. Plant says, “From the user's point of view there are many positive reasons to become part of the milieu of drug taking. The reasons for drug use appear to have as much to do with needs for friendship, pleasure and status as they do with unhappiness or poverty. Becoming a drug taker, to many people, is a positive affirmation rather than a negative experience.”[2] Evolution[edit] Main article: Evolutionary models of human drug use Anthropological
Anthropological
research has suggested that humans "may have evolved to counter-exploit plant neurotoxins". The ability to use botanical chemicals to serve the function of endogenous neurotransmitters may have improved survival rates, conferring an evolutionary advantage. A typically restrictive prehistoric diet may have emphasised the apparent benefit of consuming psychoactive drugs, which had themselves evolved to imitate neurotransmitters.[4] Chemical–ecological adaptations, and the genetics of hepatic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450, have led researchers to propose that "humans have shared a co-evolutionary relationship with psychotropic plant substances that is millions of years old."[5] Risks[edit]

Addiction
Addiction
experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis and ranked 20 popular recreational drugs by their dependence liability and physical and social harms.[6]

This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room.

Severity and type of risks that come with recreational drug use vary widely with the drug in question and the amount being used. There are many factors in the environment and within the user that interact with each drug differently. Overall, some studies suggest that alcohol is one of the most dangerous of all recreational drugs; only heroin, crack cocaine, and methamphetamines are judged to be more harmful. However, studies which focus on a moderate level of alcohol consumption have concluded that there can be substantial health benefits from its use, such as decreased risk of cardiac disease, stroke and cognitive decline.[7][8][9][10] This claim has been disputed. Researcher David Nutt
David Nutt
stated that these studies showing benefits for "moderate" alcohol consumption lacked control for the variable of what the subjects were drinking, beforehand.[11] Experts in the UK have suggested that some drugs that may be causing less harm, to fewer users (although they are also used less frequently in the first place), include cannabis, psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, and ecstasy. These drugs are not without their own particular risks.[12] Responsible use[edit] Main article: Responsible drug use The concept of "responsible drug use" is that a person can use drugs recreationally or otherwise with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other aspects of one's life or other people's lives. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who have used drugs, experimentally or otherwise, with few detrimental effects on their lives. Responsible drug use becomes problematic only when the use of the substance significantly interferes with the user's daily life. Responsible drug use advocates that users should not take drugs at the same time as activities such as driving, swimming, operating machinery, or other activities that are unsafe without a sober state. Responsible drug use is emphasized as a primary prevention technique in harm-reduction drug policies. Harm-reduction policies were popularized in the late 1980s, although they began in the 1970s counter-culture, when cartoons explaining responsible drug use and the consequences of irresponsible drug use were distributed to users.[13] Another issue is that the illegality of drugs in itself also causes social and economic consequences for those using them—the drugs may be "cut" with adulterants and the purity varies wildly, making overdoses more likely—and legalization of drug production and distribution would reduce these and other dangers of illegal drug use.[14] Harm reduction
Harm reduction
seeks to minimize the harm that can occur through the use of various drugs, whether legal (e.g., alcohol and nicotine), or illegal (e.g., heroin and cocaine). For example, people who inject illicit drugs can minimize harm to both themselves and members of the community through proper injecting technique, using new needles and syringes each time, and proper disposal of all injecting equipment. Prevention[edit] In efforts to curtail recreational drug use, governments worldwide introduced several laws prohibiting the possession of almost all varieties of recreational drugs during the 20th century. The West's "War on Drugs" however, is now facing increasing criticism. Evidence is insufficient to tell if behavioral interventions help prevent recreational drug use in children.[15] Demographics[edit]

Smoking
Smoking
any tobacco product, %, Males[16] (See the same map for female smokers.)

Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol[17]

Australia[edit] Alcohol
Alcohol
is the most widely used drug in Australia, tried one or more times in their lives by 86.2% of Australians aged 12 years and over, while 34.8% of Australians aged 12 years and over have used cannabis one or more times in their lives.[18] United States[edit] In the 1960s, the number of Americans who had tried cannabis at least once increased over twentyfold.[citation needed] In 1969, the FBI reported that between the years 1966 and 1968, the number of arrests for marijuana possession, which had been outlawed throughout the United States under Marijuana
Marijuana
Tax Act of 1937, had increased by 98%.[19] Despite acknowledgement that drug use was greatly growing among America's youth during the late 1960s, surveys have suggested that only as much as 4% of the American population had ever smoked marijuana by 1969.[20] By 1972, however, that number would increase to 12%.[20] That number would then double by 1977.[20] The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classified marijuana along with heroin and LSD
LSD
as a Schedule I drug, i.e., having the relatively highest abuse potential and no accepted medical use.[21] Most marijuana at that time came from Mexico, but in 1975 the Mexican government agreed to eradicate the crop by spraying it with the herbicide paraquat, raising fears of toxic side effects.[21] Colombia then became the main supplier.[21] The "zero tolerance" climate of the Reagan and Bush administrations (1981–93) resulted in passage of strict laws and mandatory sentences for possession of marijuana and in heightened vigilance against smuggling at the southern borders.[citation needed] The "war on drugs" thus brought with it a shift from reliance on imported supplies to domestic cultivation (particularly in Hawaii and California).[21] Beginning in 1982 the Drug Enforcement Administration turned increased attention to marijuana farms in the United States,[21] and there was a shift to the indoor growing of plants specially developed for small size and high yield.[21] After over a decade of decreasing use, marijuana smoking began an upward trend once more in the early 1990s,[21] especially among teenagers,[21] but by the end of the decade this upswing had leveled off well below former peaks of use.[21] Society and culture[edit] Main article: Drug culture Many movements and organizations are advocating for or against the liberalization of the use of recreational drugs, notably cannabis legalization. Subcultures have emerged among users of recreational drugs, as well as among those who abstain from them, such as teetotalism and "straight edge". The prevalence of recreational drugs in human societies is widely reflected in fiction, entertainment, and the arts, subject to prevailing laws and social conventions. In video games, for example, enemies are often drug dealers, a narrative device that justifies the player killing them. Other games portray drugs as a kind of "power-up"; their effect is often unrealistically conveyed by making the screen wobble and blur.[22] Common recreational drugs[edit] The following substances are used recreationally:[23]

Alcohol: Most drinking alcohol is ethanol, CH 3CH 2OH. Drinking alcohol creates intoxication, relaxation and lowered inhibitions. It is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts to create wine, beer, and distilled liquor (e.g., vodka, rum, gin, etc.). In most areas of the world, apart from certain countries where Muslim sharia law is used, it is legal for those over a certain age (typically 18–21). It is an IARC 'Group 1' carcinogen and a teratogen.[24] Alcohol
Alcohol
withdrawal can be life-threatening. Amphetamines: Used recreationally to provide alertness and a sense of energy, whether for all-night studying or all-night dancing. Prescribed for ADHD, narcolepsy, depression and weight loss. A potent central nervous system stimulant, in the 1940s and 50s methamphetamine was used by Axis and Allied troops in World War II, and, later on, other armies, and by Japanese factory workers. It increases muscle strength and fatigue resistance and improves reaction time.[25] Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
use can be neurotoxic, which means it damages dopamine neurons.[26] As a result of this brain damage, chronic use can lead to post acute withdrawal syndrome.[27] Cannabis: Its common forms include marijuana and hashish, which are smoked or eaten. It contains at least 85 cannabinoids. The primary psychoactive component is THC, which mimics the neurotransmitter anandamide, named after the Hindu
Hindu
ananda, "joy, bliss, delight." The review article Campbell & Gowran (2007) states that "manipulation of the cannabinoid system offers the potential to upregulate neuroprotective mechanisms while dampening neuroinflammation. Whether these properties will be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the future is an exciting topic that undoubtedly warrants further investigation." Caffeine: Often found in coffee, black tea, energy drinks, some soft drinks (e.g., Coca-Cola, Pepsi
Pepsi
and Mountain Dew, among others), and chocolate. Cocaine: It is available as a white powder, which is insufflated ("sniffed" into the nostrils) or converted into a solution with water and injected. A popular derivative, crack cocaine is typically smoked. When transformed into its freebase form, crack, the cocaine vapour may be inhaled directly. This is thought to increase bioavailability, but has also been found to be toxic, due to the production of methylecgonidine during pyrolysis.[28][29][30] MDMA: Commonly known as ecstasy, it is a common club drug in the rave scene. Ketamine: An anesthetic used legally by paramedics and doctors in emergency situations for its dissociative and analgesic qualities and illegally in the club drug scene. LSD: A popular ergoline derivative, that was first synthesized in 1938 by Hofmann. However, he failed to notice its psychedelic potential until 1943.[31] In the 1950s, it was used in psychological therapy, and, covertly, by the CIA
CIA
in Project MKULTRA, in which the drug was administered to unwitting US and Canadian citizens. It played a central role in 1960s 'counter-culture', and was banned in October 1968 by US President Lyndon B Johnson.[32][33] Nitrous oxide: legally used by dentists as an anxiolytic and anaesthetic, it is also used recreationally by users who obtain it from whipped cream canisters (see inhalant), as it causes perceptual effects, a "high" and at higher doses, hallucinations. Opiates
Opiates
and opioids: Available by prescription for pain relief. Commonly abused opioids include oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, fentanyl, heroin, and morphine. Opioids
Opioids
have a high potential for addiction and have the ability to induce severe physical withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of frequent use. Heroin
Heroin
can be smoked, insufflated or turned into a solution with water and injected. Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms: This hallucinogenic drug was an important drug in the psychedelic scene. Until 1963, when it was chemically analysed by Albert Hofmann, it was completely unknown to modern science that Psilocybe semilanceata
Psilocybe semilanceata
("Liberty Cap", common throughout Europe) contains psilocybin, a hallucinogen previously identified only in species native to Mexico, Asia, and North America.[34] Tobacco: Nicotiana
Nicotiana
tabacum. Nicotine
Nicotine
is the key drug contained in tobacco leaves, which are either smoked, chewed or snuffed. It contains nicotine, which crosses the blood–brain barrier in 10–20 seconds. It mimics the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain and the neuromuscular junction. The neuronal forms of the receptor are present both post-synaptically (involved in classical neurotransmission) and pre-synaptically, where they can influence the release of multiple neurotransmitters.[35] Tranquilizers: barbiturates, benzodiazepines (commonly prescribed for anxiety disorders; known to cause dementia and post acute withdrawal syndrome) "Bath salts": this is the street name for Mephedrone/ Methylenedioxypyrovalerone
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone
(MDPV) DMT – primary ingredient in ayahuasca, can also be smoked in a crack pipe; briefly (c. 30 minutes) causes a "total loss of connection to external reality"[36] Peyote: This hallucinogen contains mescaline, native to southwestern Texas
Texas
and Mexico Salvia divinorum: This hallucinogenic Mexican herb in the mint family; not considered recreational, most likely due to the nature of the hallucinations (legal in some jurisdictions) Synthetic cannabis: "Spice", "K2", JWH-018, AM-2201 Research chemicals: 2C variants, etc.

Routes of administration[edit]

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Insufflation of caffeine powder.

Injection of heroin.

Drugs often associated with a particular route of administration. Many drugs can be consumed in more than one way. For example, marijuana can be swallowed like food or smoked, and cocaine can be "sniffed" in the nostrils, injected, or, with various modifications, smoked.

inhalation: all intoxicative inhalants (see below) that are gases or solvent vapours that are inhaled through the trachea, as the name suggests insufflation: also known as "sniffing", or "snorting", this method involves the user placing a powder in the nostrils and breathing in through the nose, so that the drug is absorbed by the mucous membranes. Drugs that are "sniffed", or "snorted", include powdered amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, ketamine and MDMA. Additionally, snuff tobacco intravenous injection (see also the article Drug injection): the user injects a solution of water and the drug into a vein, or less commonly, into the tissue. Drugs that are injected include morphine and heroin, less commonly other opioids. Stimulants
Stimulants
like cocaine or methamphetamine may also be injected. In rare cases, users inject other drugs. oral intake: caffeine, ethanol, cannabis edibles, psilocybin mushrooms, coca tea, poppy tea, laudanum, GHB, ecstasy pills with MDMA or various other substances (mainly stimulants and psychedelics), prescription and over-the-counter drugs ( ADHD
ADHD
and narcolepsy medications, benzodiazapines, anxiolytics, sedatives, cough suppressants, morphine, codeine, opioids and others) sublingual: substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Many psychoactive drugs can be or have been specifically designed for sublingual administration, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines,[37] opioid analgesics with poor gastrointestinal bioavailability, LSD
LSD
blotters, coca leaves, some hallucinogens. This route of administration is activated when chewing some forms of smokeless tobacco (e.g. dipping tobacco, snus). intrarectal: administering into the rectum, most water-soluble drugs can be used this way smoking (see also the section below): tobacco, cannabis, opium, crystal meth, phencyclidine, crack cocaine and heroin (diamorphine as freebase) known as chasing the dragon transdermal patches with prescription drugs: e.g. methylphenidate (Daytrana) and fentanyl

Many drugs are taken through various routes. Intravenous route is the most efficient, but also one of the most dangerous. Nasal, rectal, inhalation and smoking are safer. The oral route is one of the safest and most comfortable, but of little bioavailability. Types[edit] Depressants[edit] Depressants are psychoactive drugs that temporarily diminish the function or activity of a specific part of the body or mind.[38] Colloquially, depressants are known as "downers", and users generally take them to feel more relaxed and less tense. Examples of these kinds of effects may include anxiolysis, sedation, and hypotension. Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. When these are used, effects may include anxiolysis (reduction of anxiety), analgesia (pain relief), sedation, somnolence, cognitive/memory impairment, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure/heart rate, respiratory depression, anesthesia, and anticonvulsant effects. Depressants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include facilitation of GABA or opioid activity, and inhibition of adrenergic, histamine or acetylcholine activity. Some are also capable of inducing feelings of euphoria (a happy sensation). Stimulants
Stimulants
or "uppers", such as amphetamines or cocaine, which increase mental or physical function, have an opposite effect to depressants. Antihistamines[edit] Antihistamines (or "histamine antagonists") inhibit the release or action of histamine. "Antihistamine" can be used to describe any histamine antagonist, but the term is usually reserved for the classical antihistamines that act upon the H1 histamine receptor. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies. Allergies
Allergies
are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction causes release of histamine by the body. Other uses of antihistamines are to help with normal symptoms of insect stings even if there is no allergic reaction. Their recreational appeal exists mainly due to their anticholinergic properties, that induce anxiolysis and, in some cases such as diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, and orphenadrine, a characteristic euphoria at moderate doses. High dosages taken to induce recreational drug effects may lead to overdoses. Antihistamines are also consumed in combination with alcohol, particularly by youth who find it hard to obtain alcohol. The combination of the two drugs can cause intoxication with lower alcohol doses. Hallucinations and possibly delirium resembling the effects of Datura stramonium can result if the drug is taken in much higher than therapeutical dosages. Antihistamines are widely available over the counter at drug stores (without a prescription), in the form of allergy medication and some cough medicines. They are sometimes used in combination with other substances such as alcohol. The most common unsupervised use of antihistamines in terms of volume and percentage of the total is perhaps in parallel to the medicinal use of some antihistamines to stretch out and intensify the effects of opioids and depressants. The most commonly used are hydroxyzine, mainly to stretch out a supply of other drugs, as in medical use, and the above-mentioned ethanolamine and alkylamine-class first-generation antihistamines, which are - once again as in the 1950s - the subject of medical research into their anti-depressant properties. For all of the above reasons, the use of medicinal scopolamine for recreational uses is also seen. Analgesics[edit] Analgesics
Analgesics
(also known as "painkillers") are used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). The word analgesic derives from Greek "αν-" (an-, "without") and "άλγος" (álgos, "pain"). Analgesic
Analgesic
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol (para-acetylaminophenol, also known in the US as acetaminophen), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as hydrocodone, codeine, heroin and oxycodone. Some further examples of the brand name prescription opiates and opioid analgesics that may be used recreationally include Vicodin, Lortab, Norco (hydrocodone), Avinza, Kapanol (morphine), Opana, Paramorphan (oxymorphone), Dilaudid, Palladone (hydromorphone), and OxyContin (oxycodone). Tranquilizers[edit] Tranquilizers (GABAergics):

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Ethanol
Ethanol
(drinking alcohol; ethyl alcohol) Nonbenzodiazepines Others

carisoprodol (Soma) chloral hydrate diethyl ether ethchlorvynol (Placidyl; "jelly-bellies") gabapentin (Neurontin) gamma-butyrolactone (GBL, a prodrug to GHB) gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; G; Xyrem; "Liquid Ecstasy", "Fantasy") glutethimide (Doriden) kava (from Piper methysticum; contains kavalactones) ketamine meprobamate (Miltown) methaqualone (Sopor, Mandrax; "Quaaludes") phenibut pregabalin (Lyrica) propofol (Diprivan) theanine (found in Camellia sinensis, the tea plant) valerian (from Valeriana
Valeriana
officinalis)

Stimulants[edit]

Cocaine
Cocaine
is a commonly used stimulant

Stimulants, also known as "psychostimulants",[39] induce euphoria with improvements in mental and physical function, such as enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion. Due to their effects typically having an "up" quality to them, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants
Stimulants
enhance the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects may include increased alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and a diminished desire for food and sleep. Use of stimulants may cause the body to reduce significantly its production of natural body chemicals that fulfill similar functions. Until the body reestablishes its normal state, once the effect of the ingested stimulant has worn off the user may feel depressed, lethargic, confused, and miserable. This is referred to as a "crash", and may provoke reuse of the stimulant. Examples include:

Sympathomimetics (catecholaminergics)—e.g. amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine Entactogens (serotonergics, primarily phenethylamines)—e.g. MDMA Eugeroics, e.g. modafinil Others

arecoline (found in Areca
Areca
catechu) caffeine (found in Coffea
Coffea
spp.) nicotine (found in Nicotiana
Nicotiana
spp.) rauwolscine (found in Rauvolfia serpentina) yohimbine (Procomil; a tryptamine alkaloid found in Pausinystalia yohimbe)

Euphoriants[edit] Main article: Euphoriant

Alcohol: "Euphoria, the feeling of well-being, has been reported during the early (10–15 min) phase of alcohol consumption" (e.g., beer, wine or spirits)[40] Catnip Catnip contains a sedative known as nepetalactone that activates opioid receptors. In cats it elicits sniffing, licking, chewing, head shaking, rolling, and rubbing which are indicators of pleasure. In humans, however, catnip does not act as a euphoriant.[41] Cannabis
Cannabis
Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive ingredient in this plant can have sedative and euphoric properties. Stimulants: "Psychomotor stimulants produce locomotor activity (the subject becomes hyperactive), euphoria, (often expressed by excessive talking and garrulous behaviour), and anorexia. The amphetamines are the best known drugs in this category..."[42] MDMA: The "euphoriant drugs such as MDMA
MDMA
(‘ecstasy’) and MDEA (‘eve’)" are popular amongst young adults.[43] MDMA
MDMA
"users experience short-term feelings of euphoria, rushes of energy and increased tactility."[44] Opium: This "drug derived from the unripe seed-pods of the opium poppy…produces drowsiness and euphoria and reduces pain. Morphine and codeine are opium derivatives."[45]

Hallucinogens[edit] See also: List of psychedelic drugs Hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. They can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. Unlike other psychoactive drugs such as stimulants and opioids, hallucinogens do not merely amplify familiar states of mind but also induce experiences that differ from those of ordinary consciousness, often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, conversion experiences, and dreams. Psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants have a long worldwide history of use within medicinal and religious traditions. They are used in shamanic forms of ritual healing and divination, in initiation rites, and in the religious rituals of syncretistic movements such as União do Vegetal, Santo Daime, Temple of the True Inner Light, and the Native American Church. When used in religious practice, psychedelic drugs, as well as other substances like tobacco, are referred to as entheogens. Starting in the mid-20th century, psychedelic drugs have been the object of extensive attention in the Western world. They have been and are being explored as potential therapeutic agents in treating depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcoholism, and opioid addiction. Yet the most popular, and at the same time most stigmatized, use of psychedelics in Western culture has been associated with the search for direct religious experience, enhanced creativity, personal development, and "mind expansion". The use of psychedelic drugs was a major element of the 1960s counterculture, where it became associated with various social movements and a general atmosphere of rebellion and strife between generations.

Deliriants

atropine (alkaloid found in plants of the Solanaceae
Solanaceae
family, including datura, deadly nightshade, henbane and mandrake) dimenhydrinate (Dramamine, an antihistamine) diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Unisom, Nytol) hyoscyamine (alkaloid also found in the Solanaceae) hyoscine hydrobromide (another Solanaceae
Solanaceae
alkaloid) myristicin (found in Myristica fragrans
Myristica fragrans
("Nutmeg")) ibotenic acid (found in Amanita muscaria
Amanita muscaria
("Fly Agaric"); prodrug to muscimol) muscimol (also found in Amanita
Amanita
muscaria, a GABAergic)

Dissociatives

dextromethorphan (DXM; Robitussin, Delsym, etc.; "Dex", "Robo", "Cough Syrup", "DXM")

"Triple C's, Coricidin, Skittles" refer to a potentially fatal formulation containing both dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine.

ketamine (K; Ketalar, Ketaset, Ketanest; "Ket", "Kit Kat", "Special-K", "Vitamin K", "Jet Fuel", "Horse Tranquilizer") methoxetamine (Mex, Mket, Mexi) phencyclidine (PCP; Sernyl; "Angel Dust", "Rocket Fuel", "Sherm", "Killer Weed", "Super Grass") nitrous oxide (N2O; "NOS", "Laughing Gas", "Whippets", "Balloons")

Psychedelics

Phenethylamines

2C-B
2C-B
("Nexus", "Venus", "Eros", "Bees") 2C-E
2C-E
("Eternity", "Hummingbird") 2C-I
2C-I
("Infinity") 2C-T-2
2C-T-2
("Rosy") 2C-T-7
2C-T-7
("Blue Mystic", "Lucky 7") DOB DOC DOI DOM ("Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace" ("STP")) MDMA
MDMA
("Ecstasy", "E", "Molly", "Mandy", "MD", "Crystal Love") mescaline (found in peyote, Peruvian torch
Peruvian torch
cactus and San Pedro cactus)

Tryptamines (including ergolines and lysergamides)

5-MeO-DiPT
5-MeO-DiPT
("Foxy", "Foxy Methoxy") 5-MeO-DMT
5-MeO-DMT
(found in various plants like chacruna, jurema, vilca, and yopo) alpha-methyltryptamine (αMT; Indopan; "Spirals") bufotenin (secreted by Bufo alvarius, also found in various Amanita mushrooms) dimethyltryptamine (DMT; "Dimitri", "Disneyland", "Spice"; found in most plants and animals as it is a common metabolite ) lysergic acid amide (LSA; ergine; found in morning glory and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds) lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; L; Delysid; "Acid", "Sid". "Cid", "Lucy", "Sidney", "Blotters", "Droppers", " Sugar
Sugar
Cubes") psilocin (found in psilocybin mushrooms) psilocybin (also found in psilocybin mushrooms; prodrug to psilocin) ibogaine (found in Tabernanthe iboga
Tabernanthe iboga
("Iboga"))

Atypicals

salvinorin A (found in Salvia divinorum, a trans-neoclerodane diterpenoid ("Diviner's Sage", "Lady Salvia", "Salvinorin"))

Inhalants[edit] Inhalants
Inhalants
are gases, aerosols, or solvents that are breathed in and absorbed through the lungs. While some "inhalant" drugs are used for medical purposes, as in the case of nitrous oxide, a dental anesthetic, inhalants are used as recreational drugs for their intoxicating effect. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled, including organic solvents (found in cleaning products, fast-drying glues, and nail polish removers), fuels (gasoline (petrol) and kerosene), and propellant gases such as Freon and compressed hydrofluorocarbons that are used in aerosol cans such as hairspray, whipped cream, and non-stick cooking spray. A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly, such as anesthetics (ether and nitrous oxide) and volatile anti-angina drugs (alkyl nitrites). The most serious inhalant abuse occurs among children and teens who "[...] live on the streets completely without family ties."[46] Inhalant
Inhalant
users inhale vapor or aerosol propellant gases using plastic bags held over the mouth or by breathing from a solvent-soaked rag or an open container. The effects of inhalants range from an alcohol-like intoxication and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinations, depending on the substance and the dosage. Some inhalant users are injured due to the harmful effects of the solvents or gases, or due to other chemicals used in the products that they are inhaling. As with any recreational drug, users can be injured due to dangerous behavior while they are intoxicated, such as driving under the influence. Computer cleaning dusters are dangerous to inhale, because the gases expand and cool rapidly upon being sprayed. In some cases, users have died from hypoxia (lack of oxygen), pneumonia, cardiac failure or arrest,[47] or aspiration of vomit. Examples include:

Chloroform Ethyl chloride Diethyl ether Ethane and ethylene Laughing gas
Laughing gas
(nitrous oxide) Poppers
Poppers
(alkyl nitrites) Solvents and propellants (including propane, butane, freon, gasoline, kerosene, toluene) and the fumes of glues containing them

List of drugs which can be smoked[edit] See also: Smoking Plants:

tobacco cannabis salvia divinorum opium datura and other Solanaceae
Solanaceae
(formerly smoked to treat asthma) possibly other plants (see the section below)

Substances (also not necessarily psychoactive plants soaked with them):

methamphetamine crack cocaine black tar heroin phencyclidine (PCP) synthetic cannabinoids (see also: synthetic cannabis) dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 5-MeO-DMT many others, including some prescription drugs

List of psychoactive plants, fungi and animals[edit] See also: List of psychedelic plants Minimally psychoactive plants which contain mainly caffeine and theobromine:

coffee tea (caffeine in tea is sometimes called theine) – also contains theanine guarana (caffeine in guarana is sometimes called guaranine) yerba mate (caffeine in yerba mate is sometimes called mateine) cocoa kola

Most known psychoactive plants:

cannabis: cannabinoids tobacco: nicotine and beta-carboline alkaloids coca: cocaine opium poppy: morphine, codeine and other opiates salvia divinorum: salvinorin A khat: cathine and cathinone kava: kavalactones nutmeg: myristicin

Solanaceae
Solanaceae
plants—contain atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine

datura deadly nightshade atropa belladona henbane mandrake (Mandragora) other Solanaceae

Cacti
Cacti
with mescaline:

peyote Peruvian torch
Peruvian torch
cactus San Pedro cactus

Other plants:

kratom: mitragynine, mitraphylline, 7-hydroxymitragynine, raubasine and corynantheidine ephedra: ephedrine damiana Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis valerian: valerian (the chemical with the same name) various plants like chacruna, jurema, vilca, and yopo – 5-MeO-DMT Morning glory
Morning glory
and Hawaiian Baby Woodrose
Hawaiian Baby Woodrose
– lysergic acid amide (LSA, ergine) Ayahuasca Tabernanthe iboga
Tabernanthe iboga
("Iboga")—ibogaine Areca catechu
Areca catechu
(see: betel and paan)—arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe): yohimbine, corynantheidine probably many others

Fungi:

psilocybin mushrooms: psilocybin and psilocin various Amanita
Amanita
mushrooms: muscimol Amanita
Amanita
muscaria: ibotenic acid and muscimol Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps purpurea
and other Clavicipitaceae: ergotamine (not psychoactive itself but used in synthesis of LSD)

Psychoactive
Psychoactive
animals:

hallucinogenic fish psychoactive toads: bufotenin, Bufo alvarius
Bufo alvarius
( Colorado River toad
Colorado River toad
or Sonoran Desert toad) also contains 5-MeO-DMT

Gallery[edit]

Martini, a popular cocktail, containing alcohol a common depressant

Cappuccino, a coffee drink containing caffeine a popular stimulant

Dried Cannabis
Cannabis
flowers, containing THC
THC
and other cannabinoids known as cannabis.

A lit cigarette, containing tobacco, which contains nicotine.

A pile of cocaine hydrochloride

Tablets containing MDMA, widely known as "ecstasy"

"Pink elephant" blotters containing LSD

Preparing diacetylmorphine for injection, commonly known as heroin

Homeless children from Keningau, in Borneo, sniffing glue from a plastic bag

Crack cocaine
Crack cocaine
in the form of "rocks" a freebase version of cocaine

Poppers, a slang term for alkyl nitrites that are inhaled

Amphetamine
Amphetamine
is typically prescribed as amphetamine mixed salts commonly known as Adderall

Psilocybe semilanceata, a type of psilocybin mushrooms

Opium
Opium
poppy seed pods exuding latex

Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
in crystal form

Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum
extract, mainly containing salvinorin A

Coca
Coca
tea, consumed as a stimulant

Man in Yemen
Yemen
selling khat, an amphetamine-like stimulant[48]

DXM, a cough medicine which acts as a dissociative hallucinogen in large doses.

Peyote
Peyote
cactuses containing psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline

Ayahuasca, a decoction prepared with Banisteriopsis caapi

Ketamine
Ketamine
hydrochloride crystals

DMT in a zipper storage bag

25I-NBOMe
25I-NBOMe
sold in blotters is often assumed to be LSD

Bromazepam, a benzodiazepine drug

Whippets containing nitrous oxide, commonly known as "laughing gas"

See also[edit]

Counterfeit drug Demand reduction Drug education Gateway drug theory Entheogen Harm reduction Illegal drug trade Prohibition (drugs) Purple drank Recreational use of dextromethorphan Recreational use of ketamine

References[edit]

^ Pomara, C; Cassano, T; D'Errico, S; Bello, S; Romano, AD; Riezzo, I; Serviddio, G (2012). "Data available on the extent of cocaine use and dependence: biochemistry, pharmacologic effects and global burden of disease of cocaine abusers". Current medicinal chemistry. 19 (33): 5647–57. doi:10.2174/092986712803988811. PMID 22856655.  ^ a b c d Plant, Martin A. (1980), "Drugtaking and Prevention: The Implications of Research for Social Policy", British Journal of Addiction, 75: 245–254, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1980.tb01378.x  ^ White, Tony (2012), Working with Drug and Alcohol
Alcohol
Users, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p. 77, ISBN 9780857006189  ^ Roger J Sullivan; Edward H Hagen; Peter Hammerstein (2008). "Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution". The Royal Society. Retrieved September 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ R. J. Sullivan; E. H. Hagen (2000). " Psychotropic
Psychotropic
substance-seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation?" (PDF). Retrieved September 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Nutt, D; King, LA; Saulsbury, W; Blakemore, C (24 March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831.  ^ Stampfer MJ, Kang JH, Chen J, Cherry R, Grodstein F (Jan 2005). "Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women". N Engl J Med. 352 (3): 245–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa041152. PMID 15659724.  ^ Hines LM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J (Feb 2001). "Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction". N Engl J Med. 344 (8): 549–55. doi:10.1056/NEJM200102223440802. PMID 11207350.  ^ Berger K, Ajani UA, Kase CS (Nov 1999). "Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among U.S. male physicians". N Engl J Med. 341 (21): 1557–64. doi:10.1056/NEJM199911183412101. PMID 10564684.  ^ Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA (Jan 2003). "Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men". N Engl J Med. 348 (2): 109–18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022095. PMID 12519921.  ^ "There is no such thing as a safe level of alcohol consumption", by Prof. David Nutt, on the Guardian ^ "Drug harms in the UK: a multi-criteria decision analysis", by David Nutt, Leslie King and Lawrence Phillips, on behalf of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs. The Lancet. ^ Charles E. Faupel; Alan M. Horowitz; Greg S. Weaver. The Sociology of American Drug Use. McGraw Hill. p. 366.  ^ "Failed states and failed policies, How to stop the drug wars". The Economist. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.  ^ Moyer, VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (May 6, 2014). "Primary care behavioral interventions to reduce illicit drug and nonmedical pharmaceutical use in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (9): 634–9. doi:10.7326/m14-0334. PMID 24615535.  ^ WHO Report on the Global Tobacco
Tobacco
Epidemic, 2008 ^ Global Status Report on Alcohol
Alcohol
2004 ^ "National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013".  ^ David Farber (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 432. ISBN 141271009X.  ^ a b c Decades of Drug Use: Data From the '60s and '70s Jennifer Robison, Gallup.com, 2 July 2002, Accessed 13 November 2013 ^ a b c d e f g h i "marijuana: History of Marijuana
Marijuana
Use". infoplease.com.  ^ MacDonald, Keza (5 November 2014). "Why Are Drugs Always So Lame in Video Games?". Vice. Retrieved 16 November 2014.  ^ "The Global Drug Survey 2014 findings". Global Drug Survey. 2014. Retrieved September 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs ^ John Philip Jenkins. "methamphetamine (drug) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.  ^ Cruickshank, CC; Dyer, KR (July 2009). "A review of the clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine". Addiction. 104 (7): 1085–1099. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02564.x. PMID 19426289.  ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "15". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons.  ^ "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Methylecgonidine, a Crack Cocaine
Cocaine
Pyrolyzate". aspetjournals.org.  ^ British Journal of Pharmacology – Abstract of article: Evidence for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells ^ Studies on Hydrolytic and Oxidative Metabolic Pathways of Anhydroecgonine Methyl Ester (Methylecgonidine) Using Microsomal Preparations from Rat Organs (Chemical Research in Toxicology/ACS Publications) ^ Albert Hofmann. " LSD
LSD
My Problem Child". Retrieved 19 April 2010.  ^ "Brecher, Edward M; et al. (1972). "How LSD
LSD
was popularized". Consumer Reports/Drug Library". Druglibrary.org. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ United States Congress (24 October 1968). "Staggers-Dodd Bill, Public Law 90-639" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ Hofmann A, Heim R, Tscherter H (1963). "Phytochimie – présence de la psilocybine dans une espèce européenne d'agaric, le Psilocybe semilanceata Fr." [Phytochemistry – presence of psilocybin in a European agaric species, Psilocybe semilanceata
Psilocybe semilanceata
Fr.]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences (in French) 257 (1). pp. 10–12.  ^ Wonnacott S (February 1997). "Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (2): 92–8. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(96)10073-4. PMID 9023878.  ^ "Erowid DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) Vault". Erowid.org. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "ATIVAN® 1 mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS; ATIVAN® 2 mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS". home.intekom.com. Retrieved 2016-07-08.  ^ "MSDS Glossary". Archived from the original on 17 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:psychostimulant".  ^ Morgan Christopher J.; Abdulla A.-B. Badawy (2001). "Alcohol-induced euphoria: exclusion of serotonin". Alcohol
Alcohol
and Alcoholism. 36 (1): 22–25. doi:10.1093/alcalc/36.1.22.  ^ Foster, Steven (2002). A field guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 58.  ^ Alan W. Cuthbert "stimulants" The Oxford Companion to the Body. Ed. Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011 ^ Rhodri Hayward "euphoria" The Oxford Companion to the Body. Ed. Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011 ^ "ecstasy" World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011 ^ "opium". World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011 ^ "NIDA - Research Monographs - Monograph Index" (PDF). drugabuse.gov.  ^ Inhalants; archived at Inhalants ^ Al Zarouni, Yousif (2015). The Effects of Khat
Khat
(Catha Edulis) (First ed.). London: Yousif Al Zarouni. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-326-24867-3. 

External links[edit]

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Recreational drug
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v t e

Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use

Major recreational drugs

Depressants

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants

Medical

Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner

Other

Freon

Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones

Opioids

Buprenorphine

Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine

Krokodil

Dextropropoxyphene

Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine

Heroin

Hydrocodone Hydromorphone

Dilaudid

Methadone Mitragyna speciosa

Kratom

Morphine

Opium

Oxycodone

/paracetamol

Tramadol

Stimulants

Amphetamine Arecoline

Areca

Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea

Cathinone

Khat

Cocaine

Coca Crack

Ephedrine

Ephedra

MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine

Tobacco

Theobromine

Cocoa Chocolate

Entactogens

2C series 6-APB

Benzofury

AMT MDA MDMA

Ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin

Psychoactive
Psychoactive
toads Vilca Yopo

DMT

Ayahuasca

LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
/ Psilocin

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms

Dissociatives

DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita
Amanita
muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Deliriants

Atropine
Atropine
and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine

Cannabinoids

JWH-018 THC

Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana

Oneirogens

Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers

Drug culture

Cannabis
Cannabis
culture

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Cannabis
cultivation Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana
Marijuana
Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Cannabis
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and religion Stoner film

Coffee
Coffee
culture

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break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea
Tea
house

Drinking culture

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culture Beer
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festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub
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Psychedelia

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Smoking
Smoking
culture

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card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking
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fetishism Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking

Other

Club drug Counterculture
Counterculture
of the 1960s Dance party Drug paraphernalia Drug tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

Coca
Coca
production in Colombia Drug precursors Opium
Opium
production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab

Drug trade

Illegal drug trade

Colombia

Darknet market Drug distribution

Beer
Beer
shop Cannabis
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Issues with drug use

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v t e

Euphoriants

μ- Opioid
Opioid
receptor agonists (opioids) (e.g., morphine, heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, opium, kratom) α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) AMPA receptor
AMPA receptor
antagonists (e.g., perampanel) CB1 receptor
CB1 receptor
agonists (cannabinoids) (e.g., THC, cannabis) Dopamine
Dopamine
receptor agonists (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine
Dopamine
releasing agents (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, mephedrone) Dopamine
Dopamine
reuptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine, methylphenidate) GABAA receptor
GABAA receptor
positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink), inhalants, nonbenzodiazepines, quinazolinones) GHB (sodium oxybate) and analogues Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) (e.g., dexamethasone, prednisone) nACh receptor agonists (e.g., nicotine, tobacco, arecoline, areca nut) Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)) NMDA receptor
NMDA receptor
antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous oxide, phencyclidine, inhalants) Orexin receptor antagonists (e.g., suvorexant)

See also: Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use

v t e

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics (5-HT2A agonists)

Benzofurans

2C-B-FLY 2CBFly-NBOMe 5-MeO-BFE 5-MeO-DiBF Bromo-DragonFLY F-2 F-22 TFMFly

Lyserg‐ amides

1P-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD 2-Butyllysergamide 3-Pentyllysergamide AL-LAD ALD-52 BU-LAD Diallyllysergamide Dimethyllysergamide Ergometrine ETH-LAD IP-LAD LAE-32 LPD-824 LSA LSD LSD-Pip LSH LSM-775 LSZ Methylergometrine Methylisopropyllysergamide Methysergide MLD-41 PARGY-LAD PRO-LAD

Phenethyl‐ amines

2C-x

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

25x-NBx

25x-NB3OMe

25B-NB3OMe 25C-NB3OMe 25D-NB3OMe 25E-NB3OMe 25H-NB3OMe 25I-NB3OMe 25N-NB3OMe 25P-NB3OMe 25T2-NB3OMe 25T4-NB3OMe 25T7-NB3OMe 25TFM-NB3OMe

25x-NB4OMe

25B-NB4OMe 25C-NB4OMe 25D-NB4OMe 25E-NB4OMe 25H-NB4OMe 25I-NB4OMe 25N-NB4OMe 25P-NB4OMe 25T2-NB4OMe 25T4-NB4OMe 25T7-NB4OMe 25TFM-NB4OMe

25x-NBF

25B-NBF 25C-NBF 25D-NBF 25E-NBF 25H-NBF 25I-NBF 25P-NBF 25T2-NBF 25T7-NBF 25TFM-NBF

25x-NBMD

25B-NBMD 25C-NBMD 25D-NBMD 25E-NBMD 25F-NBMD 25H-NBMD 25I-NBMD 25P-NBMD 25T2-NBMD 25T7-NBMD 25TFM-NBMD

25x-NBOH

25B-NBOH 25C-NBOH 25CN-NBOH 25D-NBOH 25E-NBOH 25F-NBOH 25H-NBOH 25I-NBOH 25P-NBOH 25T2-NBOH 25T7-NBOH 25TFM-NBOH

25x-NBOMe

25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25CN-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25E-NBOMe 25F-NBOMe 25G-NBOMe 25H-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25iP-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe 25P-NBOMe 25T2-NBOMe 25T4-NBOMe 25T7-NBOMe 25TFM-NBOMe

Atypical structures

25I-NB34MD 2CBCB-NBOMe 2CBFly-NBOMe NBOMe-mescaline

3C-x

3C-AL 3C-BZ 3C-DFE 3C-E 3C-P

4C-x

4C-B 4C-D 4C-T-2

DOx

DOT DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOF DOI DOiPR DOM DON DOPR DOTFM MEM

HOT-x

HOT-2 HOT-7 HOT-17

MDxx

DMMDA DMMDA-2 Lophophine MDA MMDA MMDA-2 MMDA-3a MMDMA

Mescaline
Mescaline
(subst.)

2-Bromomescaline 3-TE 4-TE 3-TM 4-TM Allylescaline Asymbescaline Buscaline Cyclopropylmescaline Difluoromescaline Difluoroescaline Escaline Fluoroproscaline Isobuscaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Thioproscaline Trifluoroescaline Trifluoromescaline

TMAs

TMA TMA-2 TMA-3 TMA-4 TMA-5 TMA-6

Others

2C-B-BUTTERFLY 2C-B-DragonFLY 2CB-5-hemifly 2-TOM 5-TOET 5-TOM 2CB-Ind 2CD-5EtO BOB BOD βk-2C-B βk-2C-I DESOXY DMCPA DMBMPP DOB-FLY Fenfluramine Ganesha Macromerine MMA TCB-2 TOMSO

Piperazines

BZP pFPP

Tryptamines

alpha-alkyltryptamines

4,5-DHP-α-MT 5-MeO-α-ET 5-MeO-α-MT α-ET α-MT

x-DALT

(Daltocin) 4-HO-DALT (Daltacetin) 4-AcO-DALT 5-MeO-DALT DALT

x-DET

(Ethacetin) 4-AcO-DET (Ethocin) 4-HO-DET 5-MeO-DET (T-9) DET (Ethocybin) 4-PO-DET

x-DiPT

1-Me-5-MeO-DiPT (Ipracetin) 4-AcO-DiPT (Iprocin) 4-HO-DiPT (Foxy Methoxy) 5-MeO-DiPT DiPT

x-DMT

4,5-DHP-DMT 2,N,N-TMT 4-AcO-DMT 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT 4,N,N-TMT 4-Propionyloxy-DMT 5,6-diBr-DMT 5-AcO-DMT 5-Bromo-DMT 5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-4,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-DMT 5-N,N-TMT 7,N,N-TMT α,N,N-TMT (Bufotenin) 5-HO-DMT DMT Norbaeocystin (Psilocin) 4-HO-DMT (Psilocybin) 4-PO-DMT

x-DPT

(Depracetin) 4-AcO-DPT (Deprocin) 4-HO-DPT 5-MeO-DPT (The Light) DPT

Ibogaine-related

18-MAC 18-MC Coronaridine Ibogaine Ibogamine ME-18-MC Noribogaine Tabernanthine Voacangine

x-MET

(Metocin) 4-HO-MET (Metocetin) 4-AcO-MET 5-MeO-MET MET

x-MiPT

(Mipracetin) 4-AcO-MiPT (Miprocin) 4-HO-MiPT 5-Me-MiPT (Moxy) 5-MeO-MiPT MiPT

Others

4-HO-DBT 4-HO-EPT 4-HO-McPT (Lucigenol) 4-HO-MPMI (Meprocin) 4-HO-MPT 5-MeO-EiPT 5-MeO-MALT 5-MeO-MPMI Aeruginascin Baeocystin DBT DCPT EiPT EPT MPT PiPT

Others

5-MeO-DiBF AL-38022A ALPHA Dimemebfe Efavirenz Lorcaserin M-ALPHA RH-34 Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB
6-APB
and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA).

Dissociatives (NMDAR antagonists)

Arylcyclo‐ hexylamines

Ketamine-related

2-Fluorodeschloroketamine Arketamine
Arketamine
((R)-ketamine) Deschloroketamine Ethketamine
Ethketamine
(N-Ethylnorketamine) Esketamine
Esketamine
((S)-ketamine) Ketamine Methoxetamine Methoxmetamine Methoxyketamine Norketamine Tiletamine

PCP-related

3'-HO-PCP 3'-MeO-PCE 3'-MeO-PCMo 3'-MeO-PCP BDPC Dieticyclidine
Dieticyclidine
(PCDE) Eticyclidine
Eticyclidine
(PCE) Methoxydine
Methoxydine
(4'-MeO-PCP) PCPr Phencyclidine
Phencyclidine
(PCP) Rolicyclidine
Rolicyclidine
(PCPy) Tenocyclidine
Tenocyclidine
(TCP)

Others

BTCP Gacyclidine PRE-084

Diarylethylamines

Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine

Morphinans

Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan

Others

2-EMSB 2-MDP 8A-PDHQ Aptiganel Budipine Delucemine Dexoxadrol Dizocilpine Etoxadrol Herkinorin Ibogaine Midafotel NEFA Neramexane Nitrous oxide Noribogaine Perzinfotel RB-64 Remacemide Salvinorin A Selfotel Xenon

Deliriants (mAChR antagonists)

Atropine Benactyzine Benzatropine Benzydamine Biperiden BRN-1484501 Brompheniramine BZ CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 Chloropyramine Chlorphenamine Clemastine CS-27349 Cyclizine Cyproheptadine Dicycloverine Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Ditran Doxylamine EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Elemicin Flavoxate Hyoscyamine JB-318 JB-336 Meclozine Mepyramine Myristicin Orphenadrine Oxybutynin Pheniramine Phenyltoloxamine Procyclidine Promethazine Scopolamine Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripelennamine Triprolidine WIN-2299

Others

Cannabinoids (CB1 agonists)

Natural

THC
THC
(Dronabinol) THCV

Synthetic

AM-x

AM-087 AM-251 AM-279 AM-281 AM-356 AM-374 AM-381 AM-404 AM-411 AM-630 AM-661 AM-678 AM-679 AM-694 AM-735 AM-855 AM-881 AM-883 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-1116 AM-1172 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-1248 AM-1710 AM-1714 AM-1902 AM-2201 AM-2212 AM-2213 AM-2232 AM-2233 AM-2389 AM-3102 AM-4030 AM-4054 AM-4056 AM-4113 AM-6545

CP x

CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 (±)-CP 55,940 (+)-CP 55,940 (-)-CP 55,940

HU-x

HU-210 HU-211 HU-239 HU-243 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345

JWH-x

JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-030 JWH-047 JWH-048 JWH-051 JWH-057 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-120 JWH-122 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-147 JWH-148 JWH-149 JWH-149 JWH-161 JWH-164 JWH-166 JWH-167 JWH-171 JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-181 JWH-182 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-193 JWH-193 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-198 JWH-199 JWH-200 JWH-203 JWH-205 JWH-210 JWH-210 JWH-213 JWH-220 JWH-229 JWH-234 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-253 JWH-258 JWH-300 JWH-302 JWH-307 JWH-336 JWH-350 JWH-359 JWH-387 JWH-398 JWH-424

Misc. designer cannabinoids

4-HTMPIPO 5F-AB-FUPPYCA 5F-AB-PINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-ADBICA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-NNE1 5F-PB-22 5F-SDB-006 A-796,260 A-836,339 AB-001 AB-005 AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADBICA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-FUBINACA APICA APINACA APP-FUBINACA CB-13 CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA DMHP EAM-2201 FAB-144 FDU-PB-22 FUB-144 FUB-APINACA FUB-JWH-018 FUB-PB-22 FUBIMINA JTE 7-31 JTE-907 Levonantradol MDMB-CHMICA MDMB-CHMINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MEPIRAPIM MAM-2201 MDA-19 MN-18 MN-25 NESS-0327 NESS-040C5 Nabilone Nabitan NM-2201 NNE1 Org 28611 Parahexyl PTI-1 PTI-2 PX-1 PX-2 PX-3 QUCHIC QUPIC RCS-4 RCS-8 SDB-005 SDB-006 STS-135 THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate THJ-018 THJ-2201 UR-144 WIN 55,212-2 XLR-11

D2 agonists

Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, methamphetamine), and precursors (levodopa).

GABAA enhancers

CI-966 Eszopiclone Ibotenic acid Muscimol
Muscimol
( Amanita
Amanita
muscaria) Zaleplon Zolpidem Zopiclone

Inhalants (Mixed MOA)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Butane Gasoline Kerosene Propane

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Toluene

Ethers

Diethyl ether Enflurane

Haloalkanes

Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform

κOR agonists

2-EMSB Alazocine Bremazocine Butorphan Butorphanol Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Diprenorphine Enadoline Herkinorin Heroin HZ-2 Ibogaine Ketazocine Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol LPK-26 Metazocine Morphine Nalbuphine Nalmefene Nalorphine Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pentazocine Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan Salvinorin A Spiradoline Tifluadom U-50488 U-69,593 Xorphanol

Others

Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapi

.