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The Realm
Realm
of New Zealand
New Zealand
is the entire area (or realm) in which the Queen of New Zealand
New Zealand
is head of state. The Realm
Realm
of New Zealand
New Zealand
is not a federation; it is a collection of states and territories united under its monarch. New Zealand
New Zealand
is an independent and sovereign state. It has one Antarctic territorial claim, the Ross Dependency; one dependent territory, Tokelau; and two associated states, the Cook Islands and Niue.[1] The Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
has no permanent inhabitants, while Tokelau, the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
have native populations. Tokelau
Tokelau
is formally classified as a non-self-governing territory; the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
are internally self-governing, with New Zealand
New Zealand
retaining responsibility for defence and most foreign affairs. The Governor-General of New Zealand
New Zealand
represents the Queen throughout the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand, though the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
have an additional Queen's Representative.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Governor-General 3 Sovereignty within the Realm

3.1 Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue 3.2 New Zealand 3.3 Tokelau

4 Future of the Realm 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Overview[edit] See also: Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand The Queen of New Zealand, represented by the Governor-General of New Zealand, is head of state throughout the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand. The exact scope of the realm is defined by the 1983 Letters Patent constituting the office of Governor-General.[2] It constitutes one of 16 realms within the Commonwealth. The Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
became New Zealand's first Pacific colonies in 1901 and then protectorates. From 1965 the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
were self-governing; so was Niue
Niue
from 1974. Tokelau
Tokelau
came under New Zealand control in 1925 and remains a non-self-governing territory.[3] The Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
comprises that sector of the Antarctic continent between 160° east and 150 west longitude, together with the islands lying between those degrees of longitude and south of latitude 60.[4] The British (Imperial) government took possession of this territory in 1923 and entrusted it to the administration of New Zealand. Neither Russia
Russia
nor the United States
United States
recognises this claim, and the matter is left unresolved (along with all other Antarctic claims) by the Antarctic Treaty, which serves to mostly smooth over these differences. It is largely uninhabited, apart from scientific bases. New Zealand
New Zealand
citizenship law treats all parts of the realm equally, so most people born in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Tokelau
and the Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
before 2006 are New Zealand
New Zealand
citizens. Further conditions apply for those born from 2006 onwards.[5]

The locations of New Zealand
New Zealand
(with its major and outlying islands annotated), Niue, Tokelau, and the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
in the South Pacific Ocean. The Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
in Antarctica
Antarctica
is also shaded.

Area Representative of the Queen Head of the government Legislature Capital Population Land area

km2 sq mi

 New Zealand Governor-General Prime Minister New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament (House of Representatives) Wellington 4,242,048 268,680 103,740

 Cook Islands Queen's Representative Prime Minister Parliament of the Cook Islands Avarua 21,388 236 91

 Niue Representative of the Queen[Note 1] Premier Niue
Niue
Legislative Assembly Alofi 1,145 260 100

 Tokelau Administrator Ulu-o-Tokelau General Fono Fakaofo 1,405 10 4

 Ross Dependency Governor[Note 1] Chief Executive None[Note 2] None Scott Base: 10–80 McMurdo Station: 200–1,000 (seasonally) 450,000 170,000

^ a b The Governor General of New Zealand
New Zealand
is also the Representative of the Queen of Niue
Niue
and the Governor of the Ross Dependency, but they are separate posts. ^ Legislation for the Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
is enacted by the New Zealand Parliament, though practically this is limited due to the Antarctic Treaty System.

Governor-General[edit] Main article: Governor-General of New Zealand A governor-general represents the head of state (Elizabeth II, in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand) in the area of the realm. Essentially, Governors-General take on all the dignities and reserve powers of the head of state. From 31 August 2011 until 31 August 2016 the Governor-General was Rt Hon Sir Jerry Mateparae. Dame Patsy Reddy was appointed to assume the position on 14 September 2016.[6][7] Sovereignty within the Realm[edit] Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue[edit] Both the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
are self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. The details of their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the 1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint Centenary Declaration. As such, the New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament is not empowered to unilaterally pass legislation in respect of these states. In foreign affairs and defence issues New Zealand
New Zealand
acts on behalf of these countries, but only with their advice and consent. As the Governor-General is resident in New Zealand, the Cook Islands Constitution
Constitution
provides for the distinct position of Queen's Representative. This individual is not subordinate to the Governor-General and acts as the local representative of the Queen in right of New Zealand. Since 2013, Tom Marsters
Tom Marsters
is the Queen's Representative to the Cook Islands. (Marsters was preceded by Sir Frederick Tutu Goodwin.) This arrangement effectively allows for the de facto independent actions of internal and most external areas of governance. According to Niue's Constitution
Constitution
of 1974, the Governor-General of New Zealand acts as the Queen's representative. In the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
the New Zealand
New Zealand
High Commissioner
High Commissioner
is the diplomatic representative from New Zealand. John Carter (since 2011) is the New Zealand
New Zealand
High Commissioner
High Commissioner
to the Cook Islands. Mark Blumsky was the New Zealand
New Zealand
High Commissioner
High Commissioner
to Niue
Niue
from 2010 until he was replaced by Ross Ardern in early 2014. Despite their close relationship to New Zealand, both the Cook Islands and Niue
Niue
maintain some diplomatic relations in their own name. Both countries maintain High Commissions in New Zealand
New Zealand
and have New Zealand High Commissioners resident in their capitals. In Commonwealth practice, High Commissioners represent their governments, not the Head of State. New Zealand[edit] New Zealand
New Zealand
proper consists of the following island groups:

the North Island, South Island
South Island
and neighbouring coastal islands, all contained within the 16 regions of New Zealand the Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
to the east, contained within the Chatham Islands Territory the Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
and the Three Kings Islands
Three Kings Islands
to the north and New Zealand Subantarctic Islands to the south, all outside local authority boundaries and inhabited only by a small number of research and conservation staff the Ross Dependency, which forms part of Antarctica. It is constitutionally part of New Zealand.[8] However, application of Sovereignty within the Dependency is subsequent upon the enforcement of terms found within the Antarctic Treaty

Tokelau[edit] Tokelau
Tokelau
has a lesser degree of self-government than the Cook Islands and Niue, and had been moving toward free association status. New Zealand's representative in Tokelau
Tokelau
is the Administrator of Tokelau and has the power to overturn rules passed by the Parliament of Tokelau. In referenda conducted in 2006 and 2007 by New Zealand
New Zealand
at the United Nations' request, the people of Tokelau
Tokelau
failed to reach the two-thirds majority necessary to attain a system of governance with equal powers to that of Niue
Niue
and the Cook Islands.[9] Future of the Realm[edit] Within New Zealand
New Zealand
there exists some support[10][11] for a New Zealand republic. Should New Zealand
New Zealand
become a republic it will retain the Ross Dependency and Tokelau
Tokelau
as dependent territories and the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand would continue to exist without New Zealand, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau.[12] This would not be a legal hurdle to a New Zealand republic as such, and both the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
would retain their free association with New Zealand. However, a New Zealand republic would present the issue of independence to the Cook Islands and Niue. Thus, a number of options for the future of the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand exist should New Zealand
New Zealand
become a republic:

A New Zealand
New Zealand
republic with the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
remaining in free association with New Zealand, but retaining the Queen as their head of state; A New Zealand
New Zealand
republic with the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
having a new republican head of state as their head of state and becoming independent states; A New Zealand
New Zealand
republic with the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
having their own heads of state, but retaining their status of free association with New Zealand.[12]

See also[edit]

New Zealand
New Zealand
portal

Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand History of Samoa – a country formerly under New Zealand administration as League of Nations mandate and UN Trust Territory History of Nauru – a country where New Zealand
New Zealand
was nominal co-trustee during a period of League of Nations mandate and later UN Trust Territory Monarchy of the Cook Islands Monarchy of New Zealand Monarchy of Niue Pitcairn Islands – though not part of its realm, New Zealand
New Zealand
is involved in several aspects of Pitcairn governance, such as law enforcement and the Pitcairn Supreme Court. The British High Commissioner to New Zealand
New Zealand
is Governor of Pitcairn.

References[edit]

^ New Zealand's Constitution, New Zealand
New Zealand
government, retrieved 20 November 2009 ^ Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand (SR 1983/225), New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliamentary Counsel Office, retrieved 20 November 2009 ^ Taonga, New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "Pacific Islands and New Zealand
New Zealand
– Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand". The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 November 2016.  ^ Hare, McLintock, Alexander; Wellington., Ralph Hudson Wheeler, M.A., Senior Lecturer in Geography, Victoria University of; Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu (1966). "The Ross Dependency". Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 November 2016.  ^ "Check if you're a New Zealand
New Zealand
citizen". New Zealand
New Zealand
Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ "Reddy for a new Governor General appointment process? Radio New Zealand News". Radionz.co.nz. Retrieved 2017-01-02.  ^ [1] ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
and Antarctica. NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2010 ^ " Tokelau
Tokelau
decolonisation high on agenda". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ A July 2005 poll published in The Press showed 27% support for the question "Do you support New Zealand
New Zealand
becoming a republic?", and 67% opposition. ^ A poll by The Sunday Star-Times, published on 20 January 2006, stated there was 47% support for a New Zealand
New Zealand
republic, and 47% support for the monarchy. ^ a b Townend, Andrew (2003). "The Strange Death of the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand: The Implications of a New Zealand
New Zealand
Republic for the Cook Islands and Niue". Victoria University of Wellington
Wellington
Law Review. Retrieved 25 July 2010. 

External links[edit]

Letters Patent constituting the office of Governor-General of New Zealand — gives explanation for " Realm
Realm
of New Zealand" "Cook Islands" (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) "Niue" (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) " New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Tokelau
Tokelau
Islands" (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) "Ross Dependency" (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

v t e

Realm
Realm
of New Zealand

 Cook Islands  New Zealand  Niue Ross Dependency  Tokelau

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Realm
Realm
of New Zealand

Sovereign states  New Zealand      Cook Islands  Niue

Regions 11 non-unitary regions 5 unitary regions Chatham Islands   Outlying islands outside any regional authority (the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, and Subantarctic Islands) Ross Dependency  Tokelau 15 islands 14 villages

Territorial authorities 13 cities and 53 districts

Notes Some districts lie in more than one region These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one Special
Special
territorial authority The outlying Solander Islands
Solander Islands
form part of the Southland Region New Zealand's Antarctic territory Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand States in free association with New Zealand

v t e

Commonwealth realms and dominions

Current

Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(monarchy) Australia
Australia
(monarchy) Bahamas (monarchy) Barbados
Barbados
(monarchy) Belize
Belize
(monarchy) Canada
Canada
(monarchy) Grenada
Grenada
(monarchy) Jamaica
Jamaica
(monarchy) Realm
Realm
of New Zealand

Cook Islands New Zealand Niue

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(monarchy) Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(monarchy) Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(monarchy) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(monarchy) Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(monarchy) Tuvalu
Tuvalu
(monarchy) United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(monarchy)

Former

Ceylon Fiji (monarchy) The Gambia Ghana Guyana India Ireland (monarchy) Kenya Malawi Malta (monarchy) Mauritius Newfoundland1 Nigeria Pakistan Rhodesia2 Sierra Leone South Africa (monarchy) Tanganyika Trinidad and Tobago Uganda

1 Annexed by Canada
Canada
in 1949 2 Rhodesia
Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965, but this was not recognised internationally. Declared itself a

.