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Reality
Reality
is the state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them.[1] Reality
Reality
includes everything that is and has been, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible. A still broader definition includes that which has existed, exists, or will exist. Philosophers, mathematicians, and other ancient and modern thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that are imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought. By contrast, existence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a direct basis in it in the way that thoughts do in the brain. Reality
Reality
is often contrasted with what is imaginary, illusory, delusional, (only) in the mind, dreams, what is false, what is fictional, or what is abstract. At the same time, what is abstract plays a role both in everyday life and in academic research. For instance, causality, virtue, life, and distributive justice are abstract concepts that can be difficult to define, but they are only rarely equated with pure delusions. Both the existence and reality of abstractions are in dispute: one extreme position regards them as mere words; another position regards them as higher truths than less abstract concepts. This disagreement is the basis of the philosophical problem of universals. The truth refers to what is real, while falsity refers to what is not. Fictions are considered not real.

Contents

1 Related concepts

1.1 World views and theories

2 Western philosophy

2.1 Being 2.2 Perception 2.3 Abstract objects and mathematics 2.4 Properties 2.5 Time
Time
and space 2.6 Possible worlds 2.7 Theories of everything (TOE) and philosophy 2.8 Phenomenological reality 2.9 Skeptical hypotheses

3 Jain philosophy 4 Physical sciences

4.1 Scientific realism 4.2 Realism and locality in physics 4.3 Role of the observer in quantum mechanics 4.4 Multiverse 4.5 Scientific theories of everything

5 Technology

5.1 Virtual reality
Virtual reality
and cyberspace 5.2 "RL" in internet culture

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Related concepts See also: Truth
Truth
and Fact World views and theories Further information: World view A common colloquial usage would have reality mean "perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes toward reality", as in "My reality is not your reality." This is often used just as a colloquialism indicating that the parties to a conversation agree, or should agree, not to quibble over deeply different conceptions of what is real. For example, in a religious discussion between friends, one might say (attempting humor), "You might disagree, but in my reality, everyone goes to heaven." Reality
Reality
can be defined in a way that links it to worldviews or parts of them (conceptual frameworks): Reality
Reality
is the totality of all things, structures (actual and conceptual), events (past and present) and phenomena, whether observable or not. It is what a world view (whether it be based on individual or shared human experience) ultimately attempts to describe or map. Certain ideas from physics, philosophy, sociology, literary criticism, and other fields shape various theories of reality. One such belief is that there simply and literally is no reality beyond the perceptions or beliefs we each have about reality. Such attitudes are summarized in the popular statement, " Perception
Perception
is reality" or " Life
Life
is how you perceive reality" or "reality is what you can get away with" (Robert Anton Wilson), and they indicate anti-realism – that is, the view that there is no objective reality, whether acknowledged explicitly or not. Many of the concepts of science and philosophy are often defined culturally and socially. This idea was elaborated by Thomas Kuhn
Thomas Kuhn
in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
(1962). The Social Construction of Reality, a book about the sociology of knowledge written by Peter L. Berger
Peter L. Berger
and Thomas Luckmann, was published in 1966. It explained how knowledge is acquired and used for the comprehension of reality. Out of all the realities, the reality of everyday life is the most important one since our consciousness requires us to be completely aware and attentive to the experience of everyday life. Western philosophy Philosophy
Philosophy
addresses two different aspects of the topic of reality: the nature of reality itself, and the relationship between the mind (as well as language and culture) and reality. On the one hand, ontology is the study of being, and the central topic of the field is couched, variously, in terms of being, existence, "what is", and reality. The task in ontology is to describe the most general categories of reality and how they are interrelated. If a philosopher wanted to proffer a positive definition of the concept "reality", it would be done under this heading. As explained above, some philosophers draw a distinction between reality and existence. In fact, many analytic philosophers today tend to avoid the term "real" and "reality" in discussing ontological issues. But for those who would treat "is real" the same way they treat "exists", one of the leading questions of analytic philosophy has been whether existence (or reality) is a property of objects. It has been widely held by analytic philosophers that it is not a property at all, though this view has lost some ground in recent decades. On the other hand, particularly in discussions of objectivity that have feet in both metaphysics and epistemology, philosophical discussions of "reality" often concern the ways in which reality is, or is not, in some way dependent upon (or, to use fashionable jargon, "constructed" out of) mental and cultural factors such as perceptions, beliefs, and other mental states, as well as cultural artifacts, such as religions and political movements, on up to the vague notion of a common cultural world view, or Weltanschauung. The view that there is a reality independent of any beliefs, perceptions, etc., is called realism. More specifically, philosophers are given to speaking about "realism about" this and that, such as realism about universals or realism about the external world. Generally, where one can identify any class of object, the existence or essential characteristics of which is said not to depend on perceptions, beliefs, language, or any other human artifact, one can speak of "realism about" that object. One can also speak of anti-realism about the same objects. Anti-realism is the latest in a long series of terms for views opposed to realism. Perhaps the first was idealism, so called because reality was said to be in the mind, or a product of our ideas. Berkeleyan idealism is the view, propounded by the Irish empiricist George Berkeley, that the objects of perception are actually ideas in the mind. In this view, one might be tempted to say that reality is a "mental construct"; this is not quite accurate, however, since, in Berkeley's view, perceptual ideas are created and coordinated by God. By the 20th century, views similar to Berkeley's were called phenomenalism. Phenomenalism differs from Berkeleyan idealism primarily in that Berkeley believed that minds, or souls, are not merely ideas nor made up of ideas, whereas varieties of phenomenalism, such as that advocated by Russell, tended to go farther to say that the mind itself is merely a collection of perceptions, memories, etc., and that there is no mind or soul over and above such mental events. Finally, anti-realism became a fashionable term for any view which held that the existence of some object depends upon the mind or cultural artifacts. The view that the so-called external world is really merely a social, or cultural, artifact, called social constructionism, is one variety of anti-realism. Cultural relativism is the view that social issues such as morality are not absolute, but at least partially cultural artifact. A correspondence theory of knowledge about what exists claims that "true" knowledge of reality represents accurate correspondence of statements about and images of reality with the actual reality that the statements or images are attempting to represent. For example, the scientific method can verify that a statement is true based on the observable evidence that a thing exists. Many humans can point to the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and say that this mountain range exists, and continues to exist even if no one is observing it or making statements about it. Being The nature of being is a perennial topic in metaphysics. For, instance Parmenides
Parmenides
taught that reality was a single unchanging Being, whereas Heraclitus
Heraclitus
wrote that all things flow. The 20th century philosopher Heidegger
Heidegger
thought previous philosophers have lost sight the question of Being
Being
(qua Being) in favour of the questions of beings (existing things), so that a return to the Parmenidean approach was needed. An ontological catalogue is an attempt to list the fundamental constituents of reality. The question of whether or not existence is a predicate has been discussed since the Early Modern period, not least in relation to the ontological argument for the existence of God. Existence, that something is, has been contrasted with essence, the question of what something is. Since existence without essence seems blank, it associated with nothingness by philosophers such as Hegel. Nihilism
Nihilism
represents an extremely negative view of being, the absolute a positive one. Perception The question of direct or "naïve" realism, as opposed to indirect or "representational" realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience;[2][3] the epistemological question of whether the world we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copy of that world generated by neural processes in our brain. Naïve realism
Naïve realism
is known as direct realism when developed to counter indirect or representative realism, also known as epistemological dualism,[4] the philosophical position that our conscious experience is not of the real world itself but of an internal representation, a miniature virtual-reality replica of the world. Timothy Leary
Timothy Leary
coined the influential term Reality
Reality
Tunnel, by which he means a kind of representative realism. The theory states that, with a subconscious set of mental filters formed from their beliefs and experiences, every individual interprets the same world differently, hence " Truth
Truth
is in the eye of the beholder". His ideas influenced the work of his friend Robert Anton Wilson. Abstract objects and mathematics The status of abstract entities, particularly numbers, is a topic of discussion in mathematics. In the philosophy of mathematics, the best known form of realism about numbers is Platonic realism, which grants them abstract, immaterial existence. Other forms of realism identify mathematics with the concrete physical universe. Anti-realist stances include formalism and fictionalism. Some approaches are selectively realistic about some mathematical objects but not others. Finitism rejects infinite quantities. Ultra-finitism accepts finite quantities up to a certain amount. Constructivism and intuitionism are realistic about objects that can be explicitly constructed, but reject the use of the principle of the excluded middle to prove existence by reductio ad absurdum. The traditional debate has focused on whether an abstract (immaterial, intelligible) realm of numbers has existed in addition to the physical (sensible, concrete) world. A recent development is the mathematical universe hypothesis, the theory that only a mathematical world exists, with the finite, physical world being an illusion within it. An extreme form of realism about mathematics is the mathematical multiverse hypothesis advanced by Max Tegmark. Tegmark's sole postulate is: All structures that exist mathematically also exist physically. That is, in the sense that "in those [worlds] complex enough to contain self-aware substructures [they] will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically 'real' world".[5][6] The hypothesis suggests that worlds corresponding to different sets of initial conditions, physical constants, or altogether different equations should be considered real. The theory can be considered a form of Platonism
Platonism
in that it posits the existence of mathematical entities, but can also be considered a mathematical monism in that it denies that anything exists except mathematical objects. Properties Main article: Problem of universals The problem of universals is an ancient problem in metaphysics about whether universals exist. Universals are general or abstract qualities, characteristics, properties, kinds or relations, such as being male/female, solid/liquid/gas or a certain colour,[7] that can be predicated of individuals or particulars or that individuals or particulars can be regarded as sharing or participating in. For example, Scott, Pat, and Chris have in common the universal quality of being human or humanity. The realist school claims that universals are real – they exist and are distinct from the particulars that instantiate them. There are various forms of realism. Two major forms are Platonic realism
Platonic realism
and Aristotelian realism.[8] Platonic realism
Platonic realism
is the view that universals are real entities and they exist independent of particulars. Aristotelian realism, on the other hand, is the view that universals are real entities, but their existence is dependent on the particulars that exemplify them. Nominalism and conceptualism are the main forms of anti-realism about universals. Time
Time
and space Main article: Philosophy
Philosophy
of space and time A traditional realist position in ontology is that time and space have existence apart from the human mind. Idealists deny or doubt the existence of objects independent of the mind. Some anti-realists whose ontological position is that objects outside the mind do exist, nevertheless doubt the independent existence of time and space. Kant, in the Critique of Pure Reason, described time as an a priori notion that, together with other a priori notions such as space, allows us to comprehend sense experience. Kant denies that either space or time are substance, entities in themselves, or learned by experience; he holds rather that both are elements of a systematic framework we use to structure our experience. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantitatively compare the interval between (or duration of) events. Although space and time are held to be transcendentally ideal in this sense, they are also empirically real, i.e. not mere illusions. Idealist writers such as J. M. E. McTaggart
J. M. E. McTaggart
in The Unreality of Time have argued that time is an illusion. As well as differing about the reality of time as a whole, metaphysical theories of time can differ in their ascriptions of reality to the past, present and future separately.

Presentism holds that the past and future are unreal, and only an ever-changing present is real. The block universe theory, also known as Eternalism, holds that past, present and future are all real, but the passage of time is an illusion. It is often said to have a scientific basis in relativity. The growing block universe theory holds that past and present are real, but the future is not.

Time, and the related concepts of process and evolution are central to the system-building metaphysics of A. N. Whitehead
A. N. Whitehead
and Charles Hartshorne. Possible worlds The term "possible world" goes back to Leibniz's theory of possible worlds, used to analyse necessity, possibility, and similar modal notions. Modal realism is the view, notably propounded by David Kellogg Lewis, that all possible worlds are as real as the actual world. In short: the actual world is regarded as merely one among an infinite set of logically possible worlds, some "nearer" to the actual world and some more remote. Other theorists may use the Possible World framework to express and explore problems without committing to it ontologically. Possible world theory is related to alethic logic: a proposition is necessary if it is true in all possible worlds, and possible if it is true in at least one. The many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics is a similar idea in science. Theories of everything (TOE) and philosophy Main article: Theory of everything
Theory of everything
(philosophy) The philosophical implications of a physical TOE are frequently debated. For example, if philosophical physicalism is true, a physical TOE will coincide with a philosophical theory of everything. The "system building" style of metaphysics attempts to answer all the important questions in a coherent way, providing a complete picture of the world. Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
could be said to be early examples of comprehensive systems. In the early modern period (17th and 18th centuries), the system-building scope of philosophy is often linked to the rationalist method of philosophy, that is the technique of deducing the nature of the world by pure a priori reason. Examples from the early modern period include the Leibniz's Monadology, Descartes's Dualism, Spinoza's Monism. Hegel's Absolute idealism
Absolute idealism
and Whitehead's Process philosophy were later systems. Other philosophers do not believe its techniques can aim so high. Some scientists think a more mathematical approach than philosophy is needed for a TOE, for instance Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
wrote in A Brief History
History
of Time
Time
that even if we had a TOE, it would necessarily be a set of equations. He wrote, "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"[9] Phenomenological reality On a much broader and more subjective level,[specify] private experiences, curiosity, inquiry, and the selectivity involved in personal interpretation of events shapes reality as seen by one and only one individual[citation needed] and hence is called phenomenological. While this form of reality might be common to others as well, it could at times also be so unique to oneself as to never be experienced or agreed upon by anyone else. Much of the kind of experience deemed spiritual occurs on this level of reality. Phenomenology is a philosophical method developed in the early years of the twentieth century by Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
and a circle of followers at the universities of Göttingen
Göttingen
and Munich
Munich
in Germany. Subsequently, phenomenological themes were taken up by philosophers in France, the United States, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl's work. The word phenomenology comes from the Greek phainómenon, meaning "that which appears", and lógos, meaning "study". In Husserl's conception, phenomenology is primarily concerned with making the structures of consciousness, and the phenomena which appear in acts of consciousness, objects of systematic reflection and analysis. Such reflection was to take place from a highly modified "first person" viewpoint, studying phenomena not as they appear to "my" consciousness, but to any consciousness whatsoever. Husserl believed that phenomenology could thus provide a firm basis for all human knowledge, including scientific knowledge, and could establish philosophy as a "rigorous science".[10] Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticised and developed not only by himself, but also by his student and assistant Martin Heidegger, by existentialists, such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, and by other philosophers, such as Paul Ricoeur, Emmanuel Levinas, and Dietrich von Hildebrand.[11] Skeptical hypotheses

A brain in a vat that believes it is walking

Skeptical hypotheses in philosophy suggest that reality is very different from what we think it is; or at least that we cannot prove it is not. Examples include:

The "Brain in a vat" hypothesis is cast in scientific terms. It supposes that one might be a disembodied brain kept alive in a vat, and fed false sensory signals, by a mad scientist. This is a premise of the film series, Matrix hypothesis. The " Dream
Dream
argument" of Descartes and Zhuangzi supposes reality to be indistinguishable from a dream. Descarte's Evil demon
Evil demon
is a being "as clever and deceitful as he is powerful, who has directed his entire effort to misleading me." The five minute hypothesis (or omphalos hypothesis or Last Thursdayism) suggests that the world was created recently together with records and traces indicating a greater age. The Matrix hypothesis
Matrix hypothesis
or Simulated reality hypothesis
Simulated reality hypothesis
suggest that we might be inside a computer simulation or virtual reality.

Jain philosophy Main article: Tattva (Jainism) Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
postulates that seven tattva (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality.[12] These seven tattva are:[13]

Jīva – The soul which is characterized by consciousness. Ajīva – The non-soul. Asrava
Asrava
– Influx of karma. Bandha – The bondage of karma. Samvara
Samvara
– Obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. Nirjara
Nirjara
– Shedding of karmas. Moksha – Liberation or Salvation, i.e. the complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul).

Physical sciences Scientific realism Scientific realism is, at the most general level, the view that the world described by science (perhaps ideal science) is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be. Within philosophy of science, it is often framed as an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained?" The debate over what the success of science involves centers primarily on the status of entities that are not directly observable discussed by scientific theories. Generally, those who are scientific realists state that one can make reliable claims about these entities (viz., that they have the same ontological status) as directly observable entities, as opposed to instrumentalism. The most used and studied scientific theories today state more or less the truth. Realism and locality in physics Realism in the sense used by physicists does not equate to realism in metaphysics.[14] The latter is the claim that the world is mind-independent: that even if the results of a measurement do not pre-exist the act of measurement, that does not require that they are the creation of the observer. Furthermore, a mind-independent property does not have to be the value of some physical variable such as position or momentum. A property can be dispositional (or potential), i.e. it can be a tendency: in the way that glass objects tend to break, or are disposed to break, even if they do not actually break. Likewise, the mind-independent properties of quantum systems could consist of a tendency to respond to particular measurements with particular values with ascertainable probability.[15] Such an ontology would be metaphysically realistic, without being realistic in the physicist's sense of "local realism" (which would require that a single value be produced with certainty). A closely related term is counterfactual definiteness (CFD), used to refer to the claim that one can meaningfully speak of the definiteness of results of measurements that have not been performed (i.e. the ability to assume the existence of objects, and properties of objects, even when they have not been measured). Local realism is a significant feature of classical mechanics, of general relativity, and of electrodynamics; but quantum mechanics has shown that quantum entanglement is possible. This was rejected by Einstein, who proposed the EPR paradox, but it was subsequently quantified by Bell's inequalities.[16] If Bell's inequalities
Bell's inequalities
are violated, either local realism or counterfactual definiteness must be incorrect; but some physicists dispute that experiments have demonstrated Bell's violations, on the grounds that the sub-class of inhomogeneous Bell inequalities has not been tested or due to experimental limitations in the tests. Different interpretations of quantum mechanics violate different parts of local realism and/or counterfactual definiteness. Role of the observer in quantum mechanics See also: Quantum decoherence The quantum mind–body problem refers to the philosophical discussions of the mind–body problem in the context of quantum mechanics. Since quantum mechanics involves quantum superpositions, which are not perceived by observers, some interpretations of quantum mechanics place conscious observers in a special position. The founders of quantum mechanics debated the role of the observer, and of them, Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Pauli
and Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
believed that it was the observer that produced collapse. This point of view, which was never fully endorsed by Niels Bohr, was denounced as mystical and anti-scientific by Albert Einstein. Pauli accepted the term, and described quantum mechanics as lucid mysticism.[17] Heisenberg and Bohr always described quantum mechanics in logical positivist terms. Bohr also took an active interest in the philosophical implications of quantum theories such as his complementarity, for example.[18] He believed quantum theory offers a complete description of nature, albeit one that is simply ill-suited for everyday experiences – which are better described by classical mechanics and probability. Bohr never specified a demarcation line above which objects cease to be quantum and become classical. He believed that it was not a question of physics, but one of philosophy. Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner
reformulated the "Schrödinger's cat" thought experiment as "Wigner's friend" and proposed that the consciousness of an observer is the demarcation line which precipitates collapse of the wave function, independent of any realist interpretation. Commonly known as "consciousness causes collapse", this interpretation of quantum mechanics states that observation by a conscious observer is what makes the wave function collapse. Multiverse The multiverse is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The term was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James.[19] In the many-worlds interpretation (MWI), one of the mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics, there are an infinite number of universes and every possible quantum outcome occurs in at least one universe. The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiverses have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", and "dimensional planes," among others. Scientific theories of everything A theory of everything (TOE) is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle. The theory of everything is also called the final theory.[20] Many candidate theories of everything have been proposed by theoretical physicists during the twentieth century, but none have been confirmed experimentally. The primary problem in producing a TOE is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are hard to unify. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics. Initially, the term "theory of everything" was used with an ironic connotation to refer to various overgeneralized theories. For example, a great-grandfather of Ijon Tichy, a character from a cycle of Stanisław Lem's science fiction stories of the 1960s, was known to work on the "General Theory
Theory
of Everything". Physicist John Ellis[21] claims to have introduced the term into the technical literature in an article in Nature
Nature
in 1986.[22] Over time, the term stuck in popularizations of quantum physics to describe a theory that would unify or explain through a single model the theories of all fundamental interactions and of all particles of nature: general relativity for gravitation, and the standard model of elementary particle physics – which includes quantum mechanics – for electromagnetism, the two nuclear interactions, and the known elementary particles. Current candidates for a theory of everything include string theory, M theory, and loop quantum gravity. Technology Virtual reality
Virtual reality
and cyberspace Virtual reality
Virtual reality
(VR) is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds.

Reality- Virtuality
Virtuality
Continuum.

The Virtuality Continuum
Virtuality Continuum
is a continuous scale ranging between the completely virtual, a Virtuality, and the completely real: Reality. The reality-virtuality continuum therefore encompasses all possible variations and compositions of real and virtual objects. It has been described as a concept in new media and computer science, but in fact it could be considered a matter of anthropology. The concept was first introduced by Paul Milgram.[23] The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the virtual are mixed, is the so-called Mixed reality. This in turn is said to consist of both Augmented Reality, where the virtual augments the real, and Augmented virtuality, where the real augments the virtual. Cyberspace, the world's computer systems considered as an interconnected whole, can be thought of as a virtual reality; for instance, it is portrayed as such in the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson and others. Second life
Second life
and MMORPGs such as World of Warcraft are examples of artificial environments or virtual worlds (falling some way short of full virtual reality) in cyberspace. "RL" in internet culture On the Internet, "real life" refers to life in the real world. It generally references life or consensus reality, in contrast to an environment seen as fiction or fantasy, such as virtual reality, lifelike experience, dreams, novels, or movies. Online, the acronym "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the Internet".[24] Sociologists engaged in the study of the Internet have determined that someday, a distinction between online and real-life worlds may seem "quaint", noting that certain types of online activity, such as sexual intrigues, have already made a full transition to complete legitimacy and "reality".[25] The abbreviation "RL" stands for "real life". For example, one can speak of "meeting in RL" someone whom one has met in a chat or on an Internet forum. It may also be used to express an inability to use the Internet for a time due to "RL problems". See also

Alternate history Counterfactual history Derealization Hyperreality

Notes

^ "reality Definition of reality in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved 2017-10-28.  ^ Lehar, Steve. (2000). The Function of Conscious
Conscious
Experience: An Analogical Paradigm of Perception
Perception
and Behavior, Consciousness
Consciousness
and Cognition. ^ Lehar, Steve. (2000). Naïve Realism in Contemporary Philosophy Archived 2012-08-11 at the Wayback Machine., The Function of Conscious Experience. ^ Lehar, Steve. Representationalism Archived 2012-09-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tegmark, Max (February 2008). "The Mathematical Universe". Foundations of Physics. 38 (2): 101–150. arXiv:0704.0646 . Bibcode:2008FoPh...38..101T. doi:10.1007/s10701-007-9186-9.  ^ Tegmark (1998), p. 1. ^ Loux (2001), p. 4 ^ Price (1953), among others, sometimes uses such Latin terms ^ as quoted in [Artigas, The Mind
Mind
of the Universe, p.123] ^ Joseph Kockelmans (2001). Edmund Husserl's phenomenology (2 ed.). Purdue University
Purdue University
Press. pp. 311–314. ISBN 1-55753-050-5.  ^ Steven Galt Crowell (2001). Husserl, Heidegger, and the space of meaning: paths toward transcendental phenomenology. Northwestern University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-8101-1805-X.  ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 6. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 7. ^ Norsen, T. – Against "Realism" ^ Ian Thomson's dispositional quantum mechanics ^ Ben Dov, Y. Local Realism and the Crucial experiment. ^ Juan Miguel Marin (2009). "'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy". European Journal of Physics. 30 (4): 807–822. Bibcode:2009EJPh...30..807M. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/30/4/014.  link, summarized here [1] Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ John Honner (2005). " Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
and the Mysticism of Nature". Zygon: Journal of Religion
Religion
& Science. 17–3: 243–253.  ^ James, William, The Will to Believe, 1895; and earlier in 1895, as cited in OED's new 2003 entry for "multiverse": "1895 W. JAMES in Internat. Jrnl. Ethics
Ethics
6 10 Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe." ^ Weinberg (1993) ^ Ellis, John (2002). " Physics
Physics
gets physical (correspondence)". Nature. 415 (6875): 957. Bibcode:2002Natur.415..957E. doi:10.1038/415957b. PMID 11875539.  ^ Ellis, John (1986). "The Superstring: Theory
Theory
of Everything, or of Nothing?". Nature. 323 (6089): 595–598. Bibcode:1986Natur.323..595E. doi:10.1038/323595a0.  ^ Milgram, Paul; H. Takemura; A. Utsumi; F. Kishino (1994). "Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum" (PDF). Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies. pp. 2351–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2007-03-15.  ^ "AcronymFinder.com search for IRL".  ^ Don Slater (2002). "Social Relationships and Identity On-line and Off-line". In Leah, Sonia, Lievrouw, and Livingstone. Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Consequences of ICTs. Sage Publications Inc. pp. 533–543. ISBN 0-7619-6510-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

References

Berger, Peter L.; Luckmann, Thomas (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology
Sociology
of Knowledge. New York: Anchor Books. pp. 21–22.  access-date= requires url= (help) Jain, S. A. (1992). Reality. Jwalamalini Trust. Archived from the original on 2015. Not in Copyright 

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Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

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Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

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Theories

Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Type theory

Concepts

Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Choice Cogito ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Identity and change Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ...

Related topics

Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy
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World view

Related terms

Basic beliefs/Beliefs Collective
Collective
consciousness/ Collective
Collective
unconscious Conceptual system Context Conventions Cultural movement Epic poetry/National epics/Pan-national epics Facts and factoids Framing Ideology Life
Life
stance Lifestyle Memes/Memeplex Mental model Metanarrative Mindset Norms Paradigm Philosophical theory Point of view Presuppositions Reality
Reality
tunnel Received view Schemata School of thought Set Social reality Theory
Theory
of everything Umwelt Value system

Aspects

Biases

Academic Attentional Attitude polarization Belief Cognitive (list) Collective
Collective
narcissism Confirmation Congruence Cryptomnesia Cultural Ethnocentrism Filter bubble Homophily In-group favoritism Magical thinking Media Observer-expectancy Observational error Selective exposure Selective perception Self-deception Self-fulfilling prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy
( Clever Hans
Clever Hans
effect, placebo effect, wishful thinking) Status quo Stereotyping

Change and maintenance

Activism Argument Argumentum ad populum Attitude change Censorship Charisma Circular reporting Cognitive dissonance Critical thinking Crowd manipulation Cultural dissonance Deprogramming Echo chamber Education
Education
(religious, values) Euphemism Excommunication Fearmongering Historical revisionism Ideological repression Indoctrination Media manipulation Media regulation Mind
Mind
control Missionaries Moral entrepreneurship Persuasion Polite fiction Political engineering Propaganda Propaganda
Propaganda
model Proselytism Psychological manipulation Psychological warfare Religious conversion
Religious conversion
(forced) Religious persecution Religious uniformity Revolutions Rhetoric Self-censorship Social change Social control Social engineering Social influence Social progress Suppression of dissent Systemic bias Woozle effect

Culture

Anthropology
Anthropology
(cultural, social) Calendars Ceremonies Coronations Cross-cultural psychology Cultural psychology Doctrine Employment/Serfdom/Slavery Families Funerals/Burial Games Holidays Hygiene
Hygiene
(ritual) Identity (philosophy) (cultural) Institutions Liminality Liturgy Marriage Myth and ritual Oaths Pilgrimages Play Rites of passage (secular) Rituals Social class/Social status/Caste Symbols Symbolic boundaries Worship

Groupthink

Abilene paradox Bandwagon effect Collectives Collective
Collective
behavior (animal) Collective
Collective
effervescence Collective
Collective
intelligence Conformity Consensus theory Crowd psychology Cults Culture-bound syndromes Deindividuation Democracy Emergence Emotional contagion Entitativity False-consensus effect Folie à deux Group action Group dynamics Group emotion Group polarization Groupshift Herd behavior Holism Hysterical contagion Information
Information
cascade Invisible hand Lynching Majoritarianism/Ochlocracy Mass action Mass hysteria Mass psychogenic illness Milieu control Mobbing Moral panic Organizations Peer pressure Pluralistic ignorance Political correctness Pseudoconsensus Scapegoating Self-organization Social action Social behavior Social emotions Social exclusion Social facilitation (animal) Social group Social proof Social psychology Sociology Spontaneous order Status quo Stigmergy Swarm behaviour System justification Viral phenomena

Knowledge

Axioms (tacit assumptions) Conceptual framework Epistemology
Epistemology
(outline) Evidence
Evidence
(anecdotal, scientific) Explanations Faith
Faith
(fideism) Gnosis Intuition Meaning-making Memory Metaknowledge Methodology Observation Observational learning Perception Reasoning (fallacious, logic) Revelation Testimony Tradition
Tradition
(folklore) Truth
Truth
(consensus theory, criteria)

Metaphysics

Ætiology Afterlife Anima mundi Being Causality Concepts Consciousness
Consciousness
(mind–body problem) Cosmogony Cosmology
Cosmology
(religious) Creation myth Deities (existence) Destiny Eschatology Everything/Nothing Evolution Existence Fiction/Non-fiction Free will Future History Ideas Idios kosmos Illusions Incarnation Information Intelligence Magic Matter Miracles Mythology
Mythology
(comparative) National mythoi Nature
Nature
(philosophical) Ontology Origin myths (political myths) Otherworlds (axes mundi) Problem of evil Physics
Physics
(natural philosophy) Reality Souls Spirit Supernature Teleology Theology Time Unobservables

Value

Æsthetics Almsgiving/Charity Altruism Autonomy Beauty Codes of conduct Comedy Common good Conscience Consent Creativity Disgust Duty Economics Ecstasy (emotional, religious) Elegance Emotions (æsthetic) Entertainment Eroticism Ethics Étiquette Family
Family
values Food and drink prohibitions
Food and drink prohibitions
(unclean animals) Golden Rule Guilt/Culpability Happiness Harmony Honour Human rights Judgement Justice Laws (jurisprudence, religious) Liberty
Liberty
(political freedom) Love Magnificence Maxims Meaning of life Morality
Morality
(public) Obligations Peace Piety Praxeology Principles Punishment Qualities Repentance Reverence Rights Sexuality (ethics) Sin Social stigma Stewardship Styles Sublime, The Suffering Sympathy Taboo Taste Theodicy Trust Unspoken rules Virtues and Vices Works of art Wrongdoing

Examples

Attitudes

Nihilism Optimism Pessimism Reclusion Weltschmerz

Economic and political ideologies

Authoritarianism Anarchism Capitalism Christian democracy Collectivism Colonialism Communalism Communism Communitarianism Conservatism Constitutionalism Distributism Environmentalism Extremism Fanaticism Fascism Feminism Fundamentalism Globalism Green politics Imperialism Individualism Industrialism Intellectualism Islamism Liberalism Libertarianism Masculism Militarism Monarchism Nationalism Pacifism Progressivism Radicalism Reformism Republicanism Social democracy Socialism Utilitarianism Veganism

Religions

African traditional religions Bahá'í Buddhism Cao Dai Cheondoism Chinese traditional religions Christianity Ethnic religions Hòa Hảo Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Korean shamanism Neo-Paganism Rastafarianism Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist Shinto Sikhism Spiritism Taoism Tenrikyo Tenriism Unitarian Universalism Zoroastrianism

Schools of philosophy

Agriculturalism Aristotelianism Atomism Averroism Cartesianism Cārvāka Collectivism Confucianism/New Confucianism Critical theory Cynicism Cyrenaics Determinism Dualism Eleatics Empiricism Eretrian school Epicureanism Existentialism Foundationalism Hedonism Hegelianism Hermeneutics Historicism/New Historicism Holism Humanism/Renaissance humanism Illuminationism ʿIlm al-Kalām Idealism Individualism Ionian Kantianism/Neo-Kantianism Kokugaku Legalism Logicians Materialism Mohism Megarian school Modernism/Postmodernism Monism Natural Law Naturalism (Chinese) Naturalism (western) Nihilism Peripatetic Phenomenology Platonism/Neoplatonism Pluralism Positivism Pragmatism Presocratic Pyrrhonism Pythagoreanism/Neopythagoreanism Rationalism Reductionism Scholasticism/Neo-Scholasticism Social constructionism Sophism Spinozism Stoicism Structuralism/Post-structuralism Thomism Transcendentalism Utilitarianism Yangism

Authority control

.