REALITY is the state of things as they actually exist , rather than
as they may appear or might be imagined .
Philosophers , mathematicians , and other ancient and modern
thinkers, such as
The truth refers to what is real, while falsity refers to what is not. Fictions are considered not real.
* 1 Related concepts
* 1.1 World views and theories
* 2.3 Abstract objects and mathematics
* 2.4 Properties
* 3 Jain philosophy
* 4 Physical sciences
* 5 Technology
* 5.1 Virtual reality and cyberspace * 5.2 "RL" in internet culture
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links
WORLD VIEWS AND THEORIES
Further information: World view
A common colloquial usage would have reality mean "perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes toward reality", as in "My reality is not your reality." This is often used just as a colloquialism indicating that the parties to a conversation agree, or should agree, not to quibble over deeply different conceptions of what is real. For example, in a religious discussion between friends, one might say (attempting humor), "You might disagree, but in my reality, everyone goes to heaven."
Certain ideas from physics, philosophy, sociology, literary criticism , and other fields shape various theories of reality. One such belief is that there simply and literally is no reality beyond the perceptions or beliefs we each have about reality. Such attitudes are summarized in the popular statement, " Perception is reality" or "Life is how you perceive reality" or "reality is what you can get away with" ( Robert Anton Wilson ), and they indicate anti-realism – that is, the view that there is no objective reality, whether acknowledged explicitly or not.
Many of the concepts of science and philosophy are often defined
culturally and socially . This idea was elaborated by
Thomas Kuhn in
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
On the one hand, ontology is the study of being, and the central topic of the field is couched, variously, in terms of being, existence, "what is", and reality. The task in ontology is to describe the most general categories of reality and how they are interrelated. If a philosopher wanted to proffer a positive definition of the concept "reality", it would be done under this heading. As explained above, some philosophers draw a distinction between reality and existence. In fact, many analytic philosophers today tend to avoid the term "real" and "reality" in discussing ontological issues. But for those who would treat "is real" the same way they treat "exists", one of the leading questions of analytic philosophy has been whether existence (or reality) is a property of objects. It has been widely held by analytic philosophers that it is not a property at all, though this view has lost some ground in recent decades.
On the other hand, particularly in discussions of objectivity that have feet in both metaphysics and epistemology , philosophical discussions of "reality" often concern the ways in which reality is, or is not, in some way dependent upon (or, to use fashionable jargon , "constructed" out of) mental and cultural factors such as perceptions, beliefs, and other mental states, as well as cultural artifacts, such as religions and political movements , on up to the vague notion of a common cultural world view , or WELTANSCHAUUNG .
The view that there is a reality independent of any beliefs, perceptions, etc., is called realism . More specifically, philosophers are given to speaking about "realism about" this and that, such as realism about universals or realism about the external world. Generally, where one can identify any class of object, the existence or essential characteristics of which is said not to depend on perceptions, beliefs, language, or any other human artifact, one can speak of "realism about" that object.
One can also speak of anti-realism about the same objects. Anti-realism is the latest in a long series of terms for views opposed to realism. Perhaps the first was idealism , so called because reality was said to be in the mind, or a product of our ideas. Berkeleyan idealism is the view, propounded by the Irish empiricist George Berkeley , that the objects of perception are actually ideas in the mind. In this view, one might be tempted to say that reality is a "mental construct"; this is not quite accurate, however, since, in Berkeley's view, perceptual ideas are created and coordinated by God. By the 20th century, views similar to Berkeley's were called phenomenalism . Phenomenalism differs from Berkeleyan idealism primarily in that Berkeley believed that minds, or souls, are not merely ideas nor made up of ideas, whereas varieties of phenomenalism, such as that advocated by Russell , tended to go farther to say that the mind itself is merely a collection of perceptions, memories, etc., and that there is no mind or soul over and above such mental events . Finally, anti-realism became a fashionable term for any view which held that the existence of some object depends upon the mind or cultural artifacts. The view that the so-called external world is really merely a social, or cultural, artifact, called social constructionism , is one variety of anti-realism. Cultural relativism is the view that social issues such as morality are not absolute, but at least partially cultural artifact .
A correspondence theory of knowledge about what exists claims that "true" knowledge of reality represents accurate correspondence of statements about and images of reality with the actual reality that the statements or images are attempting to represent. For example, the scientific method can verify that a statement is true based on the observable evidence that a thing exists. Many humans can point to the Rocky Mountains and say that this mountain range exists, and continues to exist even if no one is observing it or making statements about it.
The nature of being is a perennial topic in metaphysics. For,
The question of direct or "naïve" realism , as opposed to indirect or "representational" realism , arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience ; the epistemological question of whether the world we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copy of that world generated by neural processes in our brain . Naïve realism is known as direct realism when developed to counter indirect or representative realism, also known as epistemological dualism , the philosophical position that our conscious experience is not of the real world itself but of an internal representation, a miniature virtual-reality replica of the world.
ABSTRACT OBJECTS AND MATHEMATICS
The status of abstract entities, particularly numbers, is a topic of discussion in mathematics.
In the philosophy of mathematics , the best known form of realism about numbers is Platonic realism , which grants them abstract, immaterial existence. Other forms of realism identify mathematics with the concrete physical universe.
Anti-realist stances include formalism and fictionalism .
Some approaches are selectively realistic about some mathematical objects but not others. Finitism rejects infinite quantities. Ultra-finitism accepts finite quantities up to a certain amount. Constructivism and intuitionism are realistic about objects that can be explicitly constructed, but reject the use of the principle of the excluded middle to prove existence by reductio ad absurdum .
The traditional debate has focused on whether an abstract (immaterial, intelligible) realm of numbers has existed in addition to the physical (sensible, concrete) world. A recent development is the mathematical universe hypothesis , the theory that only a mathematical world exists, with the finite, physical world being an illusion within it.
An extreme form of realism about mathematics is the mathematical
multiverse hypothesis advanced by
Main article: Problem of universals
The problem of universals is an ancient problem in metaphysics about whether universals exist. Universals are general or abstract qualities, characteristics, properties , kinds or relations , such as being male/female, solid/liquid/gas or a certain colour, that can be predicated of individuals or particulars or that individuals or particulars can be regarded as sharing or participating in. For example, Scott, Pat, and Chris have in common the universal quality of being human or humanity.
The realist school claims that universals are real – they exist and are distinct from the particulars that instantiate them. There are various forms of realism. Two major forms are Platonic realism and Aristotelian realism . Platonic realism is the view that universals are real entities and they exist independent of particulars. Aristotelian realism, on the other hand, is the view that universals are real entities, but their existence is dependent on the particulars that exemplify them.
Nominalism and conceptualism are the main forms of anti-realism about universals.
TIME AND SPACE
A traditional realist position in ontology is that time and space have existence apart from the human mind. Idealists deny or doubt the existence of objects independent of the mind. Some anti-realists whose ontological position is that objects outside the mind do exist, nevertheless doubt the independent existence of time and space.
Kant , in the Critique of Pure
Idealist writers such as J. M. E. McTaggart in The Unreality of Time have argued that time is an illusion.
As well as differing about the reality of time as a whole, metaphysical theories of time can differ in their ascriptions of reality to the past , present and future separately.
* Presentism holds that the past and future are unreal, and only an ever-changing present is real. * The block universe theory, also known as Eternalism, holds that past, present and future are all real, but the passage of time is an illusion. It is often said to have a scientific basis in relativity . * The growing block universe theory holds that past and present are real, but the future is not.
Time, and the related concepts of process and evolution are central to the system-building metaphysics of A. N. Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne .
The term "possible world " goes back to Leibniz\'s theory of possible worlds, used to analyse necessity, possibility , and similar modal notions . Modal realism is the view, notably propounded by David Kellogg Lewis , that all possible worlds are as real as the actual world. In short: the actual world is regarded as merely one among an infinite set of logically possible worlds, some "nearer" to the actual world and some more remote. Other theorists may use the Possible World framework to express and explore problems without committing to it ontologically. Possible world theory is related to alethic logic : a proposition is necessary if it is true in all possible worlds, and possible if it is true in at least one. The many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics is a similar idea in science.
THEORIES OF EVERYTHING (TOE) AND PHILOSOPHY
Main article: Theory of everything (philosophy)
The philosophical implications of a physical TOE are frequently debated. For example, if philosophical physicalism is true, a physical TOE will coincide with a philosophical theory of everything.
The "system building" style of metaphysics attempts to answer all the
important questions in a coherent way, providing a complete picture of
Other philosophers do not believe its techniques can aim so high.
Some scientists think a more mathematical approach than philosophy is
needed for a TOE, for instance
On a much broader and more subjective level, private experiences, curiosity, inquiry, and the selectivity involved in personal interpretation of events shapes reality as seen by one and only one individual and hence is called phenomenological . While this form of reality might be common to others as well, it could at times also be so unique to oneself as to never be experienced or agreed upon by anyone else. Much of the kind of experience deemed spiritual occurs on this level of reality.
Phenomenology is a philosophical method developed in the early years
of the twentieth century by
The word phenomenology comes from the Greek phainómenon, meaning "that which appears", and lógos, meaning "study". In Husserl's conception, phenomenology is primarily concerned with making the structures of consciousness , and the phenomena which appear in acts of consciousness, objects of systematic reflection and analysis. Such reflection was to take place from a highly modified "first person " viewpoint, studying phenomena not as they appear to "my" consciousness, but to any consciousness whatsoever. Husserl believed that phenomenology could thus provide a firm basis for all human knowledge , including scientific knowledge, and could establish philosophy as a "rigorous science".
Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticised and
developed not only by himself, but also by his student and assistant
Heidegger , by existentialists , such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Jean-Paul Sartre , and by other philosophers, such as
Paul Ricoeur ,
A brain in a vat that believes it is walking
Skeptical hypotheses in philosophy suggest that reality is very different from what we think it is; or at least that we cannot prove it is not. Examples include:
* The "
Brain in a vat " hypothesis is cast in scientific terms. It
supposes that one might be a disembodied brain kept alive in a vat,
and fed false sensory signals, by a mad scientist .
* The "
Main article: Tattva (Jainism)
Jain philosophy postulates that seven TATTVA (truths or fundamental principles) constitute reality. These seven tattva are:
* Jīva – The soul which is characterized by consciousness. * Ajīva – The non-soul. * Asrava – Influx of karma . * Bandha – The bondage of karma. * Samvara – Obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into the soul. * Nirjara – Shedding of karmas. * Moksha – Liberation or Salvation, i.e. the complete annihilation of all karmic matter (bound with any particular soul).
Scientific realism is, at the most general level, the view that the world described by science (perhaps ideal science) is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be. Within philosophy of science , it is often framed as an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained?" The debate over what the success of science involves centers primarily on the status of entities that are not directly observable discussed by scientific theories . Generally, those who are scientific realists state that one can make reliable claims about these entities (viz., that they have the same ontological status) as directly observable entities, as opposed to instrumentalism . The most used and studied scientific theories today state more or less the truth.
REALISM AND LOCALITY IN PHYSICS
Realism in the sense used by physicists does not equate to realism in metaphysics . The latter is the claim that the world is mind-independent: that even if the results of a measurement do not pre-exist the act of measurement, that does not require that they are the creation of the observer. Furthermore, a mind-independent property does not have to be the value of some physical variable such as position or momentum . A property can be dispositional (or potential), i.e. it can be a tendency: in the way that glass objects tend to break, or are disposed to break, even if they do not actually break. Likewise, the mind-independent properties of quantum systems could consist of a tendency to respond to particular measurements with particular values with ascertainable probability. Such an ontology would be metaphysically realistic, without being realistic in the physicist's sense of "local realism" (which would require that a single value be produced with certainty).
A closely related term is counterfactual definiteness (CFD), used to refer to the claim that one can meaningfully speak of the definiteness of results of measurements that have not been performed (i.e. the ability to assume the existence of objects, and properties of objects, even when they have not been measured).
Local realism is a significant feature of classical mechanics, of
general relativity , and of electrodynamics ; but quantum mechanics
has shown that quantum entanglement is possible. This was rejected by
Einstein, who proposed the
ROLE OF THE OBSERVER IN QUANTUM MECHANICS
See also: Quantum decoherence
The quantum mind–body problem refers to the philosophical discussions of the mind–body problem in the context of quantum mechanics . Since quantum mechanics involves quantum superpositions , which are not perceived by observers , some interpretations of quantum mechanics place conscious observers in a special position.
The founders of quantum mechanics debated the role of the observer,
and of them,
Wolfgang Pauli and
Werner Heisenberg believed that it was
the observer that produced collapse . This point of view, which was
never fully endorsed by
Heisenberg and Bohr always described quantum mechanics in logical positivist terms. Bohr also took an active interest in the philosophical implications of quantum theories such as his complementarity , for example. He believed quantum theory offers a complete description of nature, albeit one that is simply ill-suited for everyday experiences – which are better described by classical mechanics and probability. Bohr never specified a demarcation line above which objects cease to be quantum and become classical. He believed that it was not a question of physics, but one of philosophy.
The multiverse is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes
(including the historical universe we consistently experience) that
together comprise everything that exists : the entirety of space ,
time , matter , and energy as well as the physical laws and constants
that describe them. The term was coined in 1895 by the American
philosopher and psychologist
The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiverses have been hypothesized in cosmology , physics , astronomy , religion , philosophy , transpersonal psychology and fiction , particularly in science fiction and fantasy . In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", and "dimensional planes," among others.
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES OF EVERYTHING
A theory of everything (TOE) is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle. The theory of everything is also called the FINAL THEORY. Many candidate theories of everything have been proposed by theoretical physicists during the twentieth century, but none have been confirmed experimentally. The primary problem in producing a TOE is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are hard to unify. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics .
Initially, the term "theory of everything" was used with an ironic
connotation to refer to various overgeneralized theories. For example,
a great-grandfather of
Ijon Tichy , a character from a cycle of
Stanisław Lem 's science fiction stories of the 1960s, was known to
work on the "General
Theory of Everything". Physicist John Ellis
claims to have introduced the term into the technical literature in an
Current candidates for a theory of everything include string theory , M theory , and loop quantum gravity .
VIRTUAL REALITY AND CYBERSPACE
The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the
virtual are mixed, is the so-called
Mixed reality . This in turn is
said to consist of both
Augmented Reality , where the virtual augments
the real, and
"RL" IN INTERNET CULTURE
On the Internet, "real life " refers to life in the real world. It
generally references life or consensus reality , in contrast to an
environment seen as fiction or fantasy , such as virtual reality ,
lifelike experience , dreams , novels , or movies . Online, the
acronym "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the
Internet". Sociologists engaged in the study of the Internet have
determined that someday, a distinction between online and real-life
worlds may seem "quaint", noting that certain types of online
activity, such as sexual intrigues, have already made a full
transition to complete legitimacy and "reality". The abbreviation
"RL" stands for "real life". For example, one can speak of "meeting in
RL" someone whom one has met in a chat or on an
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Principle of locality
* ^ Compact
Oxford English Dictionary
* Berger, Peter L.; Luckmann, Thomas (1966). The Social Construction
of Reality: A Treatise in the
* S. A. Jain (1992). Reality. Jwalamalini Trust. Archived from the original on 2015. Not in Copyright
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