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Raymond Merrill Smullyan (/ˈsmʌliən/; May 25, 1919 – February 6, 2017)[1][2][3] was an American mathematician, concert pianist, logician, Taoist, and philosopher. Born in Far Rockaway, New York, his first career was stage magic. He then earned a BSc
BSc
from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1955 and his Ph.D. from Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1959. He is one of many logicians to have studied with Alonzo Church.[1]

Contents

1 Life 2 Logic
Logic
problems 3 Philosophy 4 Selected publications

4.1 Logic
Logic
puzzles 4.2 Philosophy/memoir 4.3 Academic

5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Life[edit] Born in Far Rockaway, New York to Jewish parents (originally Schmulian), Raymond showed musical talent from a young age, winning a gold medal in a piano competition when he was aged 12.[1] The following year, his family moved to Manhattan
Manhattan
and he attended Theodore Roosevelt High School in The Bronx
The Bronx
as this school offered courses suited to his musical talents, but he left to study on his own as the school did not offer similar courses in mathematics.[1] He studied mathematics and music at several colleges (including Pacific University and Reed College) before receiving an undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
and a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in mathematics from Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1959.[1] While a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
student, Smullyan published a paper in the 1957 Journal of Symbolic Logic[4] showing that Gödelian incompleteness held for formal systems considerably more elementary than that of Gödel's 1931 landmark paper. The contemporary understanding of Gödel's theorem dates from this paper. Smullyan later made a compelling case that much of the fascination with Gödel's theorem should be directed at Tarski's theorem, which is much easier to prove and equally disturbing philosophically.[5] Smullyan is the author of many books on recreational mathematics and recreational logic. Most notably, one is titled What Is the Name of This Book? ISBN 0139550623. A Beginner's Further Guide to Mathematical Logic
Logic
ISBN 978-981-4730-99-0 was his final book.

He was a professor of philosophy at Lehman College, the CUNY Graduate Center and Indiana University. He was also an amateur astronomer, using a six-inch reflecting telescope for which he ground the mirror.[1] Martin Gardner
Martin Gardner
was a close friend. Logic
Logic
problems[edit] Many of his logic problems are extensions of classic puzzles. Knights and Knaves involves knights (who always tell the truth) and knaves (who always lie). This is based on a story of two doors and two guards, one who lies and one who tells the truth. One door leads to heaven and one to hell, and the puzzle is to find out which door leads to heaven by asking one of the guards a question. One way to do this is to ask "Which door would the other guard say leads to hell?". This idea was famously used in the 1986 film Labyrinth. In more complex puzzles, he introduces characters who may lie or tell the truth (referred to as "normals"), and furthermore instead of answering "yes" or "no", use words which mean "yes" or "no", but the reader does not know which word means which. The puzzle known as "the hardest logic puzzle ever" is based on these characters and themes. In his Transylvania puzzles, half of the inhabitants are insane, and believe only false things, whereas the other half are sane and believe only true things. In addition, humans always tell the truth, and vampires always lie. For example, an insane vampire will believe a false thing (2 + 2 is not 4) but will then lie about it, and say that it is false. A sane vampire knows 2 + 2 is 4, but will lie and say it is not. And mutatis mutandis for humans. Thus everything said by a sane human or an insane vampire is true, while everything said by an insane human or a sane vampire is false. His book Forever Undecided popularizes Gödel's incompleteness theorems by phrasing them in terms of reasoners and their beliefs, rather than formal systems and what can be proved in them. For example, if a native of a knight/knave island says to a sufficiently self-aware reasoner, "You will never believe that I am a knight", the reasoner cannot believe either that the native is a knight or that he is a knave without becoming inconsistent (i.e., holding two contradictory beliefs). The equivalent theorem is that for any formal system S, there exists a mathematical statement that can be interpreted as "This statement is not provable in formal system S". If the system S is consistent, neither the statement nor its opposite will be provable in it. See also Doxastic logic. Inspector Craig is a frequent character in Smullyan's "puzzle-novellas." He is generally called into a scene of a crime that has a solution that is mathematical in nature. Then, through a series of increasingly harder challenges, he (and the reader) begin to understand the principles in question. Finally the novella culminates in Inspector Craig (and the reader) solving the crime, utilizing the mathematical and logical principles learned. Inspector Craig generally does not learn the formal theory in question, and Smullyan usually reserves a few chapters after the Inspector Craig adventure to illuminate the analogy for the reader. Inspector Craig gets his name from William Craig. His book To Mock a Mockingbird (1985) is a recreational introduction to the subject of combinatory logic. Apart from writing about and teaching logic, Smullyan released a recording of his favorite classical piano pieces by composers such as Bach, Scarlatti, and Schubert. Some recordings are available on the Piano Society website, along with the video "Rambles, Reflections, Music and Readings". He has also written an autobiography titled Some Interesting Memories: A Paradoxical Life (ISBN 1-888710-10-1). In 2001, documentary filmmaker Tao Ruspoli
Tao Ruspoli
made a film about Smullyan called This Film Needs No Title: A Portrait of Raymond Smullyan. Philosophy[edit]

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Smullyan wrote several books about Taoist philosophy, a philosophy he believed neatly solved most or all traditional philosophical problems as well as integrating mathematics, logic, and philosophy into a cohesive whole. One of Smullyan's discussions of Taoist philosophy centers on the question of free will in an imagined conversation between a mortal human and God.[6] Selected publications[edit]

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Logic
Logic
puzzles[edit]

(1978) What Is the Name of This Book? The Riddle of Dracula and Other Logical Puzzles ISBN 0139550623 – knights, knaves, and other logic puzzles (1979) The Chess
Chess
Mysteries of Sherlock Holmes ISBN 0394737571 – introducing retrograde analysis in the game of chess. (1981) The Chess
Chess
Mysteries of the Arabian Knights ISBN 0192861247 – second book on retrograde analysis chess problems. (1982) The Lady or the Tiger? ISBN 0812921178 – ladies, tigers, and more logic puzzles (1982) Alice in Puzzle-Land ISBN 0688007481 (1985) To Mock a Mockingbird ISBN 0192801422 – puzzles based on combinatory logic (1987) Forever Undecided ISBN 0192801414 – puzzles based on undecidability in formal systems (1992) Satan, Cantor and Infinity ISBN 0679406883 (1997) The Riddle of Scheherazade ISBN 0156006065 (2007) The Magic Garden of George B. And Other Logic
Logic
Puzzles ISBN 9788876990663, Polimetrica (Monza/Italy) (2009) Logical Labyrinths ISBN 9781568814438, A K Peters (2010) King Arthur in Search of his Dog ISBN 0486474356 (2013) The Godelian Puzzle Book: Puzzles, Paradoxes and Proofs ISBN 0486497054 (2015) The Magic Garden of George B and Other Logic
Logic
Puzzles ISBN 978-981-4675-05-5

Philosophy/memoir[edit]

(1977) The Tao is Silent ISBN 0060674695 (1980) This Book Needs No Title ISBN 0671628313 (1983) 5000 B.C. and other philosophical fantasies ISBN 0312295162 (2002) Some Interesting Memories: A Paradoxical Life ISBN 1888710101 (2003) Who Knows?: A Study of Religious Consciousness ISBN 0253215749 (2009) Rambles Through My Library ISBN 9780963923165, Praxis International (2015) Reflections: The Magic, Music and Mathematics
Mathematics
of Raymond Smullyan ISBN 978-981-4644-58-7 (2016) A Mixed Bag: Jokes, Riddles, Puzzles and Memorabilia ISBN 978-098-6144-57-8

Academic[edit]

(1961) Theory of Formal Systems ISBN 069108047X (1968) First-Order Logic
Logic
ISBN 0486683702 (1992) Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems ISBN 0195046722 (1993) Recursion Theory for Metamathematics ISBN 019508232X (1994) Diagonalization and Self-Reference ISBN 0198534507 (1996) Set Theory and the Continuum Problem ISBN 0198523955 (2014) A Beginner's Guide to Mathematical Logic
Logic
ISBN 0486492370 (2016) A Beginner's Further Guide to Mathematical Logic ISBN 978-981-4730-99-0

Bibliography[edit]

Is God a Taoist? by Raymond Smullyan, 1977. Planet Without Laughter by Raymond Smullyan, 1980. An Epistemological Nightmare by Raymond Smullyan, 1982.

See also[edit]

Biography portal Logic
Logic
portal

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Paradox The Lady, or the Tiger

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (April 2002). "Smullyan biography". School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, University of St Andrews. Retrieved 5 October 2010.  ^ Osborne, Hannah (2017-02-10). "Mathematician and puzzle-maker Raymond Smullyan
Raymond Smullyan
dead at 97". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 2017-02-10.  ^ Sandomir, Richard (2017-02-11). "Raymond Smullyan, Puzzle-Creating Logician, Dies at 97". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ "Languages in which self reference is possible". The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 22 no. 1 (1957), pp. 55–67. ^ Smullyan, R M (2001) "Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems" in Goble, Lou, ed., The Blackwell Guide to Philosophical Logic. Blackwell (ISBN 0-631-20693-0). ^ Policar, David. "Is God a Taoist?". www.mit.edu. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Raymond Smullyan

Media related to Audio files of classical music by Raymond Smullyan at Wikimedia Commons Raymond Smullyan's website at Indiana University. Raymond Smullyan
Raymond Smullyan
at the MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive. Raymond Smullyan
Raymond Smullyan
at the Mathematics
Mathematics
Genealogy Project. Raymond Smullyan
Raymond Smullyan
at Piano Society

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108832636 LCCN: n80001012 ISNI: 0000 0001 2147 1432 GND: 115668411 SUDOC: 02714223X BNF: cb11925051c (data) MGP: 8027 NDL: 00457034 NKC: jn19981002143 BNE: XX998911 SNAC: w636

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