The Info List - Reading, Pennsylvania

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READING (/ˈrɛdɪŋ/ RED-ing ) ( Pennsylvania
German : Reddin), is the county seat of Berks County and with a population of 88,976 is the fifth-largest city in Pennsylvania
. Located in southeastern Pennsylvania, it is the principal city of the Greater Reading Area .

The city, approximately halfway between Philadelphia
and the state capital at Harrisburg , is strategically situated along a major transportation route from Central to Eastern Pennsylvania, and lent its name to the now-defunct Reading Railroad , which transported anthracite coal from the Pennsylvania
Coal Region to the eastern United States
United States
via the Port of Philadelphia
. Reading Railroad is one of the four railroad properties in the classic United States
United States
version of the Monopoly board game.

Reading was one of the first localities where outlet shopping became a tourist industry. It has been known as "The Pretzel City", because of numerous local pretzel bakeries. Currently, Bachman, Dieffenbach, Tom Sturgis, and Unique Pretzel bakeries call the Reading area home.

According to the 2010 census , Reading has the highest share of citizens living in poverty in the nation.

In recent years, the Reading area has become a destination for cyclists. With more than 125 miles of trails in five major preserves, it is an International Mountain Bicycling Association Ride Center and it annually hosts the Reading 120 international road cycling race.

In April 2017, it was announced that an indoor velodrome, or cycling track, will be built in Reading as the first of its kind on the East Coast and only the second in the entire country. Albright College and the World Cycling League formally announced plans April 6, 2017, to build the $20 million, 2,500-seat facility, which will be called the National Velodrome and Events Center at Albright College. It will also serve as the Cycling League's world headquarters.


* 1 History * 2 Climate * 3 Geography * 4 Economy

* 5 Transportation

* 5.1 Bus * 5.2 Roadways * 5.3 Airlines * 5.4 Rail

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Estimates

* 7 Neighborhoods * 8 Fire department * 9 Education * 10 Sports * 11 Culture * 12 Sister city * 13 Attractions * 14 In media * 15 Notable people * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links


The 500-block of Court Street in Downtown Reading, with Berks County courthouse on the left. Reading and its suburbs, 1955.

Lenni Lenape people, also known as " Delaware
Indians", were the original inhabitants of the Reading area.

The Colony of Pennsylvania
was a 1680 land grant from King Charles II of England
to William Penn
William Penn
. Comprising more than 45,000 square miles (120,000 km2), it was named for his father, Sir William Penn
William Penn

In 1743, Richard and Thomas Penn (sons of William Penn) mapped out the town of Reading with Conrad Weiser . Taking its name from Reading, Berkshire , England, the town was established in 1748. Upon the creation of Berks County in 1752, Reading became the county seat. The region was settled by emigrants from southern and western Germany
, who bought land from the Penns. The first Amish community in the New World was established in Greater Reading, Berks County. The Pennsylvanian German dialect was spoken in the area well into the 1950s and later.

During the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
, Reading was a military base for a chain of forts along the Blue Mountain . Reading downtown as seen from Penn and 2nd Streets

By the time of the American Revolution
American Revolution
, the area's iron industry had a total production exceeding England's. That output helped supply George Washington
George Washington
's troops with cannons, rifles, and ammunition in the Revolutionary War. During the early period of the conflict, Reading was again a depot for military supply. Hessian prisoners from the Battle of Trenton were also detained here.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
was the capital of the United States
United States
at the time of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 . President Washington traveled to Reading, and considered making it the emergency national capital, but chose Germantown instead.

Susanna Cox was tried and convicted for infanticide in Reading in 1809. Her case attracted tremendous sympathy; 20,000 viewers came to view her hanging, swamping the 3,000 inhabitants.

data showed that, from 1810 to 1950, Reading was among the nation's top one hundred largest urban places.

The Schuylkill Canal , a north-south canal completed in 1825, paralleled the Schuylkill River and connected Reading with Philadelphia
and the Delaware River
Delaware River
. The Union Canal , an east-west canal completed in 1828, connected the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Rivers , and ran from Reading to Middletown, Pennsylvania, a few miles south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
. Railroads forced the abandonment of the canals by the 1880s.

The Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad (P">





3.7 37 21 2.8 41 23 3.6 50 31 3.7 62 40 4.5 72 51 4.4 80 60 4.1 85 65 3.6 83 62 4.4 76 55 3.3 65 42 3.5 54 35 3.3 42 26

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

totals in inches

Source: Weather.com



94 3 −6 70 5 −5 91 10 −1 93 17 4 115 22 11 111 27 16 103 29 18 92 28 17 111 24 13 83 18 6 90 12 2 84 6 −3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

totals in mm

The climate in and around Reading is variable, but relatively mild. The Reading area is considered a humid subtropical climate , with areas just to the north designated as a humid continental climate . Summers are warm and humid with average July highs around 85 °F. Extended periods of heat and high humidity occur. On average, there are 15–20 days per year where the temperature exceeds 90 °F. Reading becomes milder in the autumn, as the heat and humidity of summer relent to lower humidity and temperatures. The first killing frost generally occurs in mid to late October.

Winters bring freezing temperatures, but usually move above freezing during the day's warmest point. The average January high is 38; the average January low is 22 °F, but it is not unusual for winter temperatures to be much lower or higher than the averages. The all-time record low (not including wind chill) was −21 °F during a widespread cold wave in January 1994 . Snow is common in some winters, but the harsher winter conditions experienced to the north and west are not typical of Greater Reading. Annual snowfall is variable, but averages around 32 inches. Spring temperatures vary widely between freezing temperatures and the 80s or even 90s later in Spring. The last killing frost usually is in later April, but freezing temperatures have occurred in May. Total precipitation for the entire year is around 45 inches (112 cm).



RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 71 (22) 77 (25) 88 (31) 97 (36) 96 (36) 97 (36) 102 (39) 102 (39) 100 (38) 92 (33) 82 (28) 77 (25) 102 (39)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 38 (3) 42 (6) 51 (11) 63 (17) 73 (23) 82 (28) 86 (30) 84 (29) 77 (25) 66 (19) 54 (12) 43 (6) 63.3 (17.4)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 22 (−6) 24 (−4) 32 (0) 41 (5) 51 (11) 61 (16) 65 (18) 64 (18) 56 (13) 44 (7) 36 (2) 27 (−3) 43.6 (6.4)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −20 (−29) −8 (−22) −2 (−19) 16 (−9) 26 (−3) 39 (4) 46 (8) 42 (6) 30 (−1) 20 (−7) 8 (−13) −4 (−20) −20 (−29)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 2.92 (74.2) 2.93 (74.4) 3.56 (90.4) 3.69 (93.7) 4.03 (102.4) 4.50 (114.3) 4.67 (118.6) 3.80 (96.5) 4.42 (112.3) 3.78 (96) 3.44 (87.4) 3.58 (90.9) 45.32 (1,151.1)

Source: The Weather Channel


Reading is located at 40°20′30″N 75°55′35″W / 40.34167°N 75.92639°W / 40.34167; -75.92639 (40.341692, −75.926301) in southeastern Pennsylvania
, roughly 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Philadelphia
. According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau , the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2). 9.8 square miles (25 km2) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) of it (2.39%) is water. The total area is 2.39% water. The city is largely bounded on the west by the Schuylkill River , on the east by Mount Penn, and on the south by Neversink Mountain. The Reading Prong , the mountain formation stretching north into New Jersey
New Jersey
, has come to be associated with naturally occurring radon gas; however, homes in Reading are not particularly affected. The surrounding county is home to a number of family-owned farms.


Companies based in Reading and surrounding communities include Boscov\'s , Carpenter , GK Elite Sportswear , Penske Truck Leasing , and Redner\'s Markets .

In 2012, The New York Times
New York Times
called Reading "the nation's poorest city."

According to the Greater Reading Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the largest employers in the Berks county area are


1 Reading Hospital
Reading Hospital

2 East Penn Manufacturing Co. 6,851

3 Carpenter 2,432

4 County of Berks
County of Berks

5 Reading School District 1,903

6 Pennsylvania
Government 1,886

7 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 1,818

8 Boscov\'s 1,740

9 St. Joseph Medical Center 1,566

10 Penske Truck Leasing 1,535

Jump Start Incubator, a program of Berks County Community Foundation and the Kutztown University Small Business Development Center, is intended to help entrepreneurs open new businesses in the area.



BARTA bus in downtown Reading.

Public transit in Reading and its surrounding communities has been provided since 1973 by BARTA , the Berks Area Regional Transportation Authority. BARTA operates a fleet of 50 buses serving 19 routes, mostly originating at the BARTA Transportation Center in Downtown Reading. BARTA also provides paratransit service in addition to fixed route service. In addition, Greyhound and Bieber Trailways bus routes are available from the InterCity Bus Terminal. The former Reading Railroad Franklin Street Station was refurbished and reopened to bus service on September 9, 2013 with buses running the express route back and forth to Lebanon Transit . This Lebanon Route was discontinued after a short period. Now the refurbished Station sits vacant.


A number of federal and state highways allow entry to and egress from Reading. U.S. Route 222 Business is designated as Lancaster Avenue, Bingaman Street, South 4th Street, and 5th Street. U.S. Route 422 Business is designated as Penn Street, Washington Street (westbound), Franklin Street (eastbound), and Perkiomen Avenue. U.S. Route 422 , the major east-west artery, circles the western edge of the city and is known locally as The West Shore Bypass. PA Route 12 is known as the Warren Street Bypass, as it bypasses the city to the north. U.S. Route 222 bypasses the city to the west. PA Route 10 is known as Morgantown Road. From the 1960s to the late 1990s, the section of current U.S. Route 222 from Spring Blvd to 5th Street Highway was known locally as the 'Road to Nowhere'.


Reading and the surrounding area is serviced by the Reading Regional Airport , a general aviation airfield. The three-letter airport code for Reading is RDG. Scheduled commercial airline service to Reading ended in 2004, when the last airline, USAir stopped flying into Reading.


Reading Franklin Street Terminal

Passenger trains ran between Pottsville, Reading, Pottstown and Philadelphia
until July 27, 1981, when transit operator SEPTA curtailed commuter service to electrified lines. Since then, there have been repeated calls for the resumption of the services.

In the late 1990s and up to 2003, SEPTA, in cooperation with Reading-based BARTA , funded a study called the Schuylkill Valley Metro which included plans to extend both sides of SEPTA's R6 passenger line to Pottstown , Reading, and Wyomissing
, Pennsylvania. The project suffered a major setback when it was rejected by the Federal Transit Administration New Starts program, which cited doubts about the ridership projections and financing assumptions used by the study. With the recent surge in gasoline prices and ever-increasing traffic, the planning commissions of Montgomery County and Berks County have teamed to study the feasibility of a simple diesel shuttle train between the Norristown/Manayunk Line and Pottstown/Reading.




1790 2,225

1800 2,386


1810 3,462


1820 4,332


1830 5,856


1840 8,410


1850 15,743


1860 23,162


1870 33,930


1880 43,278


1890 58,661


1900 78,961


1910 96,071


1920 107,784


1930 111,171


1940 110,568


1950 109,320


1960 98,061


1970 87,643


1980 78,686


1990 78,380


2000 81,207


2010 88,082


EST. 2016 87,575


U.S. Decennial Census
2013 Estimate

As of the 2010 census , the city was 48.4% White, 13.2% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, and 6.1% were two or more races. 58.2% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry.

As of the census of 2000, there were 30,113 households, out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.8% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.33.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 29.9% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,698, and the median income for a family was $31,067. Males had a median income of $28,114 versus $21,993 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,086. 26.1% of the population and 22.3% of families were below the poverty line . 36.5% of those under the age of 18 and 15.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.


As of the American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Reading had a population of 80,997. The racial makeup of the city was 48.8% White , 14.0% African American , 0.2% Native American , 1.4% Asian , 0.0% Pacific Islander , 31.1% from other races , and 4.5% from two or more races. 56.3% were Hispanic or Latino of any race, with 33.5% being of Puerto Rican descent. 33.0% of all people were living below the poverty line, including 42.0% of those under 18.

According to the US Census
Bureau, 32.9% of all residents live below the poverty level, including 45.7% of those under 18. Reading's unemployment rate in May 2010 was 14.7%, while Berks County\'s unemployment rate was 9.9%.



Center City 0.381 sq. mi 5,374

Callowhill 0.751 sq. mi 7,289

Centre Park 0.615 sq. mi 10,781

College Heights 1.295 sq. mi 14,903

East Reading 2.230 sq. mi 34,572

Eastside 1.849 sq. mi 29,198

Glenside 2.303 sq. mi 11,837

Hampden Heights 3.144 sq. mi 44,101

Millmont 1.024 sq. mi 5,298

North Riverside 0.955 sq. mi 12,674

Northmont 0.035 sq. mi 697

Northside 0.187 sq. mi 1,822

Oakbrook/ Wyomissing
Park 1.197 sq. mi 5,947

Outlet District 0.554 sq. mi 14,295

Penn's Commons 0.796 sq. mi 15,891

Prince Historic District 0.123 sq. mi 2,002

Queen Anne Historic District 0.330 sq. mi 6,359

Southside 1.486 sq. mi 10,317

South of Penn 1.122 sq. mi 8,483


The Reading Fire Museum Main article: Reading Fire Department

The city of Reading is protected by the 135 firefighters and paramedics of the Reading Fire and EMS Department (RFD). The RFD operates out of seven fire stations throughout the city. The RFD operates a fire apparatus fleet of five Engine Companies, three Ladder Companies, one Rescue Company, brush unit, and four front-line Medic Ambulances. In 2013, fire units responded to 8,626 incidents. EMS responses totaled 16,773 calls for service.

As of April 1, 2011, Engines 13 and 14 were disbanded due to budget cuts. Engine 13 was quartered with Engine 1 and Engine 14 was quartered with Engine 5. Also, Engine 7 was re-organized from Engine 11. Department staffing is 2 firefighters per apparatus.


Reading High School

The Reading School District provides elementary and middle schools for the city's children. Numerous Catholic
parochial schools are also available.

Press reports have indicated that in 2012, about eight percent of Reading's residents have a college degree, compared to a national average of 28%.

Four institutions of higher learning are located in Reading:

* Albright College * Alvernia University * Baker College * Reading Area Community College

Four high schools serve the city:

* Berks Catholic
High School (Grades 9–12) * Reading High School (Grades 10–12) * Reading Intermediate High School (Grades 8–9) * I-LEAD Charter School


FirstEnergy Stadium , 2006.

Reading is known for the Reading Fightin Phils , minor league affiliate of the Philadelphia
Phillies , who play at FirstEnergy Stadium . Notable alumni are Larry Bowa , Ryne Sandberg
Ryne Sandberg
, Mike Schmidt , Ryan Howard , and Jimmy Rollins
Jimmy Rollins

The city has been the residence of numerous professional athletes. Among these native to Reading are Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
outfielder Carl Furillo , Baltimore
Colts running back Lenny Moore
Lenny Moore
, and Philadelphia 76ers forward Donyell Marshall . Pro golfer Betsy King , a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame , was born in Reading.

The open-wheel racing portion of Penske Racing had been based in Reading, Pennsylvania
since 1973 with the cars, during the F1 and CART era, being constructed in Poole
, Dorset
, England
as well as being the base for the F1 team. On October 31, 2005, Penske Racing announced after the 2006 IRL season, they would consolidate IRL and NASCAR operations at the team's Mooresville, North Carolina facility; with the flooding in Pennsylvania
in 2006, the team's operations were moved to Mooresville earlier than expected. Penske Truck Leasing is still based in Reading.

Duryea Drive, which ascends Mount Penn in a series of switchbacks , was a testing place for early automobiles and was named for Charles Duryea . The Blue Mountain Region Sports Car Club of America
Sports Car Club of America
hosts the Duryea Hill Climb, the longest in the Pennsylvania
Hillclimb Association series, which follows the same route the automaker used to test his cars.

Reading played host to a stop on the PGA Tour
PGA Tour
, the Reading Open , in the late 1940s and early 1950s.


READING FIGHTIN PHILS EL , Baseball FirstEnergy Stadium 1967 4

, Ice hockey Santander Arena 2001 1

READING UNITED AC USL , Soccer Don Thomas Stadium 1996


Reading Public Museum in 2011.

The city's cultural institutions include the Reading Symphony Orchestra and its education project the Reading Symphony Youth Orchestra , the Reading Choral Society , Opus One: Berks Chamber Choir , the GoggleWorks Art Gallery, the Reading Public Museum and the Historical Society of Berks County .

Reading is the birthplace of graphic artist Jim Steranko , guitar virtuoso Richie Kotzen , singer Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
, and most notably, novelist and poet John Updike
John Updike
and the world-renowned poet Wallace Stevens . Marching band composer and writer John Philip Sousa
John Philip Sousa
, the March King, died in Reading's Abraham Lincoln Hotel in 1932. Artist Keith Haring was born in Reading. Downtown Reading

Reading is home to the 14-time world-champion drum and bugle corps, the Reading Buccaneers .

In 1914, one the anchors of the Battleship Maine
was delivered from the Washington Navy Yard to City Park, off of Perkiomen Avenue. The anchor was dedicated during a ceremony presided over by Franklin D. Roosevelt , who was then assistant secretary of the navy.

Reading was home to several movie and theater palaces in the early 20th Century. The Astor, Embassy, Loew's Colonial, and Rajah Shrine Theater were grand monuments of architecture and entertainment. Today, after depression, recession, and urban renewal, the Rajah is the only one to remain. The Astor Theater was demolished in 1998 to make way for The Sovereign Center . Certain steps were taken to retain mementos of the Astor, including its ornate Art Deco
Art Deco
chandelier and gates. These are on display and in use inside the arena corridors, allowing insight into the ambiance of the former movie house. In 2000, the Rajah was purchased from the Shriners
. After a much needed restoration, it was renamed the Sovereign Performing Arts Center .

The Mid-Atlantic Air Museum is a membership-supported museum and restoration facility located at Carl A. Spaatz Field. The museum actively displays and restores historic and rare war aircraft and civilian airliners. Most notable to their collection is a Northrop P-61 Black Widow under active restoration since its recovery from Mount Cyclops, New Guinea in 1989. Beginning in 1990, the museum has hosted "World War II Weekend Air Show", scheduled to coincide with D-Day . On display are period wartime aircraft (many of which fly throughout the show) vehicles, and weapons.

The mechanical ice cream scoop was invented in Reading by William Clewell in 1878. The 5th Ave Bar and York Peppermint Patty were invented in Reading.


The City of Reading and Reutlingen, Germany
are sister cities which participate in student exchanges. Students from Reading High School can apply to become a part of the exchange and travel to Reutlingen for 2 weeks (Mid October to Early September) and in return host their German exchange student in the spring. Kutztown University also has a program with Reutlingen.

Reading is twinned with:

* Reutlingen , Baden-Württemberg, Germany, since 1998


Reading's Pagoda
seen from Skyline Drive.

In 1908, a Japanese-style pagoda was built on Mount Penn, where it overlooks the city and is visible from almost everywhere in town. Locally, it is called the " Pagoda
". It is currently the home of a café and a gift shop. It remains a popular tourist attraction.

Another fixture in Reading's skyline is the William Penn
William Penn
Memorial Fire Tower, one mile from the Pagoda
on Skyline Drive. Built in 1939 for fire department and forestry observation, the tower is 120 feet tall, and rises 950 feet above the intersection of fifth and Penn Streets. From the top of the tower is a 60-mile panoramic view.

The Reading Glove and Mitten Manufacturing Company founded in 1899, just outside Reading city limits, in West Reading and Wyomissing boroughs changed its name to Vanity Fair in 1911 and is now the major clothing manufacturer VF Corp. In the early 1970s, the original factories were developed to create the VF Outlet Village , the first outlet mall in the United States.


The book and movie Rabbit, Run and the other three novels of the Rabbit series by John Updike
John Updike
were set in fictionalized versions of Reading and nearby Shillington , called Brewer and Olinger respectively. Updike was born in Reading and lived in nearby Shillington until he was thirteen. He also makes reference to the Brewer suburb of Mount Judge, equivalent to Mount Penn east of Reading.

Filmmakers Gary Adelstein, Costa Mantis, and Jerry Orr created Reading 1974: Portrait of a City; relying heavily on montage, the film is a cultural time capsule.

The play Sweat by Lynn Nottage is set in Reading.


Main category: People from Reading, Pennsylvania
David McMurtrie Gregg (1922) by Augustus Lukeman .

* Gus Alberts (1861–1912), Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
player * Coit Albertson (1880–1953), silent film actor * George Warren Alexander (1829-1903), captain of the Reading Artillerists (1857-1861); second in command, 47th Pennsylvania Infantry (1861-1864); and founder of G.W. Alexander -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ http://baseballtown.org/ * ^ Kline, Dave. "Mountain Folklore: Berks Country Fest is all about music, culture, food". Reading Eagle . Retrieved 26 June 2017. * ^ http://www.readingpa.gov/sites/default/files/council/ordinance/master/Introduction.pdf * ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States
United States
Bureau. Retrieved Jul 4, 2017. * ^ "Population Estimates". United States
United States
Bureau . Retrieved June 11, 2014. * ^ A B "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. * ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (Searchable database). Pennsylvania
Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 25, 2014. * ^ "Reading (city) QuickFacts from the US Census
Bureau". census.gov. Retrieved October 17, 2016. * ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011. * ^ " Census
Shows Reading, Berks growth spurt". Retrieved March 13, 2011. * ^ Tavernise, Sabrina (September 26, 2011). "Reading, Pa., Knew It Was Poor. Now It Knows Just How Poor.". The New York Times. * ^ "Reading (PA) Bronze-level International Mountain Bicycling Association". www.imba.com. Retrieved 2016-10-14. * ^ "Reading 120 September 10, 2016". www.reading120.com. Retrieved 2016-10-14. * ^ News, 69 (2017-04-06). "$20 million indoor cycling track to be built in Reading". WFMZ. Retrieved 2017-04-06. * ^ A B "content.aspGreater Reading\'s destination hub : Greater Reading Convention and Visitors Bureau". Readingberkspa.com. Retrieved May 7, 2013. * ^ Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
became the national capital in 1800. * ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States 1492–present (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995), p. 243. * ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.158. * ^ "City Crime Rankings by Population Group". morganquitno.com. * ^ Interview with Barbara Corcoran on NBC
's Today show. Online. December 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2009. * ^ "Climate Statistics for Reading, Pennsylvania". Retrieved March 10, 2012. * ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census
Bureau . February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. * ^ A B "The Beleaguered Middle Class". The New York Times. June 13, 2012. * ^ "Major Employers". Greater Reading Economic Partnership. * ^ "New Director Will Lead Reading\'s Jump Start Incubator". bctv.org - Local news about Berks County and Reading, Pa. Retrieved 2016-10-14. * ^ r6extension.com * ^ United States
United States
Bureau . " Census
of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2013. * ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 11, 2014. * ^ "Reading (city) Quick Facts from the US Census
Bureau". United States Census
Bureau. Retrieved May 27, 2015. * ^ "American FactFinder". United States
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Bureau . Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008. * ^ "Berks County, Reading unemployment rates rise in May – bctv.org – Local news about Berks County and Reading, Pa.: Special Reports". bctv.org. June 29, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2013. * ^ "PAGE NOT AVAILABLE". readingpafire.com. * ^ "ReadingPaFire.com - News". readingpafire.com. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2011. * ^ "Keith Haring\'s pop art celebrated in today\'s Google Doodle". National Post
National Post
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. Retrieved February 2, 2016. * ^ A B C Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) . The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8 . * ^ Snyder, Laurie. Lieutenant Colonel George Warren ("G.W.") Alexander, in 47th Pennsylvania
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* Reading Eagle archive, Google News Archive, 1868–2000. —PDFs of 38,630 issues. * Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., The Socialists of Reading, Pennsylvanian and World War I: A Question of Loyalty," Pennsylvania History, vol. 36, no. 4 (October 1969), pp. 430–450. In JSTOR * Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., "The Socialist Administration in Reading, Pennsylvania, Part I, 1927–1931," Pennsylvania
History, vol. 39, no. 4 (October 1972), pp. 417–442. In JSTOR * Kenneth E. Hendrickson, Jr., "Triumph and Disaster: The Reading Socialists in Power and Decline, Part II, 1932–1939," Pennsylvania History, vol. 40, no. 4 (October 1973), pp. 380–411. In JSTOR * Henry G. Stetler, The Socialist Movement in Reading, Pennsylvania, 1896–1936. PhD dissertation. Storrs, CT: Henry G. Stetler, 1943.


* Philadelphia
portal * Pennsylvania

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