1.1 Alternative names 1.2 Sub-varieties
2.1 In dictionaries
3 Status 4 Phonology
4.1 Consonants 4.2 Vowels
4.2.1 Long and short vowels 4.2.2 Diphthongs and triphthongs 4.2.3 BATH vowel 4.2.4 French words 4.2.5 Alternative notation
4.3 Historical variation 4.4 Comparison with other varieties of English
5 Spoken specimen 6 Notable speakers 7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 Bibliography 10 External links
The introduction of the term
Standard Southern British (where 'Standard' should not be taken as implying a value judgment of 'correctness') is the modern equivalent of what has been called 'Received Pronunciation' ('RP'). It is an accent of the south east of England which operates as a prestige norm there and (to varying degrees) in other parts of the British Isles and beyond.
Sub-varieties Faced with the difficulty of defining RP, some researchers have tried to distinguish between different sub-varieties:
Gimson (1980) proposed Conservative, General, and Advanced;
Conservative RP referred to a traditional accent associated with older
speakers with certain social backgrounds; General RP was considered
neutral regarding age, occupation or lifestyle of the speaker; and
Advanced RP referred to speech of a younger generation of
speakers. Later editions (e.g., Gimson 2008) use the terms
General, Refined and Regional.
Wells (1982) refers to "mainstream RP" and "U-RP"; he suggests that
Gimson's categories of Conservative and Advanced RP referred to the
U-RP of the old and young respectively. However, Wells stated, "It is
difficult to separate stereotype from reality" with U-RP. Writing
on his blog in February 2013, Wells wrote, "If only a very small
percentage of English people speak RP, as Trudgill et al claim, then
the percentage speaking U-RP is vanishingly small" and "If I were
redoing it today, I think I'd drop all mention of 'U-RP'".
Upton distinguishes between RP (which he equates with Wells's
"mainstream RP"), Traditional RP (after Ramsaran 1990), and an even
older version which he identifies with Cruttenden's "Refined RP".
An article on the website of the
The modern style of RP is an accent often taught to non-native
speakers learning British English. Non-RP Britons abroad may
modify their pronunciation to something closer to Received
Pronunciation to be better understood by people unfamiliar with the
diversity of British accents. They may also modify their vocabulary
and grammar to be closer to those of
Standard English for the same
reason. RP is used as the standard for English in most books on
general phonology and phonetics, and is represented in the
pronunciation schemes of most dictionaries published in the United
Most English dictionaries published in Britain (including the Oxford
English Dictionary) now give phonetically transcribed RP
pronunciations for all words. Pronunciation dictionaries are a special
class of dictionary giving a wide range of possible pronunciations;
British pronunciation dictionaries are all based on RP, though not
necessarily using that name. Daniel Jones transcribed RP
pronunciations of a large number of words and names in the English
Pronouncing Dictionary. This is still being published by Cambridge
University Press, and is now edited by Peter Roach, the accent
having been renamed "BBC Pronunciation". Two other pronunciation
dictionaries are in common use: the Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary, compiled by John C. Wells, using the name Received
Pronunciation, and the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current
English, compiled by Clive Upton. This represents an accent named
BR ("British English") which is based on RP, but is claimed to be
representative of a wider group of speakers. An earlier pronunciation
dictionary by J. Windsor Lewis gives both British and American
pronunciations, using the term General British (GB) for the former and
It is the business of educated people to speak so that no-one may be able to tell in what county their childhood was passed. — A. Burrell, Recitation. A Handbook for Teachers in Public Elementary School, 1891
In the 19th century, some British prime ministers still spoke with
some regional features, such as William Ewart Gladstone. From the
1970s onwards, attitudes towards
Labial Dental Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p b
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ
Nasals and liquids (/m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, /l/) may be syllabic in unstressed syllables. While the IPA symbol [ɹ] is phonetically correct for the consonant in 'row', 'arrow' in many accents of American and British English, most published work on Received Pronunciation represents this phoneme as /r/. Voiceless plosives (/p/, /t/, /k/, /tʃ/) are aspirated at the beginning of a syllable, unless a completely unstressed vowel follows. (For example, the /p/ is aspirated in "impasse", with primary stress on "-passe", but not "compass", where "-pass" has no stress.) Aspiration does not occur when /s/ precedes in the same syllable, as in "spot" or "stop". When a sonorant /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/ follows, this aspiration is indicated by partial devoicing of the sonorant. /r/ is a fricative when devoiced. Syllable final /p/, /t/, /tʃ/, and /k/ may be either preceded by a glottal stop (glottal reinforcement) or, in the case of /t/, fully replaced by a glottal stop, especially before a syllabic nasal (bitten [ˈbɪʔn̩]). The glottal stop may be realised as creaky voice; thus, an alternative phonetic transcription of attempt [əˈtʰemʔt] could be [əˈtʰemm̰t]. As in other varieties of English, voiced plosives (/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, /dʒ/) are partly or even fully devoiced at utterance boundaries or adjacent to voiceless consonants. The voicing distinction between voiced and voiceless sounds is reinforced by a number of other differences, with the result that the two of consonants can clearly be distinguished even in the presence of devoicing of voiced sounds:
Aspiration of voiceless consonants syllable-initially. Glottal reinforcement of voiceless consonants syllable-finally. Lengthening of vowels before voiced consonants.
As a result, some authors prefer to use the terms "fortis" and "lenis" in place of "voiceless" and "voiced". However, the latter are traditional and in more frequent usage. The voiced dental fricative (/ð/) is more often a weak dental plosive; the sequence /nð/ is often realised as [n̪n̪] (a long dental nasal). /l/ has velarised allophone ([ɫ]) in the syllable rhyme. /h/ becomes voiced ([ɦ]) between voiced sounds. Vowels
Monophthongs of a fairly conservative variety of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
Monophthongs of modern RP. From Gimson (2014, chpt. 8.9)
Ranges of the weak vowels in RP and GA. From Wells (2008, p. XXV)
Allophones of some RP monophthongs, from Collins & Mees (2003:92, 95 and 101). The red ones occur before dark /l/, and the blue one occurs before velars.
Front Central Back
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ə
Open æ ʌ ɒ
Examples of short vowels: /ɪ/ in kit, mirror and rabbit, /ʊ/ in foot and cook, /e/ in dress and merry, /ʌ/ in strut and curry, /æ/ in trap and marry, /ɒ/ in lot and orange, /ə/ in ago and sofa.
Front Central Back
Close iː uː
ɜː ɔː ( listen)
Examples of long vowels: /iː/ in fleece, /uː/ in goose, /ɜː/ in nurse and furry, /ɔː/ in north, force and thought, /ɑː/ in father, bath and start. Long and short vowels RP's long vowels are slightly diphthongised, especially the high vowels /iː/ and /uː/, which are often narrowly transcribed in phonetic literature as diphthongs [ɪi] and [ʊu]. "Long" and "short" are relative to each other. Because of phonological process affecting vowel length, short vowels in one context can be longer than long vowels in another context. For example, the long vowel /iː/ in 'reach' /riːtʃ/ (which ends with a voiceless consonant) may be shorter than the short vowel /ɪ/ in the word 'ridge' /rɪdʒ/ (which ends with a voiced consonant). Wiik, cited in Gimson, published durations of English vowels with a mean value of 17.2 csec. for short vowels before voiced consonants but a mean value of 16.5 csec for long vowels preceding voiceless consonants. Conversely, the short vowel /æ/ becomes longer if it is followed by a voiced consonant. Thus, bat is pronounced [bæʔt] and bad is [bæːd]. In natural speech, the plosives /t/ and /d/ may be unreleased utterance-finally, and voiced consonants partly or completely devoiced (as in [b̥æːd̥]); thus distinction between these words would rest mostly on vowel length and the presence or absence of glottal reinforcement. In addition to such length distinctions, unstressed vowels are both shorter and more centralised than stressed ones. In unstressed syllables occurring before vowels and in final position, contrasts between long and short high vowels are neutralised and short [i] and [u] occur (e.g. happy [ˈhæpi], throughout [θɹuˈaʊʔt]). The neutralisation is common throughout many English dialects, though the phonetic realisation of e.g. [i] rather than [ɪ] (a phenomenon called happy-tensing) is not as universal. Unstressed vowels vary in quality:
/i/ (as in HAPPY) ranges from close front [i] to close-mid retracted front [e̠]; /u/ (as in INFLUENCE) ranges from close advanced back [u̟] to close-mid retracted central [ɵ̠]; according to the phonetician Jane Setter, the typical pronunciation of this vowel is a weakly rounded, mid-centralized close back unrounded vowel, transcribed in the IPA as [u̜̽] or simply [ʊ̜]; /ə/ (as in COMMA) ranges from close-mid central [ɘ] to open-mid central [ɜ].
Diphthongs and triphthongs
Diphthongs of RP. From Roach (2004, p. 242)
/eɪ/ ( listen) /beɪ/ bay
/aɪ/ ( listen) /baɪ/ buy
/ɔɪ/ ( listen) /bɔɪ/ boy
/əʊ/ ( listen) /bəʊ/ beau
/aʊ/ /baʊ/ bough
/ɪə/ /bɪə/ beer
/eə/ /beə/ bear
/ʊə/ /bʊə/ boor
(formerly /ɔə/) /bɔə/ boar
The centring diphthongs are gradually being eliminated in RP. The vowel /ɔə/ (as in "door", "boar") had largely merged with /ɔː/ by the Second World War, and the vowel /ʊə/ (as in "poor", "tour") has more recently merged with /ɔː/ as well among most speakers, although the sound /ʊə/ is still found in conservative speakers. See poor–pour merger. The remaining two centring glides /ɪə/ /eə/ are increasingly pronounced as long monophthongs [ɪː] [ɛː], although without merging with any existing vowels. The diphthong /əʊ/ is pronounced by some RP speakers in a noticeably different way when it occurs before /l/, if that consonant is syllable-final and not followed by a vowel (the context in which /l/ is pronounced as a "dark l"). The realization of /əʊ/ in this case begins with a more back, rounded and sometimes more open vowel quality; it may be transcribed as [ɔʊ] or [ɒʊ]. It is likely that the backness of the diphthong onset is the result of allophonic variation caused by the raising of the back of the tongue for the /l/. If the speaker has "l-vocalization" the /l/ is realized as a back rounded vowel, which again is likely to cause backing and rounding in a preceding vowel as coarticulation effects. This phenomenon has been discussed in several blogs by John C. Wells. In the recording included in this article the phrase 'fold his cloak' contains examples of the /əʊ/ diphthong in the two different contexts. The onset of the pre-/l/ diphthong in 'fold' is slightly more back and rounded than that in 'cloak', though the allophonic transcription does not at present indicate this. RP also possesses the triphthongs /aɪə/ as in tire, /aʊə/ as in tower, /əʊə/ as in lower, /eɪə/ as in layer and /ɔɪə/ as in loyal. There are different possible realisations of these items: in slow, careful speech they may be pronounced as a two-syllable triphthong with three distinct vowel qualities in succession, or as a monosyllabic triphthong. In more casual speech the middle vowel may be considerably reduced, by a process known as smoothing, and in an extreme form of this process the triphthong may even be reduced to a single vowel, though this is rare, and almost never found in the case of /ɔɪə/. In such a case the difference between /aʊə/, /aɪə/, and /ɑː/ in tower, tire, and tar may be neutralised with all three units realised as [ɑː] or [äː]. This type of smoothing is known as the tower–tire, tower–tar and tire–tar mergers.
As two syllables Triphthong Loss of mid-element Further simplified as Example
[aɪ.ə] [aɪə] [aːə] [aː] tire
[ɑʊ.ə] [ɑʊə] [ɑːə] [ɑː] tower
[əʊ.ə] [əʊə] [əːə] [ɜː] lower
[eɪ.ə] [eɪə] [ɛːə] [ɛː] layer
[ɔɪ.ə] [ɔɪə] [ɔːə] [ɔː] loyal
BATH vowel See also: Phonological history of English short A § Trap–bath split in Received Pronunciation There are differing opinions as regards whether /æ/ in the BATH lexical set can be considered RP. The pronunciations with /ɑː/ are invariably accepted as RP. The English Pronouncing Dictionary does not admit /æ/ in BATH words and the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary lists them with a § marker of non-RP status. John Wells wrote in a blog entry on 16 March 2012 that, when growing up in the north of England, he used /ɑː/ in "bath" and "glass", and considers this the only acceptable phoneme in RP. Others have argued that /æ/ is too categorical in the north of England to be excluded. Clive Upton believes that /æ/ in these words must be considered within RP and has called the opposing view "south-centric". Upton's Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English gives both variants for BATH words. A. F. Gupta's survey of mostly middle-class students found that /æ/ was used by almost everyone who was from clearly north of the isogloss for BATH words. She wrote, "There is no justification for the claims by Wells and Mugglestone that this is a sociolinguistic variable in the north, though it is a sociolinguistic variable on the areas on the border [the isogloss between north and south]". In a study of speech in West Yorkshire, K. M. Petyt wrote that "the amount of /ɑː/ usage is too low to correlate meaningfully with the usual factors", having found only two speakers (both having attended boarding schools in the south) who consistently used /ɑː/. Jack Windsor Lewis has noted that the Oxford Dictionary's position has changed several times on whether to include short /æ/ within its prescribed pronunciation. The BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names uses only /ɑː/, but its author, Graham Pointon, has stated on his blog that he finds both variants to be acceptable in place names. Some research has concluded that many people in the North of England have a dislike of the /ɑː/ vowel in BATH words. A. F. Gupta wrote, "Many of the northerners were noticeably hostile to /ɡrɑːs/, describing it as 'comical', 'snobbish', 'pompous' or even 'for morons'." On the subject, K. M. Petyt wrote that several respondents "positively said that they did not prefer the long-vowel form or that they really detested it or even that it was incorrect". Mark Newbrook has assigned this phenomenon the name "conscious rejection", and has cited the BATH vowel as "the main instance of conscious rejection of RP" in his research in West Wirral. French words John Wells has argued that, as educated British speakers often attempt to pronounce French names in a French way, there is a case for including /ɒ̃/ (as in bon), and /æ̃/ and /ɜ̃:/ (as in vingt-et-un), as marginal members of the RP vowel system. He also argues against including other French vowels on the grounds that very few British speakers succeed in distinguishing the vowels in bon and banc, or in rue and roue. Alternative notation Not all reference sources use the same system of transcription. In particular:
/æ/ as in trap is also written /a/. /e/ as in dress is also written /ɛ/. /ʌ/ as in cup is also written /ɐ/. /ʊ/ as in foot is also written /ɵ/. /ɜː/ as in nurse is also written /əː/. /aɪ/ as in price is also written /ʌɪ/. /aʊ/ as in mouse is also written /ɑʊ/ /eə/ as in square is also written /ɛə/, and is also sometimes treated as a long monophthong /ɛː/. /eɪ/ as in face is also written /ɛɪ/. /ɪə/ as in near is also written /ɪː/. /əʊ/ before /l/ in a closed syllable as in goal is also written /ɔʊ/. /uː/ as in goose is also written /ʉː/.
Most of these variants are used in the transcription devised by Clive
Upton for the
Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
A comparison of the formant values of /iː æ ɑː ɔː ʊ uː/ for older (black) and younger (light blue) RP speakers. From de Jong et al. (2007, p. 1814)
Some changes in RP during the 20th century include:
Words such as CLOTH, gone, off, often were pronounced with /ɔː/ instead of /ɒ/, so that often and orphan were homophones (see lot–cloth split). The Queen still uses the older pronunciations, but it is rare to hear them on the BBC any more. There was a distinction between horse and hoarse with an extra diphthong /ɔə/ appearing in words like hoarse, FORCE, and pour. The DRESS vowel and the first element of the diphthong in FACE was lowered from mid [e̞] to open-mid [ɛ]. Any final y on a word is now represented as an /i/ – a symbol to cover either the traditional /ɪ/ or the more modern /iː/, the latter of which has been common in the south of England for some time. Before the Second World War, the vowel of cup was a back vowel close to cardinal [ʌ] but has since shifted forward to a central position so that [ɐ] is more accurate; phonetic transcription of this vowel as ⟨ʌ⟩ is common partly for historical reasons. In the 1960s, the transcription /əʊ/ started to be used for the GOAT vowel instead of Daniel Jones's /oʊ/, reflecting a change in pronunciation since the beginning of the century.
The change in RP may be observed in the home of "BBC English". The BBC
accent of the 1950s is distinctly different from today's: a news
report from the 1950s is recognisable as such, and a mock-1950s BBC
voice is used for comic effect in programmes wishing to satirise 1950s
social attitudes such as the
Like most other varieties of English outside Northern England, RP has
undergone the foot–strut split (pairs nut/put differ).
RP is a non-rhotic accent, so /r/ does not occur unless followed
immediately by a vowel (pairs such as caught/court and
formally/formerly are homophones, save that formerly may be said with
a hint of /r/ to help to differentiate it, particularly where stressed
for reasons of emphasising past status e.g. "He was FORMERLY in charge
Unlike most North American accents of English, RP has not undergone
the Mary–marry–merry, nearer–mirror, or hurry–furry mergers:
all these words are distinct from each other.
Unlike many North American accents, RP has not undergone the
father–bother or cot–caught mergers.
RP does not have yod-dropping after /n/, /t/, /d/, /z/ and /θ/, but
most speakers of RP variably or consistently yod-drop after /s/ and
/l/ — new, tune, dune, resume and enthusiasm are pronounced /njuː/,
/tjuːn/, /djuːn/, /rɪˈzjuːm/ and /ɪnˈθjuːziæzm/ rather than
/nuː/, /tuːn/, /duːn/, /rɪˈzuːm/ and /ɪnˈθuːziæzm/. This
contrasts with many East Anglian and East Midland varieties of English
language in England and with many forms of American English, including
General American. Hence also pursuit is commonly heard with /j/ and
revolutionary less so but more commonly than evolution. For a subset
of these, a yod has been lost over time: for example, in all of the
words beginning suit, however the yod is sometimes deliberately
reinserted in historical or stressed contexts such as "a suit in
chancery" or "suitable for an aristocrat".
The flapped variant of /t/ and /d/ (as in much of the West Country,
Ulster, most North American varieties including General American,
Australian English, and the
Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Specimen of Received Pronunciation
The speaker (female) is described as having been born in 1953, and educated at Oxford University. To accompany the recording there are three transcriptions: orthographic, phonemic and allophonic.
Notable speakers The following people have been described as RP speakers:
David Attenborough, broadcaster and naturalist The British Royal Family David Cameron, Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Judi Dench, actor Rupert Everett, actor Boris Johnson, British Foreign Secretary Vanessa Kirby, actor Helen Mirren, actor Carey Mulligan, actor Rowan Williams, Former Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury
Accent (dialect) Accents (psychology) English language in the United Kingdom English language spelling reform General American Mid-Atlantic accent Linguistic prescription Prestige (sociolinguistics) U and non-U English
Notes and references
^ McDavid (1965), p. 255.
^ Pearsall (1999), p. xiv.
Jack Windsor Lewis (15 July 2008). "General British Pronunciation".
Yek.me.uk – PhonetiBlog.
^ Wells (2008), p. xiv.
^ Trudgill, Peter (8 December 2000). "Sociolinguistics of Modern RP".
University College London. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
^ Lewis, J. Windsor. "A Notorious Estimate". JWL's Blogs. Retrieved 17
^ Hudson (1981), p. 337.
^ Crystal, David (March 2007). "Language and Time". BBC voices. BBC.
Retrieved 18 April 2011.
^ a b McArthur (2002), p. 43.
^ Fishman (1977), p. 319.
^ Jones (1926), p. ix.
^ Ellis (1869), p. 23.
^ DuPonceau (1818), p. 259.
^ Wyld (1927), p. 23.
^ "Regional Voices – Received Pronunciation". British Library.
^ Crystal (2003), pp. 54–55.
^ Crystal (2005), pp. 243–244.
^ Cruttenden (2008), pp. 77–80.
^ Jenkins (2000), pp. 13–16.
^ Wells (1982), p. 117.
^ Jones (2011), p. vi.
^ Ladefoged (2004).
^ Trudgill (1999).
^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Review of the Daniel Jones English Pronouncing
Dictionary 15th edition 1997". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August
^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Ovvissly not one of us – Review of the
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August
Jack Windsor Lewis (19 February 1972). "British non-dialectal
accents". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
^ Jack Windsor Lewis. "Review of CPD in ELTJ". Yek.me.uk. Retrieved 24
^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 3–4.
^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 4.
^ Schmitt (2007), p. 323.
^ Wells (1982).
^ exotic spices, John Wells's phonetic blog, 28 February 2013
^ Bernd Kortmann (2004). Handbook of Varieties of English: Phonology;
Morphology, Syntax - edit edition. Mouton de Gruyter.
pp. 217–230. ISBN 978-3110175325. Retrieved 29 March
^ British Library. "Sounds Familiar". Retrieved 29 March 2017.
^ "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation". British Library. 13 March
2007. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
^ Jones (1917).
^ Jones (2011).
^ Wells (2008).
^ Upton, Kretzschmar & Konopka (2001).
^ Windsor Lewis, J. (1972). A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of
British and American English. Oxford.
^ Jones (1917), p. viii.
^ Gladstone's speech was the subject of a book The Best English. A
claim for the superiority of Received Standard English, together with
notes on Mr. Gladstone's pronunciation, H.C. Kennedy, Clarendon Press,
^ Discussed in Mugglestone (2003, pp. 277–278).
^ Zoe Thornton, The Pickles Experiment – a Yorkshire man reading the
news, Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society 2012, pp. 4–19.
^ "Scottish and Irish accents top list of favourites". The
Independent. 13 May 2007.
^ McArthur (2002), p. 49.
^ Roach (2004), pp. 240–241.
^ a b c d Roach (2004), p. 241.
^ a b c Roach (2004), p. 240.
^ a b c Gimson (1970).
^ Lodge (2009), pp. 148–9.
^ Shockey (2003), pp. 43–4.
^ Roach (2009), p. 112.
^ Halle & Mohanan (1985), p. 65.
^ Jones (1967), p. 201.
^ Cruttenden (2008), p. 204.
^ Collins & Mees (2003:95 and 101)
^ Collins & Mees (2003:92)
^ Roach (2009), p. 24.
^ Wiik (1965).
^ Cruttenden (2008), p. 95.
^ Roach (2004), pp. 241, 243.
^ a b c Wells (2008:XXV)
^ "A World of Englishes: Is /ə/ "real"?". Retrieved 5 March
^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 200.
^ Wells, John. "Blog July2006". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Wells, John. "Blog , July2009". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Wells, John. "Blog Nov2009". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Roach (2009), pp. 18–19.
^ Wells (1982), pp. 203 ff.
Jack Windsor Lewis (1990). "Review of Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary". The Times.
^ Wells, John (16 March 2012). "English places". John Wells's phonetic
^ Upton (2004), pp. 222-223.
^ a b Gupta (2005), p. 25.
^ Petyt (1985), pp. 166–167.
^ Point 18 in Jack Windsor Lewis. "The General Central Northern
Non-Dialectal Pronunciation of England". Retrieved 4 July 2011.
^ Pointon, Graham (20 April 2010). "Olivia O'Leary". Linguism:
Language in a word.
^ Petyt (1985), p. 286.
^ Newbrook (1999), p. 101.
^ a b Wells (2008), p. xxix.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation
Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The
Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill
Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger (2013) [First published 2003],
Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd
ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2
Cruttenden, Alan, ed. (2008), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (7th
ed.), London: Hodder, ISBN 0340958774
Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English
Language (2 ed.), Cambridge University Press,
Crystal, David (2005), The Stories of English, Penguin
DuPonceau, Peter S. (1818), "English phonology; or, An essay towards
an analysis and description of the component sounds of the English
language.", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1,
Ellis, Alexander J. (1869), On early English pronunciation, New York,
(1968): Greenwood Press
Elmes, Simon (2005), Talking for Britain: A journey through the voices
of our nation, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-051562-3
Fishman, Joshua (1977), ""Standard" versus "Dialect" in Bilingual
Education: An Old Problem in a New Context", The Modern Language
Journal, 61 (7): 315–325, doi:10.2307/324550,
Gimson, Alfred C. (1970), An Introduction to the pronunciation of
English, London: Edward Arnold
Gimson, Alfred C. (1980), Pronunciation of English (3rd ed.)
Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's
Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge,
Gupta, Anthea Fraser (2005), "Baths and becks", English Today, 21 (1):
21–27, doi:10.1017/S0266078405001069, ISSN 0266-0784
Halle, Morris; Mohanan, K. P. (1985), "Segmental
BBC page on Upper RP as spoken by the English upper-classes Sounds Familiar? – Listen to examples of received pronunciation on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar' website 'Hover & Hear' R.P., and compare it with other accents from the UK and around the World. Whatever happened to Received Pronunciation? – An article by the phonetician J. C. Wells about received pronunciation
Sources of regular comment on RP
John Wells's phonetic blog Jack Windsor Lewis's PhonetiBlog Linguism – Language in a word, blog by Graham Pointon of the BBC Pronunciation Unit
Blagdon Hall, Northumberland Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk Harrow Hexham, Northumberland London Newport, Pembrokeshire Teddington
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Cardiff Gower Port Talbot
Alderney Guernsey Jersey
Gibraltar Isle of Man Malta
North and South America
Varieties by common name
African American Appalachian Boston Cajun California Chicago; Detroit; Great Lakes Chicano Mid-Atlantic
Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimorese
General American High Tider Maine Miami Midland Midwestern New England New Mexican New York Old Southern Pacific Northwest Pennsylvania Dutch Pittsburghese Rhode Island Southern Texan Upper Midwestern Western Vermont Yat Yeshivish Yooper
Varieties by geographic location
Delaware Valley; Mid-Atlantic
Pennsylvania Dutch Philadelphia; South Jersey Baltimore
Great Lakes; Inland North Upper Midwest Upper Peninsula of Michigan
Boston Maine Rhode Island Vermont
New York City; Northeastern New Jersey
New York Latino
Acadiana Appalachia Chesapeake; Pamlico Miami New Orleans Texas
California New Mexico Pacific Northwest
Cape Breton Newfoundland Lunenburg
Ottawa Valley Pacific Northwest Quebec
Bahamas Barbados Dominican Republic Jamaica Puerto Rico Trinidad
Bermuda Falkland Islands Guyana
Aboriginal Broad; Strine General South Australian Torres Strait West Australian
Fiji New Zealand Palau Solomon Islands
Cameroon Ghana Kenya Liberia Malawi Namibia Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa
Cultivated General Broad Cape Flats
Bangladesh Brunei Burma or Myanmar Hong Kong India Malaysia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka
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Phonologies of the world's languages
Abkhaz Acehnese Afrikaans ASL Arabic
Modern Standard Egyptian Hejazi Levantine Tunisian
Avestan Belarusian Bengali Bulgarian Catalan Chinese
Mandarin Cantonese Old Historical
Czech Danish Dutch
Standard Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect
Australian General American New Zealand Regional North American Received Pronunciation South African Standard Canadian Old Middle
Esperanto Estonian Faroese Finnish French
Standard Bernese Chemnitz dialect
Standard Modern Ancient Koine
Gujarati Hawaiian Hebrew (Modern) Hindustani Hungarian Icelandic Inuit Irish Italian Japanese Kiowa Konkani Korean Kurdish Kyrgyz Latgalian Latin Latvian Limburgish
Lithuanian Luxembourgish Macedonian Malay Maldivian Māori Marathi Massachusett Navajo Nepali Norwegian Occitan Odia Ojibwe Old Saxon Oromo Ottawa Pashto Persian Polish Portuguese Proto-Indo-European Ripuarian
Romanian Russian Scots Scottish Gaelic Serbo-Croatian Slovak Slovene Somali Sotho Spanish
Spanish dialects and varieties
Swedish Tagalog Tamil Taos Turkish Ubykh Ukrainian Upper Sorbian Uyghur Vietnamese Welsh West Fr