RASSENSCHANDE (literally "racial shame", "racial defilement", or
"racial pollution", legally "miscegenation "), or Blutschande ("blood
defilement"), was a concept in
Nazi German ideology pertaining to
sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans, enforced by the
In the course of the ensuing war years , relations between Reichsdeutsche Germans and millions of foreign Ostarbeiters brought to Germany by force , were also legally forbidden. Concerted efforts were made to foment popular distaste for it. The reasons for this were purely practical, because the Eastern European female slave labour servicing the German war economy soon became targets of rampant sexual abuse at the hands of the German farm workers and overseers. The Polish and Soviet women and girls began giving so many unwanted births on the farms that hundreds of special homes known as Ausländerkinder-Pflegestätte had to be created, in order to exterminate the infants out of sight.
* 1 Implementation
* 4 Propaganda
* 4.1 In schools
* 5 Sentences * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References
A meeting of the four Nazis who imposed Nazi ideology on the
legal system of Germany. From left to right:
Prior to the Nazi ascension to power,
When the Nazis came to power, considerable clashes and infighting had
stemmed from conflicting views on what constituted a Jew—anything
from full Jewish background to one-sixteenth part Jewish blood were
argued for—thus complicating the definition of the offense. Some
regarded the number of intermarriages as too small to be harmful; such
Local officials, however, were already requiring betrothed couples to
prove they were worthy to marry by presenting proof of Aryan ancestry.
In Nazi Germany, after the
The extent of the law meant that the police were insufficient to the
task of detecting infractions; more than three-fifths of all Gestapo
cases were prompted by denunciations. Germans who had intermarried
Rape of Jewish women during
World War II
After the invasion of Poland in 1939, Nazi reports of sexual
relations between Polish women and German soldiers brought about a
directive issued for the press to promulgate that the links between
Poles and Germans brought about a decline in German blood, and that
any connection with people of Polish extraction was dangerous. The
press was to describe Poles as on the same level as
After the war in the East began, the race defilement law was technically extended to include all foreigners (non-Germans). Himmler issued a decree on 7 December 1942 which stated that any "unauthorized sexual intercourse" would result in the death penalty. The Gestapo persecuted sexual relations between Germans and the peoples of Eastern Europe on the grounds of the "risk for the racial integrity of the German nation". A further decree was issued that called for applying the death penalty not only to slave laborer persons in the east who had sexual relations with Germans but also to slave laborers of Western origin, such as French, Belgian or British offenders.
During the war, German women who had sexual relations with foreign workers were publicly humiliated by being marched through the streets with her head shaven and a placard around her neck detailing her crime.
Robert Gellately in his book The
In September 1940, Dora von Calbitz, who was found guilty of having
sexual relations with a Pole, had her head shaved and was placed in
the pillory of her town of Oschatz near Leipzig, with a placard that
proclaimed: "I have been a dishonourable German woman in that I sought
and had relations with Poles. By doing that I excluded myself from the
community of the people." In March 1941 a married German woman who had
an affair with a French prisoner of war had her head shaved and was
marched through the town of Bramberg in Lower Franconia carrying a
sign which said, "I have sullied the honour of the German woman."
— Excerpts from The
The policy of prohibiting sexual relations between Germans and foreign workers was pursued to the extent that a case emerged of two young German women, one whom was raped (aged 16), and the other (aged 17) was sexually assaulted had their heads shaved and were paraded through the streets with placards around their neck stating they were "without honor." The event was met with complete disapproval but was pursued to put fear into the German public in order to avoid the Poles.
During the war, effort was made by
Inculcating acceptance of this distinction, and the need for racial
hygiene was widely spread in Nazi propaganda. Nazi speakers were
enjoined that many Germans did not "recognize what is at stake",
citing a newspaper title that called the decision to punish sexual
relations between Germans and
Neues Volk , was a monthly publication of the NSDAP Office of Racial Policy which answered questions about acceptable race relations, other material included promoting the excellence of the Aryan race. Even an infertile German woman could not marry a Jew because "it offends the honor of the German people" and she should break off the relationship because she is in danger of violating the law. Marriage to a Chinese man, even though the woman is pregnant is likewise forbidden, and the office had seen to it that the man was deported. A Dutch woman raised questions of not only Jewish blood but non-white blood from the colonies, but if they were answered, she would be acceptable. An article also enjoined that while foreign workers were welcome, all sexual relations were out of the question.
Film was also used. In Friesennot , a Frisian character objects to a half-Russian, half-Frisian girl having an affair with a Russian, because Frisian blood outweighs Russian; her murder for this is presented as in accordance with ancient Germanic custom for "race pollution." In Die goldene Stadt , a young, innocent country girl, a Sudeten German , allows a Czech to seduce her; this racial pollution is one reason why she commits suicide, in a deliberate change insisted on by the Propaganda Ministry, since the disgraced daughter should suffer rather than the guiltless father, who committed suicide in the source. In Jud Süß , the title Jew relentlessly pursues a pure Aryan maid; after he succeeds, by having her husband arrested and tortured, and offering to free him for her compliance, she drowns herself. In Die Reise nach Tilsit , the Polish seductress persuades the German husband to murder his virtuous German wife to run off with her, but the husband fails in it and in the end, contrite, returns to his wife.
Repeated efforts were made to propagate Volksturm, racial consciousness, to prevent sexual relations between Germans and foreign workers. Pamphlets enjoined all German women to avoid sexual intercourse with all foreign workers brought to Germany as a danger to their blood.
Keep your blood pure, It is not yours alone, It comes from far away, It flows into the distance Laden with thousands of ancestors, And it holds the entire future! It is your eternal life.
Implementation began in schools so rapidly that book production could not keep up; the ministry held that no student should graduate "unless he has perceived that the future of a Volk depends on race and inheritance and understood the obligation this places on him", and so urged for teacher courses using mimeographed materials and cheaply produced books. Students were given racist poems to memorize (right).
By the mid-1930s, more substantial materials were produced, including many pamphlets such as Can You Think Racially?. The German National Catechism, a pamphlet widely used in schools, included among its questions
WHAT IS RACIAL DEFILEMENT?
Forgetting our spirit and our blood. A careless disregard of our nature and a contempt for our blood. No German man may take a Jewish woman as his wife, and no German girl may marry a Jew. Those who do that exclude themselves from the community of the German people. — German National Catechism
"The Jewish Question in Education", a pamphlet for teachers, lamented
that many girls and women had been ruined by
According to an article in Der Spiegel , between 1936 and 1943 the Nazis accused 1,580 persons of race defilement with 429 of them being convicted.
Punishment for race defilement for men was penal labor or prison.
Women were (curiously) left out of the penal legislation (some said,
because of the ideology that presented them as seduced, rather than
active perpetrators; some said simply because their witness was needed
and a witness need not give evidence against herself); they could
however be tried for perjury or similar offenses if they tried to
protect their (alleged or actual) lover, or in all cases sent to a
concentration camp (which was not part of the justice system, but
inflicted by the
* Nazi Germany portal * Discrimination portal * Human Rights portal
Polish decrees by Nazi Germany for the workers (
used as slave labor.
Racial hygiene , state-sanctioned policies in the early 20th
* ^ The term sexual intercourse was extended way beyond the defined concept of the term. Simply looking at someone in a sexual manner was enough to be charged with race defilement.
* ^ A B
Leila J. Rupp , Mobilizing Women for War, p 125, ISBN
* ^ Ulrich Herbert (1997). Hitler's Foreign Workers: Enforced
Foreign Labor in Germany Under the Third Reich. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47000-1 .
* ^ Majer, "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich, p.180
* ^ Magdalena Sierocińska (2016). "Eksterminacja
"niewartościowych rasowo" dzieci polskich robotnic przymusowych na
terenie III Rzeszy w świetle postępowań prowadzonych przez
Oddziałową Komisję Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu w
Poznaniu" . Bibliography: R. Hrabar, N. Szuman; Cz. Łuczak; W.
Rusiński. Warsaw, Poland:
Institute of National Remembrance
* ^ Richard J. Evans (2006). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin
Books. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-14-100976-6 .
* ^ Majer, "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich, p.331-332
Nathan Stoltzfus , Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and
the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany p. 11, ISBN 0-393-03904-8 .
Nathan Stoltzfus , Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and
the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany p. xxvi-ii, ISBN
* ^ Jan Fleischhauer, "Nazi War Crimes as Described by German
Soldiers", 04/08/2011, Der Spiegel
* ^ Numer: 17/18/2007 Wprost "Seksualne Niewolnice III Rzeszy"
* ^ Jeffrey Herf, The Jewish Enemy, p58 ISBN 978-0-674-02738-1
* ^ Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi
* ^ A B Cite error: The named reference Majer2003 was invoked but
never defined (see the help page ).
* ^ A B Majer, "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich, p.369
* ^ Robert Gellately, The