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Ciid or 'Iid ( so, Arlo Ciideed) is an archaic native geographic name for the land between the region of Mudug and the Nugaal Valley, roughly congruous with the northern
BookhBoh ''(Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to ...
district in Ethiopia. As such, Ciid constitutes the tripoint of the former three colonial powers Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia, British Empire, Britain and Italy, thus situating Mudug immediately southeast of Ciid, the Nugaal Valley immediately north of Ciid, and Haud to the west of Ciid. One historian referred to it as the syrup-colored land and it is today embodied by Ciid towns such as Xamxam, Magacley, Qoriley, Biriqodey, Beerdhiga and Gumburka Cagaare. Ciid constitutes the northernmost parts of the disputed Somali-Ethiopian territory outlined in the 16 May 1908 Italo-Ethiopian border agreement also called the 1908 Convention. A 2001 Journal from Indiana University describes Ciid as partially overlapping with Boocame District by referring to Ciid as ''north of the Mudug region and the west of the Garowe region''.


Anthropology

Someone who comes from Ciid is sometimes called ''reer Ciideed''. The long conventional name of Ciid is ''Arlo Ciideed'' or ''Carro Ciideed''. The United Nations Environment Programme refers to the landform as ''Dhulka Ciid'', and anglicizes it as '''Iid''. Physiographically, '''Iid'' or '''iid'' is bounded to the west by Haud, to the southwest by Himan, to the south by Danla, to the north by Nugaal, to the east by Rohr, and to the southeast by Mudug. On Occasion, British colonial administrators used the term ''Awan'' to describe parts of the '''iid'' region.


Ciid-Nugaal

The Ciid and Nugaal regions were often geographically linked, particularly during the Dervish movement (Somali), Darawiish anti-colonial period. For example the Sayid Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, in the 3rd line of the poem Haddaan waayey, he states that Ciid and Nugaal were the principal territories that he and the Darawiish sought to attain:Diiwaanka gabayadii, 1856-1921 , Maxamad Cabdulle Xasan · 1999 , PAGE 219 In the first and second lines of the poem ''Cali-Geri Aboodiga Ku Lalay'' the Sayid similarly confines the territorial delimitations of Darawiish to the 'Iid and Nugaal. In an interview with Darawiish veteran Cabdi-Yaar Cali Guuleed in 1954, he also stated Darawiish's ultimate goal had always been to maintain their hold on Ciid and Nugaal: The sister of the Sayid Mohammed, Caasha, in a 1973 interview, stated that 'iid and Nugaal were considered by Darawiish as the most viable benchmark for Darawiish settlement: According to Darawiish veterans Abokor Seed Cali and Muuse Cartan, in the 19th century, prior to the battle of Jigjiga, the Darawiish were settled in 'Iid and Nugaal regions: These Darawiish veterans also stated that in order to qualify as a Darawiish, one had to emigrate to 'Iid and Nugaal regions. They also stated that without exception, everyone from 'Iid and Nugaal became Darawiish.Taariikhdii daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan , Jaamac Cumar Ciise · 1976 , PAGE 21


1908 Convention Line

The 1908 Convention line, also called the 16 May 1908 Italo-Ethiopian border agreement, or the Feerfeer-Dharkayn Geenyo line, was the former demarcation between Italian-administered Somalia and Abyssinia. The demarcation of the 1908 Convention from a southerly direction begins either at Ferfeer in Hiran, Somalia, Hiiraan province, or uses the adjacent Shebelle River, Shebelle river as the defining boundary depending on interpretation, and is demarcated in a straight line northwards until Dharkayn Geenyo, a town which straddles the border between Buuhoodle District and Sool, Somalia, Sool region in Somaliland, where the demarcation ends. Most modern maps disregard the 1908 conventional line and replace it with the provisional administrative line established in 1950 by Britain. During the incident of the Walwal crisis of 1934, the new Italian government changed their definition of the 1908 convention and the subsequent ratification of 1928 by stating they interpreted the 1908 convention line to be situated near the oasis of Walwal. Most academic journals dating to the first two decade of the twentieth century used the Feerfeer-Dharkayn Geenyo Line as the formal demarcation line between Abyssinia and Somalia.


Other archaic terms

Since 'Iid lies at the center of greater somalia, it is an area that concatenates the various Somali inhabited areas, whom also historically had archaic demonyms or terms to describe their region, including Huwan to the west of 'Iid, Rayid to the north of 'iid, Dhabayaco to the east of 'Iid, and Koofuur to the south of 'Iid with all the aforementioned areas converging at Ciid.


Huwan

Huwan is the pre-colonial era name of the people and the land-mass of the Somali Region which is immediately to the southwest of 'iid. Colonial administrator Douglas Jardine described Huwan as a no-man's land:
“This region has always been accursed, a no-man's land populated by fanatical Ogaden tribes, and a refuge for outlaws and malcontents from the surrounding territories.
At the onset of the colonial era, the term Huwan came to denote a local and colloquial name for the Somalis and the region under the direct or nominal rule of Menelik II. On the other hand, the local and colloquial name for the land and people north of Huwan who were ruled by the British was ''Rayid'', those to the east of Huwan who were under Italian rule were natively referred to as ''Dhabayaco'', whilst in their midst, the people of the Ciid and Nugaal Valley regions were called ''Darawiish''. In Darawiish poetry, the Huwan, Rayid and Dhabayaco are collectively referred to as by the epithet ''aqdaamo ferenji''. The Huwan region was briefly ruled by the Sayid, head of the Darawiish, from the start of 1900 until the Gurdumi incident in the summer of 1900. The Sayids prestige was very high in the aftermath of the military victory over the Abyssinians at Jigjiga in March 1900. However, some Ogaden tribesmen felt the Sayid was growing too much in power and as such plotted to assassinate him in an incident called Gurdumi. Although the Sayid managed to evade the assassination attempt, his closest confident, Aw Abbas died at the spears of the conspirators. In revenge, the Sayid killed all delegates of a peace delegation and party whom was sent to pay blood money for Aw Abbas. The Ogaden subsequently paired with Menelik II to drive the Sayid and the Darawiish away from the Huwan and back into Ciid and Nugaal regions. This incident is collectively referred to as Gurdumi. The people of Huwan would subsequently come to be under the rule of Menelik II either nominally or directly via taxation or other obligations, via an Abyssinian representative based at Harar.Taariikhdii daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan, Jaamac Cumar Ciise · 2005 , PAGE 176 The governor of the Huwan at the turn of the 20th century was Xuseen Dalal Iljeex, an ally of emperor Menelik II and opponent of the Sayid. According to Ahmed Farah Ali Idaajaa, the main centers of the Somali Region of Ethiopia then known as Huwan, had always been enemies of the Darawiish:


Dhabayaco

Immediately to the east of 'Iid, Dhabayaco was a native Endonym and exonym, endonym and ethnotoponym to describe the Somali inhabitants of Italian Somaliland to the north of the capital Mogadishu, . Whilst the Somalis north of the capital Mogadishu were called Dhabayaco, those immediate surroundings of the capital were intermittently called ''Filonardi Company'' or ''Benadiri''. Those Somalis to the west of the Dhabayaco in the Somali Region under Abyssinian rule were referred to as Huwan, the places along and beyond the Jubaland border was natively called ''Waamo'', those in the uncolonized region in Ciid and Nugaal Valley were called Darawiish whilst those in the northwest of the peninsula under British rule were referred to as ''Rayid''. Rayid is a native endonym to describe northern Somalis who signed colonial treaties with European colonial powers. In its narrower and most common sense, the term ''Rayid'' refers to those who signed colonial treaties with the British and were subject to British administrators stationed in Berbera. In its broader but more obscure and rare sense, the term ''rayid'' has also been used to describe any Somali who signed a colonial treaty with any European colonial power. The Rayid Somalis were bordered by the ''Huwan'' (Somalis under Abyssinian rule) in the south, by the Darawiish in the east, and briefly during the Illig treaty, the Rayid Somalis also momentarily bordered the ''Dhabayaco'', a native endonym for Somalis who were under Italian rule. One of the main differences between a rayid, one who acceded to colonial treaties, and a darawiish, one who shunned colonial treaties, is that the former adhered to the Qadiriya Sufi tariqa, whilst the latter adopted the Salihiya tariqah. Since the British also used to administer British Jubaland, Jubaland's era as a province of British East Africa could also be regarded as ''Rayid''.


Rayid

To the north of 'Iid, a Rayid was a native endonym to describe northern Somalis who signed colonial treaties with European colonial powers. In its narrower and most common sense, the term ''Rayid'' refers to those who signed colonial treaties with the British and were subject to British administrators stationed in Berbera. In its broader but more obscure and rare sense, the term ''rayid'' has also been used to describe any Somali who signed a colonial treaty with any European colonial power. The Rayid Somalis were bordered by the ''Huwan'' (Somalis under Abyssinian rule) in the south, by the Darawiish in the east, and briefly during the Illig treaty, the Rayid Somalis also momentarily bordered the ''Dhabayaco'', a native endonym for Somalis who were under Italian rule. One of the main differences between a rayid, one who acceded to colonial treaties, and a darawiish, one who shunned colonial treaties, is that the former adhered to the Qadiriya Sufi tariqa, whilst the latter adopted the Salihiya tariqah. Since the British also used to administer British Jubaland, Jubaland's era as a province of British East Africa could also be regarded as ''Rayid''. Colonial regiments which were composed out of rayids, include Illaloes, the Somaliland Scouts and the Somaliland Camel Corps. There were some Rayids who were given positions of privilege above other rayid. These rayid leaders included Mohamed Bullaleh, known in Somali as Xaaji Bullaale; he is best known for leading the Hagoogane raid wherein 60,000 heads of cattle were looted from the Sayid; Musa Farah Egarreh, the highest ranked Somali in the camel corps, referred to by Douglas Jardine as "the most distinguished Somali on our side".Mad Mullah of Somaliland, Douglas Jardine · 2015 , 311


Koufur

Koofuur or Koufur was the former name of the modern South West State of Somalia. Captain Abud, the British Consul at Aden, described it as follows:
“Koufur is a country formerly Hawiya and lies between Webbe Shabeli and the Juba and to the west of the Rahanwein (Jeberties); its ports are Merka, Haman (Hamar?) and Barawa. The country was formerly Hawiya but owing to an influx of other people the language has become assimilated to that of the Jeberties.


References

{{reflist Ciid 20th century in Ethiopia