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Reading (/ˈrɛdɪŋ/ RED-ing) ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German: Reddin) is a city in and the county seat of Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States. With a population of 87,575, it is the fifth-largest city in Pennsylvania.[8][9][10] Located in the southeastern part of the state, it is the principal city of the Greater Reading Area. The city, which is approximately halfway between the state's most populous city, Philadelphia, and the state capital, Harrisburg (as well as about halfway between Allentown and Lancaster) is strategically situated along a major transportation route from Central to Eastern Pennsylvania, and lent its name to the now-defunct Reading Railroad, which transported anthracite coal from the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Coal Region to the eastern United States via the Port of Philadelphia. Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
is one of the four railroad properties in the classic United States version of the Monopoly board game. Reading was one of the first localities where outlet shopping became a tourist industry. It has been known as "The Pretzel
Pretzel
City", because of numerous local pretzel bakeries. Currently, Bachman, Dieffenbach, Tom Sturgis, and Unique Pretzel
Pretzel
bakeries call the Reading area home. According to the 2010 census, Reading has the highest share of citizens living in poverty in the nation.[11] In recent years, the Reading area has become a destination for cyclists. With more than 125 miles of trails in five major preserves, it is an International Mountain Bicycling Association Ride Center and held the Reading Radsport Festival on September 8–9, 2017.[12][13] In April 2017, it was announced that an indoor velodrome, or cycling track, will be built in Reading as the first of its kind on the East Coast and only the second in the entire country. Albright College and the World Cycling League formally announced plans April 6, 2017, to build the $20 million, 2,500-seat facility, which will be called the National Velodrome and Events Center at Albright College. It will also serve as the Cycling League's world headquarters.[14]

Contents

1 History 2 Climate 3 Geography 4 Economy 5 Infrastructure

5.1 Transportation 5.2 Utilities 5.3 Health care

6 Demographics

6.1 Estimates

7 Neighborhoods 8 Fire department 9 Education 10 Sports 11 Culture 12 Sister city 13 Attractions 14 In media 15 Notable people 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

History[edit]

The 500-block of Court Street in Downtown Reading, with Berks County courthouse on the left.

Reading and its suburbs, 1955.

Lenni Lenape
Lenape
people, also known as " Delaware
Delaware
Indians", were the original inhabitants of the Reading area. The Colony of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was a 1680 land grant from King Charles II of England
England
to William Penn. Comprising more than 45,000 square miles (120,000 km2), it was named for his father, Sir William Penn. In 1743, Richard and Thomas Penn (sons of William Penn) mapped out the town of Reading with Conrad Weiser. Taking its name from Reading, Berkshire, England, the town was established in 1748. Upon the creation of Berks County
Berks County
in 1752, Reading became the county seat. The region was settled by emigrants from southern and western Germany, who bought land from the Penns. The first Amish
Amish
community in the New World was established in Greater Reading, Berks County.[15] The Pennsylvanian German dialect was spoken in the area well into the 1950s and later. During the French and Indian War, Reading was a military base for a chain of forts along the Blue Mountain.

Reading downtown as seen from Penn and 2nd Streets

By the time of the American Revolution, the area's iron industry had a total production exceeding England's. That output helped supply George Washington's troops with cannons, rifles, and ammunition in the Revolutionary War. During the early period of the conflict, Reading was again a depot for military supply. Hessian prisoners from the Battle of Trenton
Battle of Trenton
were also detained here. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was the capital of the United States at the time of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793.[16] President Washington traveled to Reading, and considered making it the emergency national capital, but chose Germantown instead. Susanna Cox was tried and convicted for infanticide in Reading in 1809. Her case attracted tremendous sympathy; 20,000 viewers came to view her hanging, swamping the 3,000 inhabitants. Census
Census
data showed that, from 1810 to 1950, Reading was among the nation's top one hundred largest urban places. The Schuylkill Canal, a north-south canal completed in 1825, paralleled the Schuylkill River
Schuylkill River
and connected Reading with Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and the Delaware
Delaware
River. The Union Canal, an east-west canal completed in 1828, connected the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Rivers, and ran from Reading to Middletown, Pennsylvania, a few miles south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Railroads forced the abandonment of the canals by the 1880s. The Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
(P&R) was incorporated in 1833. During the Long Depression
Long Depression
following the Panic of 1873, a statewide railroad strike in 1877 over delayed wages led to a violent protest and clash with the National Guard in which six Reading men were killed.[17] Following more than a century of prosperity, the Reading Company was forced to file for bankruptcy protection in 1971. The bankruptcy was a result of dwindling coal shipping revenues and strict government regulations that denied railroads the ability to set competitive prices, required high taxes, and forced the railroads to continue to operate money-losing passenger service lines. On April 1, 1976, the Reading Company sold its current railroad interests to the newly formed Consolidated Railroad Corporation (Conrail). Early in the 20th century, the city participated in the burgeoning automobile and motorcycle industry as home to the pioneer "Brass Era" companies, Daniels Motor Company, Duryea Motor Wagon Company
Duryea Motor Wagon Company
and Reading-Standard Company.[18] Reading experienced continuous growth until the 1930s, when its population reached nearly 120,000. From the 1940s to the 1970s, however, the city saw a sharp downturn in prosperity, largely owing to the decline of the heavy industry and railroads, on which Reading had been built, and a national trend of urban decline. In 1972, Hurricane Agnes
Hurricane Agnes
caused extensive flooding in the city, not the last time the lower precincts of Reading were inundated by the Schuylkill River. A similar, though not as devastating, flood occurred during June 2006. The 2000 census showed that Reading's population decline had ceased. This was attributed to an influx of Hispanic
Hispanic
residents from New York City, as well as from the extension of suburban sprawl from Philadelphia's northwest suburbs. Reading has its share of obstacles to overcome, namely crime.[19] However, new crime fighting strategies appear to have had an impact. In 2006, the city dropped in the rankings of dangerous cities, and again in 2007. In December 2007, NBC's Today show featured Reading as one of the top four "Up and Coming Neighborhoods" in the United States as showing potential for a real estate boom.[20] The interviewee, Barbara Corcoran, chose the city by looking for areas of big change, renovations, cleanups of parks, waterfronts, and warehouses. Corcoran also noted Reading's proximity to Philadelphia, New York, and other cities.

Climate[edit]

Reading, Pennsylvania

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.1     38 22

    2.5     41 23

    3.5     51 31

    3.8     62 41

    4.2     72 50

    3.8     81 60

    4.5     85 64

    3.6     83 63

    4.3     76 55

    3.2     64 43

    3.5     53 35

    3.3     42 26

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Source: NOAA[21]

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    77     3 −6

    63     5 −5

    88     10 0

    96     17 5

    108     22 10

    96     27 15

    115     30 18

    92     29 17

    110     24 13

    82     18 6

    88     12 2

    84     5 −3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

The climate in and around Reading is variable, but relatively mild. The Reading area is considered a humid subtropical climate, with areas just to the north designated as a humid continental climate. Summers are warm and humid with average July highs around 85 °F. Extended periods of heat and high humidity occur. On average, there are 15–20 days per year where the temperature exceeds 90 °F. Reading becomes milder in the autumn, as the heat and humidity of summer relent to lower humidity and temperatures. The first killing frost generally occurs in mid to late October. Winters bring freezing temperatures, but usually move above freezing during the day's warmest point. The average January high is 38; the average January low is 22 °F, but it is not unusual for winter temperatures to be much lower or higher than the averages. The all-time record low (not including wind chill) was −21 °F during a widespread cold wave in January 1994. Snow is common in some winters, but the harsher winter conditions experienced to the north and west are not typical of Greater Reading. Annual snowfall is variable, but averages around 32 inches. Spring temperatures vary widely between freezing temperatures and the 80s or even 90s later in Spring. The last killing frost usually is in later April, but freezing temperatures have occurred in May. Total precipitation for the entire year is around 45 inches (112 cm).

Climate data for Reading Regional Airport, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1894–present)[b]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 77 (25) 82 (28) 88 (31) 97 (36) 96 (36) 102 (39) 107 (42) 105 (41) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 77 (25) 107 (42)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 59.1 (15.1) 60.6 (15.9) 72.9 (22.7) 83.6 (28.7) 88.6 (31.4) 92.5 (33.6) 95.1 (35.1) 93.5 (34.2) 88.9 (31.6) 80.8 (27.1) 71.8 (22.1) 60.7 (15.9) 96.8 (36)

Average high °F (°C) 37.7 (3.2) 41.3 (5.2) 50.7 (10.4) 62.4 (16.9) 72.4 (22.4) 81.2 (27.3) 85.2 (29.6) 83.4 (28.6) 75.7 (24.3) 64.2 (17.9) 53.4 (11.9) 41.7 (5.4) 62.5 (16.9)

Average low °F (°C) 21.7 (−5.7) 23.2 (−4.9) 31.4 (−0.3) 40.7 (4.8) 49.9 (9.9) 59.8 (15.4) 64.3 (17.9) 62.5 (16.9) 55.0 (12.8) 43.2 (6.2) 34.7 (1.5) 26.1 (−3.3) 42.8 (6)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 3.5 (−15.8) 6.8 (−14) 14.4 (−9.8) 27.1 (−2.7) 36.1 (2.3) 46.2 (7.9) 53.0 (11.7) 50.5 (10.3) 40.2 (4.6) 29.9 (−1.2) 21.2 (−6) 10.6 (−11.9) 0.8 (−17.3)

Record low °F (°C) −20 (−29) −11 (−24) −2 (−19) 16 (−9) 26 (−3) 36 (2) 46 (8) 42 (6) 30 (−1) 20 (−7) 4 (−16) −6 (−21) −20 (−29)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.05 (77.5) 2.48 (63) 3.48 (88.4) 3.77 (95.8) 4.24 (107.7) 3.78 (96) 4.52 (114.8) 3.64 (92.5) 4.34 (110.2) 3.22 (81.8) 3.46 (87.9) 3.29 (83.6) 43.27 (1,099.1)

Source: NOAA[21][23]

Geography[edit] Reading is located at 40°20′30″N 75°55′35″W / 40.34167°N 75.92639°W / 40.34167; -75.92639 (40.341692, −75.926301)[24] in southeastern Pennsylvania, roughly 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Philadelphia. According to the United States Census
Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2). 9.8 square miles (25 km2) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) of it (2.39%) is water. The total area is 2.39% water. The city is largely bounded on the west by the Schuylkill River, on the east by Mount Penn, and on the south by Neversink Mountain. The Reading Prong, the mountain formation stretching north into New Jersey, has come to be associated with naturally occurring radon gas; however, homes in Reading are not particularly affected. The surrounding county is home to a number of family-owned farms.[citation needed] Economy[edit] Companies based in Reading and surrounding communities include Boscov's, Carpenter, GK Elite Sportswear, Penske Truck Leasing, and Redner's Markets. In 2012, The New York Times
New York Times
called Reading "the nation's poorest city."[25] According to the Greater Reading Chamber of Commerce and Industry,[26] the largest employers in the Berks county area are

# Employer # of Employees

1 Reading Hospital 6,878

2 East Penn Manufacturing Co. 6,851

3 Carpenter 2,432

4 County of Berks 2,370

5 Reading School District 1,903

6 Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Government 1,886

7 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 1,818

8 Boscov's 1,740

9 St. Joseph Medical Center 1,566

10 Penske Truck Leasing 1,535

Jump Start Incubator, a program of Berks County
Berks County
Community Foundation and the Kutztown University Small Business Development Center, is intended to help entrepreneurs open new businesses in the area.[27] Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] A number of federal and state highways allow entry to and egress from Reading. U.S. Route 422, the major east-west artery, circles the western edge of the city and is known locally as The West Shore Bypass. US 422 leads west to Lebanon and east to Pottstown. U.S. Route 222 bypasses the city to the west, leading southwest to Lancaster and northeast to Allentown. Interstate 176
Interstate 176
heads south from US 422 near Reading and leads to the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Turnpike (Interstate 76) in Morgantown. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Route 12 is known as the Warren Street Bypass, as it bypasses the city to the north. PA 12 begins at US 422/US 422 in Wyomissing
Wyomissing
and heads northeast on the Warren Street Bypass before becoming Pricetown Road and leading northeast to Pricetown. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Route 10 is known as Morgantown Road and heads south from Reading parallel to I-76 to Morgantown. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Route 61 heads north from Reading on Centre Avenue and leads to Pottsville. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Route 183 heads northwest from Reading on Schuylkill Avenue and Bernville Road, leading to Bernville. U.S. Route 222 Business is designated as Lancaster Avenue, Bingaman Street, South 4th Street, and 5th Street through Reading. U.S. Route 422
U.S. Route 422
Business is designated as Penn Street, Washington Street (westbound), Franklin Street (eastbound), and Perkiomen Avenue through Reading.[28]

BARTA
BARTA
bus in downtown Reading.

Public transit in Reading and its surrounding communities has been provided since 1973 by the Berks Area Regional Transportation Authority (BARTA). BARTA
BARTA
operates a fleet of 52 buses serving 19 routes, mostly originating at the BARTA Transportation Center
BARTA Transportation Center
in Downtown Reading. BARTA
BARTA
also provides paratransit service in addition to fixed route service. In addition, Greyhound and Bieber Transportation Group bus routes are available from the InterCity Bus Terminal. The former Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
Franklin Street Station was refurbished and reopened to bus service on September 9, 2013 with buses running the express route back and forth to Lebanon Transit. The route to Lebanon was discontinued after a short period, resulting in the refurbished station sitting vacant. Reading and the surrounding area is serviced by the Reading Regional Airport, a general aviation airfield. The three-letter airport code for Reading is RDG. Scheduled commercial airline service to Reading ended in 2004, when the last airline, USAir
USAir
stopped flying into Reading.[29] Freight rail service in Reading is provided by the Norfolk Southern Railway, the Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad, and the East Penn Railroad.[28] Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway
serves Reading along the Harrisburg Line, which runs east to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and west to Harrisburg, and the Reading Line, which runs northeast to Allentown. Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway
operates the Reading Yard in Reading.[28][30] The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad
Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad
operates the Reading Division line from an interchange with the Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway
in Reading north to Port Clinton and Packerton.[31] The East Penn Railroad operates the Lancaster Northern line from Sinking Spring southwest to Ephrata, using trackage rights along Norfolk Southern Railway east from Sinking Spring to an interchange with the Norfolk Southern Railway in Reading.[32]

Reading Franklin Street Terminal

Passenger trains ran between Pottsville, Reading, Pottstown, and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
along the Pottsville Line
Pottsville Line
until July 27, 1981, when transit operator SEPTA
SEPTA
curtailed commuter service to electrified lines. Since then, there have been repeated calls for the resumption of the services. In the late 1990s and up to 2003, SEPTA, in cooperation with Reading-based BARTA, funded a study called the Schuylkill Valley Metro which included plans to extend both sides of SEPTA's R6 passenger line to Pottstown, Reading, and Wyomissing, Pennsylvania. The project suffered a major setback when it was rejected by the Federal Transit Administration New Starts program, which cited doubts about the ridership projections and financing assumptions used by the study. With the recent surge in gasoline prices and ever-increasing traffic, the planning commissions of Montgomery County and Berks County
Berks County
have teamed to study the feasibility of a simple diesel shuttle train between the Manayunk/Norristown Line
Manayunk/Norristown Line
and Pottstown/Reading.[33] Utilities[edit]

Lake Ontelaunee
Lake Ontelaunee
supplies water to Reading

Electricity in Reading is provided by Met-Ed, a subsidiary of FirstEnergy.[34][35] Natural gas service in Reading is provided by UGI Utilities.[36][37] The Reading Area Water Authority provides water to the city, with the city's water supply coming from Lake Ontelaunee
Lake Ontelaunee
and the city's water treated at the Maidencreek Filter Plant. The Reading Water Company was founded in 1821 to supply water to the city. The Reading Area Water Authority was established on May 20, 1994 to take over the water system in the city.[38] Sewer service is provided by the city's Public Works department, with a wastewater treatment plant owned by the city located on Fritz Island.[39] The city's Public Works department provides trash and recycling collection to Reading.[40] Health care[edit] Hospitals serving the Reading area include Reading Hospital
Reading Hospital
in West Reading and Penn State Health St. Joseph in Bern Township and downtown Reading. Reading Hospital
Reading Hospital
offers an emergency room with a Level II trauma center and various services including Cancer Care, Heart Center, Orthopedic Services, Pediatrics, Primary Care, and Women's Health.[41] Penn State Health St. Joseph offers an emergency room, Heart Institute, Cancer Center, Stroke Center, Wound Center, Orthopedics, and Primary Care Physicians.[42] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 2,225

1800 2,386

7.2%

1810 3,462

45.1%

1820 4,332

25.1%

1830 5,856

35.2%

1840 8,410

43.6%

1850 15,743

87.2%

1860 23,162

47.1%

1870 33,930

46.5%

1880 43,278

27.6%

1890 58,661

35.5%

1900 78,961

34.6%

1910 96,071

21.7%

1920 107,784

12.2%

1930 111,171

3.1%

1940 110,568

−0.5%

1950 109,320

−1.1%

1960 98,061

−10.3%

1970 87,643

−10.6%

1980 78,686

−10.2%

1990 78,380

−0.4%

2000 81,207

3.6%

2010 88,082

8.5%

Est. 2016 87,575 [6] −0.6%

U.S. Decennial Census[43] 2013 Estimate[44]

As of the 2010 census, the city was 48.4% White, 13.2% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, and 6.1% were two or more races. 58.2% of the population were of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino ancestry.[45] As of the census of 2000, there were 30,113 households, out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.8% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.33.[46] In the city, the population was spread out, with 29.9% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,698, and the median income for a family was $31,067. Males had a median income of $28,114 versus $21,993 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,086. 26.1% of the population and 22.3% of families were below the poverty line. 36.5% of those under the age of 18 and 15.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Estimates[edit] As of the American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Reading had a population of 80,997. The racial makeup of the city was 48.8% White, 14.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 31.1% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. 56.3% were Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino of any race, with 33.5% being of Puerto Rican descent. 33.0% of all people were living below the poverty line, including 42.0% of those under 18. According to the US Census
Census
Bureau, 32.9% of all residents live below the poverty level, including 45.7% of those under 18. Reading's unemployment rate in May 2010 was 14.7%, while Berks County's unemployment rate was 9.9%.[47] Neighborhoods[edit]

Name Area Population

Center City 0.381 sq. mi 5,374

Callowhill 0.751 sq. mi 7,289

Centre Park 0.615 sq. mi 10,781

College Heights 1.295 sq. mi 14,903

East Reading 2.230 sq. mi 34,572

Eastside 1.849 sq. mi 29,198

Glenside 2.303 sq. mi 11,837

Hampden Heights 3.144 sq. mi 44,101

Millmont 1.024 sq. mi 5,298

North Riverside 0.955 sq. mi 12,674

Northmont 0.035 sq. mi 697

Northside 0.187 sq. mi 1,822

Oakbrook/ Wyomissing
Wyomissing
Park 1.197 sq. mi 5,947

Outlet District 0.554 sq. mi 14,295

Penn's Commons 0.796 sq. mi 15,891

Prince Historic District 0.123 sq. mi 2,002

Queen Anne Historic District 0.330 sq. mi 6,359

Southside 1.486 sq. mi 10,317

South of Penn 1.122 sq. mi 8,483

Fire department[edit]

The Reading Fire Museum

Main article: Reading Fire Department The city of Reading is protected by the 135 firefighters and paramedics of the Reading Fire and EMS Department (RFD). The RFD operates out of seven fire stations throughout the city. The RFD operates a fire apparatus fleet of five Engine Companies, three Ladder Companies, one Rescue Company, brush unit, and four front-line Medic Ambulances. In 2016, fire units responded to 9,751 incidents. EMS responses totaled 19,058 calls for service.[48] Department staffing is 2 firefighters per apparatus.[49] Education[edit]

Reading High School

The Reading School District
Reading School District
provides elementary and middle schools for the city's children. Numerous Catholic
Catholic
parochial schools are also available. Press reports have indicated that in 2012, about eight percent of Reading's residents have a college degree, compared to a national average of 28%.[25] Three institutions of higher learning are located in Reading:

Albright College Alvernia University Reading Area Community College

Four high schools serve the city:

Berks Catholic
Catholic
High School (Grades 9–12) Reading High School (Grades 10–12) Reading Intermediate High School (Grades 8–9) I-LEAD Charter School

Sports[edit]

FirstEnergy
FirstEnergy
Stadium, 2006.

Reading is known for the Reading Fightin Phils, minor league affiliate of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies, who play at FirstEnergy
FirstEnergy
Stadium. Notable alumni are Larry Bowa, Ryne Sandberg, Mike Schmidt, Ryan Howard, and Jimmy Rollins. The city has been the residence of numerous professional athletes. Among these native to Reading are Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
outfielder Carl Furillo, Baltimore
Baltimore
Colts running back Lenny Moore, and Philadelphia 76ers forward Donyell Marshall. Pro golfer Betsy King, a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame, was born in Reading. The open-wheel racing portion of Penske Racing
Penske Racing
had been based in Reading, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
since 1973 with the cars, during the F1 and CART era, being constructed in Poole, Dorset, England
England
as well as being the base for the F1 team. On October 31, 2005, Penske Racing
Penske Racing
announced after the 2006 IRL season, they would consolidate IRL and NASCAR operations at the team's Mooresville, North Carolina
Mooresville, North Carolina
facility; with the flooding in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 2006, the team's operations were moved to Mooresville earlier than expected. Penske Truck Leasing
Penske Truck Leasing
is still based in Reading. Duryea Drive, which ascends Mount Penn in a series of switchbacks, was a testing place for early automobiles and was named for Charles Duryea. The Blue Mountain Region Sports Car Club of America
Sports Car Club of America
hosts the Duryea Hill Climb, the longest in the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Hillclimb Association series, which follows the same route the automaker used to test his cars.[50] Reading played host to a stop on the PGA Tour, the Reading Open, in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Club League Venue Established Championships

Reading Fightin Phils EL, Baseball FirstEnergy
FirstEnergy
Stadium 1967 4

Reading Royals ECHL, Ice hockey Santander Arena 2001 1

Reading United AC PDL, Soccer Don Thomas Stadium 1996

Culture[edit]

Reading Public Museum
Reading Public Museum
in 2011.

The city's cultural institutions include the Reading Symphony Orchestra and its education project the Reading Symphony Youth Orchestra, the Reading Choral Society, Opus One: Berks Chamber Choir, the GoggleWorks
GoggleWorks
Art Gallery, the Reading Public Museum
Reading Public Museum
and the Historical Society of Berks County. Reading is the birthplace of graphic artist Jim Steranko, guitar virtuoso Richie Kotzen, novelist and poet John Updike, poet Wallace Stevens, and singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. Marching band composer and writer John Philip Sousa, the March King, died in Reading's Abraham Lincoln Hotel in 1932. Artist Keith Haring[51] was born in Reading.

Downtown Reading

Reading is home to the 15-time world-champion drum and bugle corps, the Reading Buccaneers. In 1914, one the anchors of the Battleship Maine
Maine
was delivered from the Washington Navy Yard
Washington Navy Yard
to City Park, off of Perkiomen Avenue. The anchor was dedicated during a ceremony presided over by Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was then assistant secretary of the navy. Reading was home to several movie and theater palaces in the early 20th Century. The Astor, Embassy, Loew's Colonial, and Rajah Shrine Theater were grand monuments of architecture and entertainment. Today, after depression, recession, and urban renewal, the Rajah is the only one to remain. The Astor Theater was demolished in 1998 to make way for The Sovereign Center. Certain steps were taken to retain mementos of the Astor, including its ornate Art Deco
Art Deco
chandelier and gates. These are on display and in use inside the arena corridors, allowing insight into the ambiance of the former movie house. In 2000, the Rajah was purchased from the Shriners. After a much needed restoration, it was renamed the Sovereign Performing Arts Center. The Mid-Atlantic Air Museum
Mid-Atlantic Air Museum
is a membership-supported museum and restoration facility located at Carl A. Spaatz
Carl A. Spaatz
Field. The museum actively displays and restores historic and rare war aircraft and civilian airliners. Most notable to their collection is a Northrop P-61 Black Widow under active restoration since its recovery from Mount Cyclops, New Guinea in 1989. Beginning in 1990, the museum has hosted "World War II Weekend Air Show", scheduled to coincide with D-Day. On display are period wartime aircraft (many of which fly throughout the show) vehicles, and weapons. The mechanical ice cream scoop was invented in Reading by William Clewell in 1878. The 5th Ave Bar and York Peppermint Patty were invented in Reading.[15] Sister city[edit] The City of Reading and Reutlingen, Germany
Germany
are sister cities which participate in student exchanges. Students from Reading High School can apply to become a part of the exchange and travel to Reutlingen for 2 weeks (Mid October to Early September) and in return host their German exchange student in the spring. Kutztown University also has a program with Reutlingen. Reading is twinned with:

Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, since 1998

Attractions[edit]

Reading's Pagoda
Pagoda
seen from Skyline Drive.

In 1908, a Japanese-style pagoda was built on Mount Penn, where it overlooks the city and is visible from almost everywhere in town. Locally, it is called the "Pagoda". It is currently the home of a café and a gift shop. It remains a popular tourist attraction. Another fixture in Reading's skyline is the William Penn
William Penn
Memorial Fire Tower, one mile from the Pagoda
Pagoda
on Skyline Drive. Built in 1939 for fire department and forestry observation, the tower is 120 feet tall, and rises 950 feet above the intersection of fifth and Penn Streets. From the top of the tower is a 60-mile panoramic view. The Reading Glove and Mitten Manufacturing Company founded in 1899, just outside Reading city limits, in West Reading and Wyomissing boroughs changed its name to Vanity Fair in 1911 and is now the major clothing manufacturer VF Corp.
VF Corp.
In the early 1970s, the original factories were developed to create the VF Outlet Village, the first outlet mall in the United States. In media[edit] The book and movie Rabbit, Run and the other three novels of the Rabbit series by John Updike
John Updike
were set in fictionalized versions of Reading and nearby Shillington, called Brewer and Olinger respectively. Updike was born in Reading and lived in nearby Shillington until he was thirteen. He also makes reference to the Brewer suburb of Mount Judge, equivalent to Mount Penn east of Reading. Filmmakers Gary Adelstein, Costa Mantis, and Jerry Orr created Reading 1974: Portrait of a City; relying heavily on montage, the film is a cultural time capsule. The play Sweat by Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
is set in Reading.[52][53] The movie Goon: Last of the Enforcers; features Reading as the home of rival team,The Reading Wolf Dogs. Notable people[edit] Main category: People from Reading, Pennsylvania

David McMurtrie Gregg
David McMurtrie Gregg
(1922) by Augustus Lukeman.

Gus Alberts (1861–1912), Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
player[54] Coit Albertson
Coit Albertson
(1880–1953), silent film actor George Warren Alexander (1829-1903), captain of the Reading Artillerists (1857-1861); second in command, 47th Pennsylvania Infantry (1861-1864); and founder of G.W. Alexander & Co., a successful hat factory in Reading and West Reading[55] Steve Anker (b. 1958), rapper from East Reading Elvin Ayala
Elvin Ayala
(b. 1981), professional boxer, World Boxing Council and U.S. National Boxing Council middleweight champion John Barrasso
John Barrasso
(b. July 21, 1952),[56] U.S. Senator from Wyoming Albert Boscov, (1929-2017), chairman of Boscov's
Boscov's
department store George Bradley (1852–1931), Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
player[54] Sylvanus C. Breyfogel (b. 1851), bishop of Evangelical Association Kenny Brightbill (b. 1948), race car driver James Bryant, professional football player James Henry Carpenter
James Henry Carpenter
(1846–1898), Civil War sailor, officer, founder of Carpenter Technology Corporation Jack Coggins
Jack Coggins
(1911–2006), artist and author Kayla Collins
Kayla Collins
(b. 1987), model and Playboy playmate
Playboy playmate
(August 2008) Forrest Compton (b. 1925), actor Michael Constantine
Michael Constantine
(b. 1927), actor Tullio DeSantis
Tullio DeSantis
(b. 1948), artist, writer, professor Lisa Eichhorn
Lisa Eichhorn
(b. 1952), actress, writer, producer Meg Foster
Meg Foster
(b. 1948), actress Roy Frankhouser
Roy Frankhouser
(1939–2009), Grand Dragon of Ku Klux Klan Harry Whittier Frees
Harry Whittier Frees
(1879–1953), photographer Carl Furillo
Carl Furillo
(1922–1989), Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
outfielder[54] Megan Gallagher
Megan Gallagher
(b. 1960), actress David McMurtrie Gregg
David McMurtrie Gregg
(1833–1916), American Civil War
American Civil War
general Keith Haring
Keith Haring
(1958–1990), artist, activist Mervin Heller, Jr., past president of the United States Tennis Association Corey Hertzog (b. 1990), professional soccer player William Muhlenberg Hiester (1818–1878), political and military leader Alice Hoover (1928–2014), All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player Frank Hovington (1919–1982), blues musician Stu Jackson
Stu Jackson
(b. 1955), executive vice president of basketball operations for the NBA Mildred Jordan (1901–1982), novelist Travis Kauffman (b. 1985), WBF Inter-Continental heavyweight boxing champion and ranked contender Ed Kemmer
Ed Kemmer
(1921–2004), combat pilot and actor Chip Kidd
Chip Kidd
(b.1964), graphic designer and author Betsy King (b.1955), golfer, winner of 34 L PGA Tour
PGA Tour
events and member of the World Golf Hall of Fame A.S. King
A.S. King
(b. 1970), author, winner of the LA Times Book Prize and a Printz Award Honoree Richie Kotzen
Richie Kotzen
(b. 1970), rock guitarist Rick Krebs (b. 1949), game designer Whitey Kurowski
Whitey Kurowski
(1918–1999), All-Star infielder for St. Louis Cardinals Henry Larkin
Henry Larkin
(1860–1942), Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
player Julian Letterlough (1969–2005), light heavyweight boxing champion Steve Little (1965–2000), WBA world middleweight boxing champion Donyell Marshall
Donyell Marshall
(b. 1973), basketball player, Connecticut
Connecticut
and NBA power forward Julio Cesar Matthews
Julio Cesar Matthews
(b. 1970), Golden Gloves champion and unbeaten professional cruiserweight boxer Lenny Moore
Lenny Moore
(b. 1933), NFL running back and Pro Football Hall of Famer Stephen Mull, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Political Ministry Affairs, U.S. Ambassador to Lithuania[57] James Nagle (1822–1866), Civil War general Hildegard Peplau (1909–1999), nurse theorist Mike Pilot
Mike Pilot
(b. 1975), podcaster David Robidoux, composer[58] Denise Rutkowski (b. 1962), professional female bodybuilder Lori and George Schappell (b. 1961), conjoined twins John Philip Sousa
John Philip Sousa
(1854–1932), iconic composer, died in Reading Ray Dennis Steckler (1939–2009), film director Jim Steranko
Jim Steranko
(b. 1938), Silver Age comic book artist, magazine publisher and escape artist Wallace Stevens
Wallace Stevens
(1879–1955), poet Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
(b. 1989), Grammy and Emmy Award-winning singer, songwriter and recording artist Chuck Thompson (1921–2005), sportscaster John Updike
John Updike
(1932–2009), Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist, poet, essayist Thomas Usher, CEO of U.S. Steel
U.S. Steel
and Chairman of the Board of Marathon Oil Byron Vazakas (1905–1987), poet Charlie Wagner (1912–2006), baseball player for Boston
Boston
Red Sox Angela Washko (b. 1986), artist Delores Wells (b. 1937), actress Thomas C. Zimmerman
Thomas C. Zimmerman
(1838–1914), writer, translator of English language classics to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German dialect

References[edit]

^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official precipitation measurements for Reading were taken at an undisclosed location from January 1894 to February 1973, a COOP 4 mi (6.4 km) north-northwest of downtown from March 1973 to January 1999, and Reading Regional since February 1999.[22] Temperature, snowfall and snow depth records date to February 1903, 23 November 1897, and 26 September 1908, respectively.[21]

^ "Baseballtown Charities". baseballtown.org. November 27, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2017.  ^ Kline, Dave. "Mountain Folklore: Berks Country Fest is all about music, culture, food". Reading Eagle. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ http://www.readingpa.gov/sites/default/files/council/ordinance/master/Introduction.pdf ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Retrieved Aug 13, 2017.  ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.  ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (Searchable database). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 25, 2014.  ^ "Reading (city) QuickFacts from the US Census
Census
Bureau". census.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2017.  ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ " Census
Census
Shows Reading, Berks growth spurt". Retrieved March 13, 2011.  ^ Tavernise, Sabrina (September 26, 2011). "Reading, Pa., Knew It Was Poor. Now It Knows Just How Poor". The New York Times.  ^ "Reading (PA) Bronze-level International Mountain Bicycling Association". www.imba.com. Retrieved 2016-10-14.  ^ "Reading Radsport Festival September 8, 2017". www.readingradsport.com. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ News, 69 (2017-04-06). "$20 million indoor cycling track to be built in Reading". WFMZ. Retrieved 2017-04-06.  ^ a b "content.aspGreater Reading's destination hub : Greater Reading Convention and Visitors Bureau". Readingberkspa.com. Retrieved May 7, 2013.  ^ Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
became the national capital in 1800. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States 1492–present (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995), p. 243. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.158. ^ "City Crime Rankings by Population Group". morganquitno.com.  ^ Interview with Barbara Corcoran
Barbara Corcoran
on NBC's Today show. Online. December 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2009. ^ a b c "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-09-08.  ^ ThreadEx; search for location= "PA - Reading", variable= "Station thread" ^ "Station Name: PA READING SPAATZ FLD". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-09-08.  ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ a b "The Beleaguered Middle Class". The New York Times. June 13, 2012. ^ "Major Employers". Greater Reading Economic Partnership.  ^ "New Director Will Lead Reading's Jump Start Incubator". bctv.org - Local news about Berks County
Berks County
and Reading, Pa. Retrieved 2016-10-14.  ^ a b c Berks County, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Highway Map (PDF) (Map). PennDOT. 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2014.  ^ " Reading Regional Airport
Reading Regional Airport
still flying high". Reading Eagle. July 22, 2004. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ Norfolk Southern Harrisburg Region Timetable 1, August 4, 2008 ^ Reading & Northern Railroad System Map (Map). Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad. Retrieved July 16, 2017.  ^ East Penn Railroad
East Penn Railroad
Map (PDF) (Map). DeskMap Systems. 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.  ^ "r6extension.com". r6extension.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2017.  ^ "Our Service Area". FirstEnergy. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ "Electric Service Tarriff" (PDF). Met-Ed. July 17, 2017. pp. 8–10. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ "Geographic Footprint". UGI. Retrieved October 4, 2017.  ^ "Gas Tarriff" (PDF). UGI Utilities. July 7, 2017. pp. 5–6. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ "About Reading Area Water Authority". Reading Area Water Authority. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ "Waste Water Treatment Plant". City of Reading, PA. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ "Residential Trash and Recycling". City of Reading, PA. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ "Services". Reading Hospital. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ "Home". Penn State Health St. Joseph. Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ United States Census
Census
Bureau. " Census
Census
of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2013.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.  ^ "Reading (city) Quick Facts from the US Census
Census
Bureau". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2015.  ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census
Census
Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ "Berks County, Reading unemployment rates rise in May – bctv.org – Local news about Berks County
Berks County
and Reading, Pa.: Special
Special
Reports". bctv.org. June 29, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2013.  ^ "PAGE NOT AVAILABLE". readingpafire.com.  ^ "ReadingPaFire.com - News". readingpafire.com.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ "Keith Haring's pop art celebrated in today's Google Doodle". National Post. May 4, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.  ^ Charles Isherwood (August 16, 2015). "Review: Lynn Nottage's 'Sweat' Examines Lives Unraveling by Industry's Demise". New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2016.  ^ Sadie Dingfelder (January 21, 2016). "'Sweat' by Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
gives voice to the 'new poor'". Washington Post. Retrieved February 2, 2016.  ^ a b c Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) [1969]. The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8.  ^ Snyder, Laurie. Lieutenant Colonel George Warren ("G.W.") Alexander, in 47th Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment's Story, retrieved online May 14, 2017. ^ "BARRASSO, John A., (1952– )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved November 18, 2012.  ^ Mr. Stephen D. Mull Nominated as New United States Ambassador to Lithuania: Biography[permanent dead link] ^ "David Robidoux". APM Music. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Reading Eagle
Reading Eagle
archive, Google News Archive, 1868–2000. —PDFs of 38,630 issues. Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., The Socialists of Reading, Pennsylvanian and World War I: A Question of Loyalty," Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
History, vol. 36, no. 4 (October 1969), pp. 430–450. In JSTOR Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., "The Socialist Administration in Reading, Pennsylvania, Part I, 1927–1931," Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
History, vol. 39, no. 4 (October 1972), pp. 417–442. In JSTOR Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., "Triumph and Disaster: The Reading Socialists in Power and Decline, Part II, 1932–1939," Pennsylvania History, vol. 40, no. 4 (October 1973), pp. 380–411. In JSTOR Henry G. Stetler, The Socialist Movement in Reading, Pennsylvania, 1896–1936. PhD dissertation. Storrs, CT: Henry G. Stetler, 1943.

External links[edit]

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Places adjacent to Reading, Pennsylvania

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Reading

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Articles Relating to Reading, and Berks County, Pennsylvania

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States

County seat: Reading

City

Reading

Boroughs

Adamstown‡ Bally Bechtelsville Bernville Birdsboro Boyertown Centerport Fleetwood Hamburg Kenhorst Kutztown Laureldale Leesport Lenhartsville Lyons Mohnton Mount Penn New Morgan Robesonia St. Lawrence Shillington Shoemakersville Sinking Spring Topton Wernersville West Reading Womelsdorf Wyomissing

Townships

Albany Alsace Amity Bern Bethel Brecknock Caernarvon Centre Colebrookdale Cumru District Douglass Earl Exeter Greenwich Heidelberg Hereford Jefferson Longswamp Lower Alsace Lower Heidelberg Maidencreek Marion Maxatawny Muhlenberg North Heidelberg Oley Ontelaunee Penn Perry Pike Richmond Robeson Rockland Ruscombmanor South Heidelberg Spring Tilden Tulpehocken Union Upper Bern Upper Tulpehocken Washington Windsor

CDPs

Alleghenyville Alsace Manor Amity Gardens Baumstown Bethel Blandon Bowers Colony Park Dauberville Douglassville Dryville Edenburg Flying Hills Fox Chase Frystown Gibraltar Gouglersville Greenfields Grill Hereford Hyde Park Jacksonwald Kempton Kutztown University Lincoln Park Lorane Mertztown Mohrsville Montrose Manor Morgantown‡ Mount Aetna Muhlenberg Park New Berlinville New Jerusalem New Schaefferstown Oley Pennside Pennwyn Rehrersburg Reiffton Riverview Park Schubert Shartlesville South Temple Spring Ridge Springmont Stony Creek Mills Stouchsburg Temple Virginville Walnuttown West Hamburg West Lawn West Wyomissing Whitfield

Unincorporated communities

Albany Amityville Barto Basket Beckersville Berne Boyers Junction Breezy Corner Brownsville Cacoosing Chapel‡ Clayton Dale Earlville Dreibelbis Eagle Point Eckville Eshbach Evansville Five Points Fredericksville Fritztown Geigertown Greenawald Greenfield Manor Green Hills Grimville Hancock Harlem Henningsville Hinterleiter Host Huffs Church Jalappa Joanna Joanna Heights Kempville Kirbyville Knauers Krumsville Kulptown Landis Store Leinbachs Limekiln Lobachsville Longswamp Maiden Creek Manatawny Maple Grove Maxatawny Molltown Monocacy Station Montello Monterey Morysville Moselem Moselem Springs New Hensingersville‡ North Heidelberg Pikeville Pine Forge Pine Waters Pleasant Valley Pleasantville Plowville Pricetown Quaker City Rittenhouse Gap Sally Ann Scarlets Mill Seisholtzville State Hill Stony Run Strausstown Trexler Tuckerton Unionville Vinemont Weavertown Windsor Castle Wintersville Woodchoppertown Wyomissing
Wyomissing
Hills Yellow House

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Reading in Berks County, Pennsylvania

Attractions

The Pagoda Historic Places GoggleWorks Reading Public Museum Historical Society of Berks County Berkshire Mall Fairgrounds Square Mall Santander Arena

Transportation

BARTA Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
Franklin Street Station Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
Outer Station Reading Regional Airport Schuylkill Valley Metro
Schuylkill Valley Metro
(cancelled)

Entertainment

Reading Symphony Youth Orchestra Reading Choral Society Berks Youth Chorus

Education

Reading School District

Reading High School Reading Intermediate High School

Albright College Alvernia University Reading Area Community College Penn State Berks

Industry

Boscov's Carpenter Technology Corporation Penske Truck Leasing Redner's Markets Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
(defunct) Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad
Reading Railroad
(defunct) Daniels Motor Company (defunct) VF Corporation
VF Corporation
(former)

Sports

Reading Fightin Phils Reading Royals Reading United A.C.

Newspapers

Reading Eagle

Radio

W207AE W222BY W225CF W249AT W253AC W257DI W279BS W279CB W296CL W300BZ WAVT-FM WEEU WBYN-FM WIOV WIOV-FM WMGH-FM WRAW WRFY-FM WXAC WYBQ WYTL WZMV WZXB

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Cities

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Boroughs

Beaver Bedford Bellefonte Brookville Carlisle Chambersburg Clarion Clearfield Coudersport Danville Doylestown Ebensburg Emporium Gettysburg Hollidaysburg Honesdale Huntingdon Indiana Jim Thorpe Kittanning Laporte Lewisburg Lewistown McConnellsburg Media Mercer Middleburg Mifflintown Milford Montrose New Bloomfield Norristown Ridgway Smethport Somerset Stroudsburg Tionesta Towanda Tunkhannock Waynesburg Wellsboro West Chester

Town

Bloomsburg

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Cities and towns 50k-99k

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Cities and towns 30k-50k

Atlantic City Cheltenham Chester Deptford Dover Egg Harbor Evesham Ewing Falls Galloway Haverford Lawrence Lower Makefield Middletown Millville Monroe Mount Laurel Newark Norristown Northampton Radnor Ridley Warminster Washington Willingboro Winslow

v t e

Home Rule Municipalities in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

First Class

Township of Cheltenham Township of Haverford Township of McCandless Township of Mt. Lebanon Township of O'Hara Township of Penn Hills City of Philadelphia Township of Plymouth Township of Radnor Township of Upper Darby Township of Upper St. Clair Township of Whitehall Township of Wilkes-Barre

Second Class

Township of Chester Township of Elk Township of Ferguson Township of Hampton Township of Hanover Township of Horsham Borough of Kingston Township of Middletown Township of Peters Township of Pine City of Pittsburgh Township of Richland Township of Tredyffrin Township of Upper Providence Township of West Deer Township of Whitemarsh

Third Class

City of Allentown City of Carbondale City of Chester City of Clairton City of Coatesville City of Farrell City of Franklin City of Greensburg City of Hermitage City of Johnstown Borough of Latrobe City of Lebanon City of McKeesport City of Reading City of St. Marys City of Warren City of Wilkes-Barre

N/A

Borough of Bellevue Borough of Bethel Park Borough of Bradford Woods Borough of Bryn Athyn Borough of Cambridge Springs Borough of Chalfont City of DuBois Borough of Edinboro Borough of Greentree City of Hazleton Township of Kingston Borough of Monroeville Borough of Murrysville Borough of Norristown Borough of Portage Township of Salisbury City of Scranton Borough of State College Borough of Tyrone Borough of West Chester Borough of Whitehall Borough of Youngsville

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237371180 LCCN: n50052

.