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The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn). This term is not used in Shia Islam
Islam
as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate.[2] The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion, followed by a five-year period of internal strife. The Rashidun
Rashidun
Army at its peak numbered more than 100,000 men. By the 650s, the caliphate in addition to the Arabian Peninsula had subjugated the Levant, to the Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus
in the north; North Africa
North Africa
from Egypt
Egypt
to present-day Tunisia
Tunisia
in the west; and the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
to parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
in the east. The caliphate arose out of the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
in 632 CE and the subsequent debate over the succession to his leadership. Abu Bakr, a close companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
from the Banu Taym
Banu Taym
clan, was elected the first Rashidun
Rashidun
leader and began the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula. He ruled from 632 to his death in 634. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was succeeded by Umar, his appointed successor from the Banu Adi
Banu Adi
clan, who began the conquest of Persia
Persia
from 642 to 651, leading to the defeat of the Sassanid Empire. Umar
Umar
was assassinated in 644[3] and was succeeded by Uthman, who was elected by a six-person committee arranged by Umar. Under Uthman
Uthman
began the conquest of Armenia, Fars and Khorasan.[4] Uthman
Uthman
was assassinated in 656[5] and succeeded by Ali, who presided over the civil war known as the First Fitna
First Fitna
(656–661). The war was primarily between those who supported Uthman's cousin and governor of the Levant Muawiyah, and those who supported the caliph Ali. The civil war permanently consolidated the divide between Sunni and Shia Muslims, with Shia Muslims believing Ali
Ali
to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad.[6] A third faction in the war supported the governor of Egypt
Egypt
Amr ibn al-As. The war was decided in favour of the faction of Muawiyah, who established the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
in 661.

Contents

1 Origin 2 History

2.1 Succession of Abu Bakr 2.2 Succession of Umar 2.3 Election of Uthman 2.4 Siege of Uthman 2.5 Crisis and fragmentation

3 Military
Military
expansion

3.1 Conquest of the Persian empire 3.2 Wars against the Byzantine
Byzantine
empire

3.2.1 Conquest of Byzantine
Byzantine
Syria 3.2.2 Occupation of Anatolia 3.2.3 Conquest of Egypt 3.2.4 Conquest of North Africa

3.2.4.1 Campaign against Nubia
Nubia
(Sudan)

3.2.5 Conquest of the islands of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea

3.3 Treatment of conquered peoples

4 Political administration

4.1 Districts or provinces 4.2 Judicial administration 4.3 Electing or appointing a caliph 4.4 Sunni belief 4.5 Majlis al-Shura: Parliament 4.6 Accountability of rulers 4.7 Rule of law

5 Economy

5.1 Bait-ul-Maal 5.2 Establishment of Bait-ul-Maal 5.3 Economic resources of the State

5.3.1 Zakat 5.3.2 Jizya 5.3.3 Fay 5.3.4 Khums 5.3.5 Kharaj 5.3.6 Ushr

5.4 Allowance

5.4.1 Beginning of the allowance 5.4.2 Evaluation

6 Welfare works 7 Military 8 List of Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources

Origin[edit]

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
at greatest extent (orthographic projection)

After Muhammad's death in 632 CE, his Medinan companions debated which of them should succeed him in running the affairs of the Muslims while Muhammad's household was busy with his burial. Umar
Umar
and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakr, with the Ansar and the Quraysh
Quraysh
soon following suit. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
thus became the first Khalīfaṫu Rasūli l-Lāh (خَـلِـيْـفَـةُ رَسُـوْلِ الله, "Successor of the Messenger of God"), or Caliph, and embarked on campaigns to propagate Islam. First he would have to subdue the Arabian tribes which had claimed that although they pledged allegiance to Muhammad
Muhammad
and accepted Islam, they owed nothing to Abu Bakr. As a caliph, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was not a monarch and never claimed such a title; nor did any of his three successors. Rather, their election and leadership were based upon merit.[7][8][9][10] Notably, according to Sunnis, all four Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs
Caliphs
were connected to Muhammad
Muhammad
through marriage, were early converts to Islam,[11] were among ten who were explicitly promised paradise, were his closest companions by association and support and were often highly praised by Muhammad
Muhammad
and delegated roles of leadership within the nascent Muslim community. According to Sunni Muslims, the term Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
is derived from a famous[12] hadith of Muhammad, where he foretold that the caliphate after him would last for 30 years[13] (the length of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate) and would then be followed by kingship.[14][15] Furthermore, according to other hadiths in Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawood
and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, towards the end times, the Rightly Guided Caliphate will be restored once again by God.[16] History[edit] Succession of Abu Bakr[edit] See also: Succession to Muhammad

Islamic conquests
Islamic conquests
622–750:   Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632   Expansion during the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate, 632-661   Expansion during the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, 661-750

Abu Bakr, the oldest companion of Muhammad, was caliph for only 2 years before he died. When Muhammad
Muhammad
died, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, his two companions, were in the Saqifah
Saqifah
meeting to select his successor while the family of Muhammad
Muhammad
was busy with his funeral. Controversy among the Muslims emerged about whom to name as Caliph. There was disagreement between the Meccan followers of Muhammad
Muhammad
who had emigrated with him in 622 (the Muhajirun "Emigrants") and the Medinans who had become followers (Ansar "Helpers"). The Ansar, considering themselves being the hosts and loyal companions of Muhammad, nominated Sad bin Ubadah as their candidate for the Caliphate.[17] In the end, however, Muhammad's closest friend, Abu Bakr, was named the khalifa (caliph) or "Successor" of Muhammad.[18] A new circumstance had formed a new, untried political formation: the caliphate. Troubles emerged soon after Muhammad's death, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state. Apostasy
Apostasy
spread to every tribe in the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
with the exception of the people in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, the Banu Thaqif in Ta'if
Ta'if
and the Bani Abdul Qais of Oman. In some cases, entire tribes apostatised. Others merely withheld zakat, the alms tax, without formally challenging Islam. Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood; some made it during the lifetime of Muhammad. The first incident of apostasy was fought and concluded while Muhammad
Muhammad
still lived; a supposed prophet Aswad Ansi arose and invaded South Arabia;[19] he was killed on 30 May 632 (6 Rabi' al-Awwal, 11 Hijri) by Governor
Governor
Fērōz of Yemen, a Persian Muslim.[20] The news of his death reached Medina
Medina
shortly after the death of Muhammad. The apostasy of al-Yamama was led by another supposed prophet, Musaylimah,[21] who arose before Muhammad's death; other centers of the rebels were in the Najd, Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia
(known then as al-Bahrayn) and South Arabia
South Arabia
(known as al-Yaman and including the Mahra). Many tribes claimed that they had submitted to Muhammad and that with Muhammad's death, their allegiance was ended.[21] Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
insisted that they had not just submitted to a leader but joined an ummah (أُمَّـة, community) of which he was the new head.[21] The result of this situation was the Ridda wars.[21] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
planned his strategy accordingly. He divided the Muslim
Muslim
army into several corps. The strongest corps, and the primary force of the Muslims, was the corps of Khalid ibn al-Walid. This corps was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces. Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to bring the less dangerous apostate tribes to submission. Abu Bakr's plan was first to clear Najd and Western Arabia near Medina, then tackle Malik ibn Nuwayrah and his forces between the Najd
Najd
and al-Bahrayn, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous enemy, Musaylimah and his allies in al-Yamama. After a series of successful campaigns Khalid ibn Walid defeated Musaylimah in the Battle of Yamama.[22] The Campaign on the Apostasy
Apostasy
was fought and completed during the eleventh year of the Hijri. The year 12 Hijri dawned on 18 March 633 with the Arabian peninsula united under the caliph in Medina.[citation needed] Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
began a war of conquest. Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
began with Iraq, the richest province of the Sasanian Empire.[23] He sent general Khalid ibn Walid
Khalid ibn Walid
to invade the Sasanianan Empire
Empire
in 633.[23] He thereafter also sent four armies to invade the Roman province of Syria,[24] but the decisive operation was only undertaken when Khalid, after completing the conquest of Iraq, was transferred to the Syrian front in 634.[25] Succession of Umar[edit]

Umar

Family

Family tree of Umar Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Ali
(Wife) Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
(son) Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
(Daughter)

Asim ibn Umar
Umar
(son)

Views

Sunni view of Umar Ten Promised Paradise Shi'a view of Umar

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Succession to Muhammad Succession to Abu Bakr Military
Military
conquests Reforms (Pact of Umar)

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Despite the initial reservations of his advisers, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
recognised the military and political prowess in Umar
Umar
and desired him to succeed as caliph. The decision was enshrined in his will, and on the death of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
in 634, Umar
Umar
was confirmed in office. The new caliph continued the war of conquests begun by his predecessor, pushing further into the Sasanian Persian Empire, north into Byzantine territory, and west into Egypt. It is an important fact to note that Umar
Umar
never participated in any battle as a commander of a Muslim
Muslim
Army throughout his life. These were regions of great wealth controlled by powerful states, but long internecine conflict between Byzantines and Sasanians had left both sides militarily exhausted, and the Islamic armies easily prevailed against them. By 640, they had brought all of Mesopotamia, Syria
Syria
and Palestine under the control of the Rashidun Caliphate; Egypt
Egypt
was conquered by 642, and the entire Persian Empire by 643. While the caliphate continued its rapid expansion, Umar
Umar
laid the foundations of a political structure that could hold it together. He created the Diwan, a bureau for transacting government affairs. The military was brought directly under state control and into its pay. Crucially, in conquered lands, Umar
Umar
did not require that non-Muslim populations convert to Islam, nor did he try to centralize government. Instead, he allowed subject populations to retain their religion, language and customs, and he left their government relatively untouched, imposing only a governor (amir) and a financial officer called an amil. These new posts were integral to the efficient network of taxation that financed the empire. With the booty secured from conquest, Umar
Umar
was able to support its faith in material ways: the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
were given pensions on which to live, allowing them to pursue religious studies and exercise spiritual leadership in their communities and beyond. Umar
Umar
is also remembered for establishing the Islamic calendar; it is lunar like the Arabian calendar, but the origin is set in 622, the year of the Hijra when Muhammad
Muhammad
emigrated to Medina. Umar
Umar
was killed in an assassination by the Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi during morning prayers in 644.[26][27] Election of Uthman[edit] Main article: The election of Uthman

Uthman The Generous – (Al Ghani)

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Family tree of Uthman The election Siege of Uthman Uthman
Uthman
Quran Military
Military
campaigns under Caliph
Caliph
Uthman

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Before Umar
Umar
died, he appointed a committee of six men to decide on the next caliph, and charged them with choosing one of their own number. All of the men, like Umar, were from the tribe of Quraysh. The committee narrowed down the choices to two: Uthman
Uthman
and Ali. Ali was from the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan (the same clan as Muhammad) of the Quraish tribe, and he was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
Muhammad
and had been a companion to the Prophet from the inception of his mission. Uthman
Uthman
was from the Umayyad
Umayyad
clan of the Quraish. He was the second cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
Muhammad
and one of the early converts of Islam. Uthman
Uthman
was ultimately chosen. Uthman
Uthman
reigned for twelve years as caliph, during the first half of his reign he enjoyed a position of the most popular caliph among all the Rashiduns, while in the later half of his reign he met increasing opposition. This opposition was led by the Egyptians and was concentrated around Ali, who would, albeit briefly, succeed Uthman
Uthman
as caliph. Despite internal troubles, Uthman
Uthman
continued the wars of conquest started by Umar. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army conquered North Africa
North Africa
from the Byzantines and even raided Spain, conquering the coastal areas of the Iberian peninsula, as well as the islands of Rhodes
Rhodes
and Cyprus.[citation needed] Also coastal Sicily
Sicily
was raided in 652.[28] The Rashidun
Rashidun
army fully conquered the Sasanian Empire, and its eastern frontiers extended up to the lower Indus
Indus
River. Uthman's most lasting project was the final compilation of the Qur'an. Under his authority diacritics were written with the Arabic letters so that non-native speakers of Arabic could easily read the Qur'an without difficulty. Siege of Uthman[edit] Main article: Siege of Uthman After a protest turned into a siege, Uthman
Uthman
refused to initiate any military action, in order to avoid civil war between Muslims, and preferred negotiations.[citation needed] After the negotiations, the protestors returned but found a man following them, holding an order to execute the protestors. The protestors returned and Uthman
Uthman
swore that he did not write the order. He refuted the claim and tried to talk it through. The protestors demanded he retire from being a caliph. Uthman
Uthman
refused and returned to his room. This emboldened the protestors and they broke into Uthman's house and killed him while he was reading the Qur'an.[26][27] It was later discovered that it was not his autograph, but a forgery under his cousin Mu'awiya's autograph. Crisis and fragmentation[edit] Main article: First Fitna

Part of a series on

Ali

Views

Sunni view of Ali Shi'a view of Ali

Life

Marital life Birthplace First Fitna Assassination Timeline of Ali's life Alids Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm

Legacy

Nahj al-Balagha Al-Ghadir Qalam-e-Mowla Zulfiqar Imam Ali
Ali
Mosque Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim

Perspectives

Military
Military
career of Ali Ali
Ali
as Caliph The Fourteen Infallibles Imam (The Twelve Imams) Ali
Ali
in the Qur'an

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
( Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph) Succession to Muhammad

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Muhammad's widow, Aisha, battling the fourth caliph Ali
Ali
in the Battle of the Camel (16th-century miniature from a copy of the Siyer-i Nebi)

After the assassination of the third Caliph, Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, the Companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina
Medina
selected Ali
Ali
to be the new Caliph
Caliph
who had been passed over for the leadership three times since the death of Muhammad. Soon thereafter, Ali
Ali
dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and Salman the Persian. Ali
Ali
then transferred his capital from Medina
Medina
to Kufa, a Muslim
Muslim
garrison city in current-day Iraq. Demands to take revenge for the assassination of Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
rose among parts of the population, and a large army of rebels led by Zubayr, Talha
Talha
and the widow of Muhammad, Ayesha, set out to fight the perpetrators. The army reached Basra
Basra
and captured it, upon which 4,000 suspected seditionists were put to death. Subsequently, Ali
Ali
turned towards Basra
Basra
and the caliph's army met the army of Muslims who demanded revenge for the murder of Uthman. Though neither Ali
Ali
nor the leaders of the opposing force, Talha
Talha
and Zubayr, wanted to fight, a battle broke out at night between the two armies. It is said, according to Sunni Muslim
Muslim
traditions, that the rebels who were involved in the assassination of Uthman
Uthman
initiated combat, as they were afraid that as a result of negotiation between Ali
Ali
and the opposing army, the killers of Uthman
Uthman
would be hunted down and killed. The battle thus fought was the first battle between Muslims and is known as the Battle of the Camel. The Caliphate
Caliphate
under Ali
Ali
emerged victorious and the dispute was settled. The eminent companions of Mohammad, Talha and Zubayr, were killed in the battle and Ali
Ali
sent his son Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
to escort Ayesha back to Medina. After this episode of Islamic history, another cry for revenge for the blood of Uthman
Uthman
rose. This time it was by Mu'awiya, kinsman of Uthman and governor of the province of Syria. However, it is regarded more as an attempt by Mu'awiya to assume the caliphate, rather than to take revenge for Uthman's murder. Ali
Ali
fought Mu'awiya's forces at the Battle of Siffin
Battle of Siffin
leading to a stalemate, and then lost a controversial arbitration that ended with arbiter 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
pronouncing his support for Mu'awiya. After this Ali
Ali
was forced to fight the rebellious Kharijites
Kharijites
in the Battle of Nahrawan, a faction of his former supporters who, as a result of their dissatisfaction with the arbitration, opposed both Ali
Ali
and Mu'awiya. Weakened by this internal rebellion and a lack of popular support in many provinces, Ali's forces lost control over most of the caliphate's territory to Mu'awiya while large sections of the empire such as Sicily, North Africa, the coastal areas of Spain
Spain
and some forts in Anatolia
Anatolia
were also lost to outside empires.

Illustration of the Battle of Siffin, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Tarikh-i Bal'ami.

In 661, Ali
Ali
was assassinated by Ibn Muljam
Ibn Muljam
as part of a Kharijite plot to assassinate all the different Islamic leaders meaning to end the civil war, whereas the Kharijites
Kharijites
failed to assassinate Mu'awiya and 'Amr ibn al-'As. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, briefly assumed the caliphate and came to an agreement with Mu'awiya to fix relations between the two groups of Muslims that were each loyal to one of the two men. The treaty stated that Mu'awiya would not name a successor during his reign, and that he would let the Islamic World choose the next leader (This treaty would later be broken by Mu'awiya as he names his son Yazid I successor). Hasan was assassinated, and Mu'awiya gained control of the Caliphate
Caliphate
and founded the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, marking the end of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate.[26][27] Military
Military
expansion[edit] The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
expanded steadily; within the span of 24 years of conquest, a vast territory was conquered comprising Mesopotamia, the Levant, parts of Anatolia, and most of the Sasanian Empire. Unlike the Sasanian Persians, the Byzantines, after losing Syria, retreated back to Anatolia. As a result, they also lost Egypt
Egypt
to the invading Rashidun
Rashidun
army, although the civil wars among the Muslims halted the war of conquest for many years, and this gave time for the Eastern Roman/ Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to recover. Conquest of the Persian empire[edit] Further information: Islamic conquest of Persia

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Iraq

The Great Moqsue in Kufah, Mesopotamia, 2016

The first Islamic invasion of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
launched by Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
in 633 was a swift conquest in the time span of only four months led by general Khalid ibn Walid. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
sent Khalid to conquer Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
after the Ridda wars. After entering Iraq
Iraq
with his army of 18,000, Khalid won decisive victories in four consecutive battles: the Battle of Chains, fought in April 633; the Battle of River, fought in the third week of April 633; the Battle of Walaja, fought in May 633 (where he successfully used a pincer movement), and the Battle of Ullais, fought in mid May of 633. In the last week of May 633, the capital city of Iraq
Iraq
fell to the Muslims after initial resistance in the Battle of Hira. After resting his armies, Khalid moved in June 633 towards Al Anbar, which resisted and was defeated in the Battle of Al-Anbar, and eventually surrendered after a siege of a few weeks in July 633. Khalid then moved towards the south, and conquered the city of Ein ul Tamr after the Battle of ein-ul-tamr in the last week of July 633. By now, almost the whole of Iraq
Iraq
was under Islamic control. Khalid received a call of help from northern Arabia at Daumat-ul-jandal, where another Muslim
Muslim
Arab general, Iyad ibn Ghanm, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Khalid went to Daumat-ul-jandal and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Daumat-ul-jandal in the last week of August 633. Returning from Arabia, he received news of the assembling of a large Persian army. Within a few weeks, he decided to defeat them all separately in order to avoid the risk of defeat by a large unified Persian army. Four divisions of Persian and Christian
Christian
Arab auxiliaries were present at Hanafiz, Zumiel, Sanni and Muzieh. Khalid divided his army into three units, and decided to attack these auxiliaries one by one from three different sides at night, starting with the Battle of Muzieh, then the Battle of Sanni, and finally the Battle of Zumail. In November 633, Khalid defeated the enemy armies in a series of three sided attacks at night. These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Iraq. In December 633, Khalid reached the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of the Sasanian Persians, Byzantines and Christian
Christian
Arabs in the Battle of Firaz. This was the last battle in his conquest of Iraq.[29] After the conquest of Iraq, Khalid left Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to lead another campaign in Syria
Syria
against the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, after which Mithna ibn Haris took command in Mesopotamia. The Persians once again concentrated armies to regain the lost Mesopotamia, while Mithna ibn Haris withdrew from central Iraq
Iraq
to the region near the Arabian desert to delay war until reinforcement came from Medina. Umar
Umar
sent reinforcements under the command of Abu Ubaidah Saqfi. With some initial success this army was finally defeated by the Sasanian army at the Battle of the Bridge
Battle of the Bridge
in which Abu Ubaid was killed. The response was delayed until after a decisive Muslim
Muslim
victory against the Romans in the Levant
Levant
at the Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
in 636. Umar
Umar
was then able to transfer forces to the east and resume the offensive against the Sasanians. Umar
Umar
dispatched 36,000 men along with 7500 troops from the Syrian front, under the command of Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās against the Persian army. The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
followed, with the Persians prevailing at first, but on the third day of fighting, the Muslims gained the upper hand. The legendary Persian general Rostam Farrokhzād was killed during the battle. According to some sources, the Persian losses were 20,000, and the Arabs lost 10,500 men.

Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan, Iran, 2015

Following this Battle, the Arab Muslim
Muslim
armies pushed forward toward the Persian capital of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
(also called Madā'in in Arabic), which was quickly evacuated by Yazdgird after a brief siege. After seizing the city, they continued their drive eastwards, following Yazdgird and his remaining troops. Within a short span of time, the Arab armies defeated a major Sasanian counter-attack in the Battle of Jalūlā', as well as other engagements at Qasr-e Shirin, and Masabadhan. By the mid-7th Century, the Arabs controlled all of Mesopotamia, including the area that is now the Iranian province of Khuzestan. It is said that Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
did not wish to send his troops through the Zagros mountains
Zagros mountains
and onto the Iranian plateau. One tradition has it that he wished for a "wall of fire" to keep the Arabs and Persians apart. Later commentators explain this as a common-sense precaution against over-extension of his forces. The Arabs had only recently conquered large territories that still had to be garrisoned and administered. The continued existence of the Persian government was however an incitement to revolt in the conquered territories and unlike the Byzantine
Byzantine
army, the Sasanian army was continuously striving to regain their lost territories. Finally Umar
Umar
decided to push his forces to further conquests, which eventually resulted in the wholesale conquest of the Sasanian Empire. Yazdegerd, the Sasanian king, made yet another effort to regroup and defeat the invaders. By 641 he had raised a new force, which made a stand at the Battle of Nihawānd, some forty miles south of Hamadan
Hamadan
in modern Iran. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army under the command of Umar's appointed general Nu'man ibn Muqarrin al-Muzani, attacked and again defeated the Persian forces. The Muslims proclaimed it the Victory of Victories (Fath alfotuh) as it marked the End of the Sasanians, shattering the last strongest Sasanian army. Yazdegerd was unable to raise another army and became a hunted fugitive. In 642 Umar
Umar
sent the army to conquer the whole of the Persian Empire. The whole of present-day Iran
Iran
was conquered, followed by the conquest of Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
(which included the modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan), Transoxania, and Balochistan, Makran, Azerbaijan, Dagestan
Dagestan
(Russia), Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia, this regions were later also re-conquered during Caliph Uthman's reign with further expansion into the regions which were not conquered during Umar’s reign, hence the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate’s frontiers in the east extended to the lower river Indus
Indus
and north to the Oxus River. Wars against the Byzantine
Byzantine
empire[edit] Conquest of Byzantine
Byzantine
Syria[edit] Further information: Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Syria

Map detailing the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate's invasion of the Levant

After Khalid captured Iraq
Iraq
and firmly took control of it, Abu Bakr sent armies to Syria
Syria
on the Byzantine
Byzantine
front. Four armies were sent under four different commanders; Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
(acting as their supreme commander), Amr ibn al-As, Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan and Shurhabil ibn Hasana. These armies were all assigned their objectives. However their advance was halted by a concentration of the Byzantine army at Ajnadayn. Abu Ubaidah then sent for reinforcements. Abu Bakr ordered Khalid, who by now was planning to attack Ctesiphon, to march from Iraq
Iraq
to Syria
Syria
with half of his army. Khalid took half of his army and took an unconventional route to Syria. There were 2 major routes to Syria
Syria
from Iraq, one passing through Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the other through Daumat ul-Jandal. Khalid took a route through the Syrian Desert, and after a perilous march of 5 days, appeared in north-western Syria. The border forts of Sawa, Arak, Tadmur, Sukhnah, al-Qaryatayn and Hawarin
Hawarin
were the first to fall to the invading Muslims. Khalid marched on to Bosra
Bosra
via the Damascus
Damascus
road. At Bosra, the Corps of Abu Ubaidah and Shurhabil joined Khalid, after which here as per orders of Caliph Abu Bakr, Khalid took the high command from Abu Ubaidah. Bosra
Bosra
was not ready for this surprise attack and siege, and thus surrendered after a brief siege in July 634 (see Battle of Bosra), this effectively ending the Dynasty of the Ghassanids.

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's invasion of Syria

From Bosra
Bosra
Khalid sent orders to other corps commanders to join him at Ajnadayn, where according to early Muslim
Muslim
historians, a Byzantine
Byzantine
army of 90,000 (modern sources state 9,000)[30] was concentrated to push back the Muslims. The Byzantine
Byzantine
army was defeated decisively on 30 July 634 in the Battle of Ajnadayn. It was the first major pitched battle between the Muslim
Muslim
army and the Christian
Christian
Byzantine
Byzantine
army and cleared the way for the Muslims to capture central Syria. Damascus, the Byzantine
Byzantine
stronghold, was conquered shortly after on 19 September 634. After the Muslim
Muslim
Conquest of Damascus, the Byzantine
Byzantine
army was given a deadline of 3 days to flee as far as they could, with their families and treasure, or simply agree to stay in Damascus
Damascus
and pay tribute.

Al- Masjid Al-Aqsa
Masjid Al-Aqsa
in Al-Haram Ash-Sharif, Old City of Jerusalem, Ash-Sham, 1982

Byzantine-era temple in Idlib, Syria.

After the three-day deadline was over, the Muslim
Muslim
cavalry under Khalid's command attacked the Roman army by catching up to them using an unknown shortcut at the battle of Maraj-al-Debaj.[citation needed] On 22 August 634 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
died, making Umar
Umar
his successor. As Umar became caliph, he relieved Khalid of command of the Islamic armies and appointed Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
as the new commander. The conquest of Syria
Syria
slowed down under him while Abu Ubaida relied heavily on the advices of Khalid, and kept him beside him as much as possible.[31]

Map detailing the route of the Muslim
Muslim
invasion of central Syria

The last large garrison of the Byzantine
Byzantine
army was at Fahl, which was joined by survivors of Ajnadayn. With this threat at their rear the Muslim
Muslim
armies could not move further north nor south, thus Abu Ubaidah decided to deal with the situation, and had this garrison defeated and routed at the Battle of Fahl on 23 January 635. This battle proved to be the "Key to Palestine". After this battle Abu Ubaidah and Khalid marched north towards Emesa, Yazid was stationed in Damascus
Damascus
while Amr and Shurhabil marched south to capture Palestine.[31] While the Muslims were at Fahl, sensing the weak defense of Damascus, Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
sent an army to re-capture the city. This army however could not make it to Damascus
Damascus
and was intercepted by Abu Ubaidah and Khalid on their way to Emesa. The army was routed and destroyed in the battle of Maraj-al-Rome and the 2nd battle of Damascus. Emesa
Emesa
and the strategical town of Chalcis
Chalcis
made peace with the Muslims for one year. This was, in fact, done to let Heraclius
Heraclius
prepare for defences and raise new armies. The Muslims welcomed the peace and consolidated their control over the conquered territory. As soon as the Muslims received the news of reinforcements being sent to Emesa
Emesa
and Chalcis, they marched against Emesa, laid siege to it and eventually captured the city in March 636.[32]

Map detailing the route of the Muslim
Muslim
invasion of northern Syria

The prisoners taken in the battle informed them about Emperor Heraclius's final effort to take back Syria. They said that an army possibly two hundred thousand (200,000) strong would soon emerge to recapture the province. Khalid stopped here on June 636. This huge army set out for their destination. As soon as Abu Ubaida heard the news, he gathered all his officers to plan their next move. Khalid suggested that they should summon all of their forces present in the province of Syria
Syria
(Syria, Jordan, Palestine) and to make a powerful joint force and then move towards the plain of Yarmouk for battle. Abu Ubaida ordered all the Muslim
Muslim
commanders to withdraw from all the conquered areas, return the tributes that they previously gathered, and move towards Yarmuk.[33] Heraclius's army also moved towards Yarmuk. The Muslim
Muslim
armies reached it in July 636. A week or two later, around mid July, the Byzantine
Byzantine
army arrived.[34] Khalid's mobile guard defeated Christian
Christian
Arab auxiliaries of the Roman army in a skirmish. Nothing happened until the third week of August in which the Battle of Yarmouk was fought. The battle lasted 6 days during which Abu Ubaida transferred the command of the entire army to Khalid. The five times larger Byzantine
Byzantine
army was defeated in October 636 CE. Abu Ubaida held a meeting with his high command officers, including Khalid to decide on future conquests. They decided to conquer Jerusalem. The siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lasted four months after which the city agreed to surrender, but only to Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
Ibn Al Khattab in person. Amr ibn Al As suggested that Khalid should be sent as Caliph, because of his very strong resemblance of Caliph
Caliph
Umar. Khalid was recognized and eventually, Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
ibn Al Khattab came and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
surrendered on April 637 CE. Abu Ubaida sent the commanders Amr bin al-As, Yazid bin Abu Sufyan, and Sharjeel bin Hassana back to their areas to reconquer them. Most of the areas submitted without a fight. Abu Ubaida himself along with Khalid, moved to northern Syria
Syria
once again to conquer it with a 17,000 man army. Khalid along with his cavalry was sent to Hazir and Abu Ubaidah moved to the city of Qasreen. Khalid defeated a strong Byzantine
Byzantine
army at the Battle of Hazir and reached Qasreen before Abu Ubaidah. The city surrendered to Khalid. Soon, Abu Ubaidah arrived in June 637. Abu Ubaidah then moved against Aleppo. As usual Khalid was commanding the cavalry. After the Battle of Aleppo
Aleppo
the city finally agreed to surrender in October 637. Occupation of Anatolia[edit]

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn al-Walid's invasion of Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
and Armenia

Abu Ubaida and Khalid ibn Walid, after conquering all of northern Syria, moved north towards Anatolia
Anatolia
conquering the fort of Azaz
Azaz
to clear the flank and rear from Byzantine
Byzantine
troops. On their way to Antioch, a Roman army blocked them near a river on which there was an iron bridge. Because of this, the following battle is known as the Battle of the Iron Bridge. The Muslim
Muslim
army defeated the Byzantines and Antioch
Antioch
surrendered on 30 October 637 CE. Later during the year, Abu Ubaida sent Khalid and Iyad ibn Ghanm at the head of two separate armies against the western part of Jazira, most of which was conquered without strong resistance, including parts of Anatolia, Edessa
Edessa
and the area up to the Ararat plain. Other columns were sent to Anatolia
Anatolia
as far west as the Taurus Mountains, the important city of Marash
Marash
and Malatya
Malatya
which were all conquered by Khalid in the autumn of 638 CE. During Uthman's reign, the Byzantines recaptured many forts in the region and on Uthman's orders, a series of campaigns were launched to regain control of them. In 647 Muawiyah, the governor of Syria
Syria
sent an expedition against Anatolia. They invaded Cappadocia
Cappadocia
and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. In 648 the Rashidun
Rashidun
army raided Phrygia. A major offensive into Cilicia
Cilicia
and Isauria
Isauria
in 650–651 forced the Byzantine Emperor Constans II
Constans II
to enter into negotiations with Uthman's governor of Syria, Muawiyah. The truce that followed allowed a short respite, and made it possible for Constans II
Constans II
to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. In 654–655 on the orders of Uthman, an expedition was preparing to attack the Byzantine
Byzantine
capital Constantinople
Constantinople
but this plan was not carried out due to the civil war that broke out in 656. The Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
in Turkey
Turkey
marked the western frontiers of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
in Anatolia
Anatolia
during Caliph
Caliph
Uthman's reign. Conquest of Egypt[edit] Further information: Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Egypt

Map detailing the route of the Muslim
Muslim
invasion of Egypt

Al-Azhar Mosque
Al-Azhar Mosque
in Cairo, Egypt, 2013

At the commencement of the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Egypt, Egypt
Egypt
was part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with its capital in Constantinople. However, it had been occupied just a decade before by the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
under Khosrau II (616 to 629 CE). The power of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was shattered during the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Syria, and therefore the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
was much easier. In 639 some 4000 Rashidun
Rashidun
troops led by Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
were sent by Umar
Umar
to conquer the land of the ancient pharaohs. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army crossed into Egypt
Egypt
from Palestine in December 639 and advanced rapidly into the Nile
Nile
Delta. The imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more. But the Muslims sent for reinforcements and the invading army, joined by another 12,000 men in 640, defeated a Byzantine
Byzantine
army at the Battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on 8 November 641. The Thebaid
Thebaid
seems to have surrendered with scarcely any opposition. The ease with which this valuable province was wrenched from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
appears to have been due to the treachery of the governor of Egypt, Cyrus,[35] Melchite
Melchite
(i.e., Byzantine/Chalcedonian Orthodox, not Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria, and the incompetence of the generals of the Byzantine
Byzantine
forces, as well as due to the loss of most of the Byzantine
Byzantine
troops in Syria
Syria
against the Rashidun
Rashidun
army. Cyrus had persecuted the local Coptic Christians. He is one of the authors of monothelism, a seventh-century heresy, and some supposed him to have been a secret convert to Islam. During the reign of Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
an attempt was made in the year 645 to regain Alexandria
Alexandria
for the Byzantine
Byzantine
empire, but it was retaken by Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II
Constans II
was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. The Muslims were assisted by some Copts, who found the Muslims more tolerant than the Byzantines, and of these some turned to Islam. In return for a tribute of money and food for the troops of occupation, the Christian
Christian
inhabitants of Egypt
Egypt
were excused from military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs. Others sided with the Byzantines, hoping that they would provide a defense against the Arab invaders.[36] During the reign of Caliph
Caliph
Ali, Egypt
Egypt
was captured by rebel troops under the command of former Rashidun
Rashidun
army general Amr ibn al-As, who killed Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr the governor of Egypt appointed by Ali. Conquest of North Africa[edit]

The Roman ruins of Sbeitla
Sbeitla
(Sufetula)

After the withdrawal of the Byzantines from Egypt, the Exarchate of Africa had declared its independence under its exarch, Gregory the Patrician. The dominions of Gregory extended from the borders of Egypt to Morocco. Abdullah Ibn Sa'ad used to send raiding parties to the west. As a result of these raids the Muslims got considerable booty. The success of these raids made Abdullah Ibn Sa'ad feel that a regular campaign should be undertaken for the conquest of North Africa. Uthman
Uthman
gave him permission after considering it in the Majlis al Shura. A force of 10,000 soldiers was sent as reinforcement. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army assembled in Barqa
Barqa
in Cyrenaica, and from there they marched west to capture Tripoli, after Tripoli
Tripoli
the army marched to Sufetula, the capital of King Gregory. He was defeated and killed in the battle due to superb tactics used by Abdullah ibn Zubayr. After the Battle of Sufetula the people of North Africa
North Africa
sued for peace. They agreed to pay an annual tribute. Instead of annexing North Africa, the Muslims preferred to make North Africa
North Africa
a vassal state. When the stipulated amount of the tribute was paid, the Muslim
Muslim
forces withdrew to Barqa. Following the First Fitna, the first Islamic civil war, Muslim
Muslim
forces withdraw from north Africa to Egypt. The Ummayad Caliphate, re-invaded north Africa in 664. Campaign against Nubia
Nubia
(Sudan)[edit]

The Grand Mosque
Mosque
of Khartoum, Sudan, 2013

A campaign was undertaken against Nubia
Nubia
during the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Umar in 642, but failed after the Makurians took victory at the First Battle of Dongola. The army was pulled out of Nubia
Nubia
without any success. Ten years later, Uthman’s governor of Egypt, Abdullah ibn Saad, sent another army to Nubia. This army penetrated deeper into Nubia
Nubia
and laid siege to the Nubian capital of Dongola. The Muslims damaged the cathedral in the center of the city, but the battle also went in favor of Makuria. As the Muslims were not able to overpower Makuria, they negotiated a peace with their king Qaladurut. According to the treaty that was signed, each side agreed not to make any aggressive moves against the other. Each side agreed to afford free passage to the other party through its territories. Nubia
Nubia
agreed to provide 360 slaves to Egypt
Egypt
every year, while Egypt
Egypt
agreed to supply grain, horses and textiles to Nubia
Nubia
according to demand. Conquest of the islands of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea[edit] Further information: History of Islam
Islam
in southern Italy During Umar's reign, the governor of Syria, Muawiyah I, sent a request to build a naval force to invade the islands of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea but Umar
Umar
rejected the proposal because of the risk of death of soldiers at sea. During his reign Uthman
Uthman
gave Muawiyah permission to build a navy after concerning the matter. In 650 CE the Arabs made the first attack on the island of Cyprus
Cyprus
under the leadership of Muawiya. They conquered the capital, Salamis - Constantia, after a brief siege, but drafted a treaty with the local rulers. In the course of this expedition a relative of Muhammad, Umm-Haram fell from her mule near the Salt Lake at Larnaca
Larnaca
and was killed. She was buried in that same spot which became a holy site for both many local Muslims and Christians and, much later in 1816, the Hala Sultan Tekke
Hala Sultan Tekke
was built there by the Ottomans. After apprehending a breach of the treaty, the Arabs re-invaded the island in 654 CE with five hundred ships. This time, however, a garrison of 12,000 men was left in Cyprus, bringing the island under Muslim
Muslim
influence.[37] After leaving Cyprus
Cyprus
the Muslim
Muslim
fleet headed towards the island of Crete
Crete
and then Rhodes
Rhodes
and conquered them without much resistance. In 652-654, the Muslims launched a naval campaign against Sicily
Sicily
and they succeeded in capturing a large part of the island. Soon after this Uthman
Uthman
was murdered, and no further expansion efforts were made, and the Muslims accordingly retreated from Sicily. In 655 Byzantine Emperor Constans II
Constans II
led a fleet in person to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) but it was defeated: both sides suffered heavy losses in the battle, and the emperor himself narrowly avoided death. Treatment of conquered peoples[edit] See also: Dhimmi The non- Muslim
Muslim
monotheist inhabitants - Jews, Zoroastrians, and Christians of the conquered lands were called dhimmis (the protected people). Those who accepted Islam
Islam
were treated in a similar manner as other Muslims, and were given equivalent rights in legal matters. Non-Muslims were given legal rights according to their faiths' law except where it conflicted with Islamic law. Dhimmis were allowed to "practice their religion, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" and were guaranteed their personal safety and security of property, but only in return for paying tax and acknowledging Muslim
Muslim
rule.[38] Dhimmis were also subject to pay jizya (Muslims were expected to pay zakāt and kharaj[39]). Disabled dhimmis did not have to pay jizya and, were even given a stipend by the state. The Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs had placed special emphasis on relative fair and just treatment of the dhimmis. They were also provided 'protection' by the Islamic empire and were not expected to fight; rather the Muslims were entrusted to defend them. Sometimes, in particular when there were not enough qualified Muslims, dhimmis were given important positions in the government. Political administration[edit]

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
at Medinah, the empire's first capital, in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula, 2008

The Great Mosque
Mosque
at Kufah, the empire's second capital, in Iraq, 2016

The basic administrative system of the Dar al-Islamiyyah (The House of Islam) was laid down in the days of the Prophet. Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr stated in his sermon when he was elected: "If I order any thing that would go against the order of Allah and his Messenger; then do not obey me". This is considered to be the foundation stone of the Caliphate. Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
has been reported to have said: "O Muslims, straighten me with your hands when I go wrong", and at that instance a Muslim
Muslim
man stood up and said "O Amir al-Mu'minin (Leader of the Believers) if you are not straightened by our hands we will use our sword to straighten you!". Hearing this Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
said "Alhamdulillah (Praise be to Allah) I have such followers."[citation needed] In the administrative field Umar
Umar
was the most brilliant among the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs, and it was due to his exemplary administrative qualities that most of the administrative structures of the empire were established.[citation needed] Districts or provinces[edit] Under Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the empire was not clearly divided into provinces, though it had many administrative districts. Under Umar
Umar
the Empire
Empire
was divided into a number of provinces which were as follows:

Arabia was divided into two provinces, Mecca
Mecca
and Medina; Iraq
Iraq
was divided into two provinces, Basra
Basra
and Kufa; the province of Jazira was created in the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates; Syria
Syria
was a province; Palestine was divided in two provinces: Aylya and Ramlah; Egypt
Egypt
was divided into two provinces: Upper Egypt
Egypt
and Lower Egypt; Persia
Persia
was divided into three provinces: Khorasan, Azarbaijan, and Fars.

In his testament Umar
Umar
had instructed his successor not to make any change in the administrative set up for one year after his death. Thus for one year Uthman
Uthman
maintained the pattern of political administration as it stood under Umar, however later he made some amendments. Uthman made Egypt
Egypt
one province and created a new province comprising North Africa. Syria, previously divided into two provinces, also become a single division. During Uthman's reign the empire was divided into twelve provinces. These were:

Medina Mecca Yemen Kufa Basra Jazira Fars Azerbaijan Khorasan Syria Egypt North Africa

During Ali's reign, with the exception of Syria
Syria
(which was under Muawiyah I's control) and Egypt
Egypt
(that he had lost during the latter years of his caliphate to the rebel troops of Amr ibn Al-A'as), the remaining ten provinces were under his control, which kept their administrative organizations as they were under Uthman. The provinces were further divided into districts. Each of the 100 or more districts of the empire, along with the main cities, were administered by a governor (Wāli). Other officers at the provincial level were:

Katib, the Chief Secretary. Katib-ud-Diwan, the Military
Military
Secretary. Sahib-ul-Kharaj, the Revenue
Revenue
Collector. Sahib-ul-Ahdath, the Police chief. Sahib-ul-Bait-ul-Mal, the Treasury
Treasury
Officer. Qadi, the Chief Judge.

In some districts there were separate military officers, though the governor was in most cases the commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province. The officers were appointed by the Caliph. Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of Governors. On assuming office, the Governor
Governor
was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them.[40] Umar's general instructions to his officers were:

Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them.

During the reign of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the state was economically weak, while during Umar’s reign because of increase in revenues and other sources of income, the state was on its way to economic prosperity. Hence Umar
Umar
felt it necessary that the officers be treated in a strict way as to prevent the possible greed for money that may lead them to corruption. During his reign, at the time of appointment, every officer was required to make the oath:

That he would not ride a Turkic horse (which was a symbol of pride). That he would not wear fine clothes. That he would not eat sifted flour. That he would not keep a porter at his door. That he would always keep his door open to the public.

Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
himself followed the above postulates strictly. During the reign of Uthman
Uthman
the state become more economically prosperous than ever before; the allowance of the citizens was increased by 25%, and the economical condition of the ordinary person was more stable, which led Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
to revoke the 2nd and 3rd postulates of the oath. At the time of appointment a complete inventory of all the possessions of the person concerned was prepared and kept in record. If there was an unusual increase in the possessions of the office holder, he was immediately called to account, and the unlawful property was confiscated by the State. The principal officers were required to come to Mecca
Mecca
on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Umar
Umar
made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Provincial governors received as much as five to seven thousand dirhams annually besides their share of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander-in-chief of the army of their sector). Judicial administration[edit] As most of the administrative structure of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Empire
Empire
was set up by Umar, the judicial administration was also established by him and the other Caliphs
Caliphs
followed the same system without any type of basic amendment in it. In order to provide adequate and speedy justice for the people, an effective system of judicial administration was set up, hereunder justice was administered according to the principles of Islam. Qadis (Judges) were appointed at all administrative levels for the administration of justice. The Qadis were chosen for their integrity and learning in Islamic law. High salaries were fixed for the Qadis so that there was no temptation to bribery. Wealthy men and men of high social status were appointed as Qadis so that they might not have the temptation to take bribes, or be influenced by the social position of any body. The Qadis were not allowed to engage in trade. Judges were appointed in sufficient number, and there was no district which did not have a Qadi. Electing or appointing a caliph[edit] The four Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs were chosen through shura (شُـوْرَى), a process of community consultation has been described as a form of "Islamic democracy".[41] Fred Donner, in his book The Early Islamic Conquests (1981), argues that the standard Arabian practice during the early Caliphates was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from amongst themselves, although there was no specified procedure for this shura, or consultative assembly. Candidates were usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader, but they were not necessarily his sons. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual direct heir, as there was no basis in the majority Sunni view that the head of state or governor should be chosen based on lineage alone. This argument is advanced by Sunni Muslims that Muhammad's companion Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was elected by the community, and this was the proper procedure. They further argue that a caliph is ideally chosen by election or community consensus. The caliphate became a hereditary office or the prize of the strongest general after the Rashidun caliphate. However, Sunni Muslims believe this was after the 'rightly guided' caliphate ended ( Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate). Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Al-Baqillani
Al-Baqillani
has said that the leader of the Muslims simply should be from the majority. Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man
Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man
also wrote that the leader must come from the majority.[42] Sunni belief[edit] Following the death of Muhammad, a meeting took place at Saqifah. At that meeting, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was elected caliph by the Muslim
Muslim
community. Sunni Muslims developed the belief that the caliph is a temporal political ruler, appointed to rule within the bounds of Islamic law (The rules of life set by Allah in the Qur'an). The job of adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law was left to Islamic lawyers, judiciary, or specialists individually termed as Mujtahids and collectively named the Ulema. The first four caliphs are called the Rashidun, meaning the Rightly Guided Caliphs, because they are believed to have followed the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the sunnah (example) of Muhammad
Muhammad
in all things. Majlis al-Shura: Parliament[edit] See also: Shura, Majlis, Majlis-ash-Shura, and Islamic democracy Traditional Sunni Islamic lawyers agree that shura, loosely translated as “consultation of the people”, is a function of the caliphate. The Majlis al- Shura
Shura
advise the caliph. The importance of this is premised by the following verses of the Qur'an:

... those who answer the call of their Lord and establish the prayer, and who conduct their affairs by Shura. [are loved by God][42:38]

... consult them (the people) in their affairs. Then when you have taken a decision (from them), put your trust in Allah[3:159]

The majlis is also the means to elect a new caliph. Al-Mawardi has written that members of the majlis should satisfy three conditions: they must be just, they must have enough knowledge to distinguish a good caliph from a bad one, and must have sufficient wisdom and judgment to select the best caliph. Al-Mawardi also said in emergencies when there is no caliphate and no majlis, the people themselves should create a majlis, select a list of candidates for caliph, then the majlis should select from the list of candidates.[42] Some modern interpretations of the role of the Majlis al- Shura
Shura
include those by Islamist author Sayyid Qutb
Sayyid Qutb
and by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, the founder of a transnational political movement devoted to the revival of the Caliphate. In an analysis of the shura chapter of the Qur'an, Qutb argued Islam
Islam
requires only that the ruler consult with at least some of the ruled (usually the elite), within the general context of God-made laws that the ruler must execute. Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, writes that Shura
Shura
is important and part of "the ruling structure" of the Islamic caliphate, "but not one of its pillars," and may be neglected without the Caliphate's rule becoming unislamic. Non-Muslims may serve in the majlis, though they may not vote or serve as an official. Accountability of rulers[edit] Sunni Islamic lawyers have commented on when it is permissible to disobey, impeach or remove rulers in the Caliphate. This is usually when the rulers are not meeting public responsibilities obliged upon them under Islam. Al-Mawardi said that if the rulers meet their Islamic responsibilities to the public, the people must obey their laws, but if they become either unjust or severely ineffective then the Caliph
Caliph
or ruler must be impeached via the Majlis al-Shura. Al-Juwayni argued that Islam
Islam
is the goal of the ummah, so any ruler that deviates from this goal must be impeached. Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
believed that oppression by a caliph is enough for impeachment. Rather than just relying on impeachment, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani obliged rebellion upon the people if the caliph began to act with no regard for Islamic law. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said that to ignore such a situation is haraam, and those who cannot revolt inside the caliphate should launch a struggle from outside. Al-Asqalani used two ayahs from the Qur'an
Qur'an
to justify this:

And they (the sinners on qiyama) will say, "Our Lord! We obeyed our leaders and our chiefs, and they misled us from the right path. Our Lord! Give them (the leaders) double the punishment you give us and curse them with a very great curse"...[33:67–68]

Islamic lawyers commented that when the rulers refuse to step down via successful impeachment through the Majlis, becoming dictators through the support of a corrupt army, if the majority agree they have the option to launch a revolution against them. Many noted that this option is only exercised after factoring in the potential cost of life.[42] Rule of law[edit] See also: Sharia
Sharia
and Islamic ethics The following hadith establishes the principle of rule of law in relation to nepotism and accountability:[43]

Narrated ‘Aisha: The people of Quraish worried about the lady from Bani Makhzum who had committed theft. They asked, "Who will intercede for her with Allah's Apostle?" Some said, "No one dare to do so except Usama bin Zaid the beloved one to Allah's Apostle." When Usama spoke about that to Allah's Apostle Allah's Apostle said: "Do you try to intercede for somebody in a case connected with Allah’s Prescribed Punishments?" Then he got up and delivered a sermon saying, "What destroyed the nations preceding you, was that if a noble amongst them stole, they would forgive him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would inflict Allah's Legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad
Muhammad
(my daughter) stole, I would cut off her hand."

Various Islamic lawyers do however place multiple conditions, and stipulations e.g. the poor cannot be penalised for stealing out of poverty, before executing such a law, making it very difficult to reach such a stage. It is well known during a time of drought in the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate period, capital punishments were suspended until the effects of the drought passed.[44] Islamic jurists later formulated the concept of the rule of law, the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land, where no person is above the law and where officials and private citizens are under a duty to obey the same law. A Qadi
Qadi
(Islamic judge) was also not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, gender, colour, kinship or prejudice. There were also a number of cases where caliphs had to appear before judges as they prepared to take their verdict.[45] According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the legal scholars and jurists who once upheld the rule of law were replaced by a law governed by the state due to the codification of Sharia
Sharia
by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the early 19th century:[46] Economy[edit] During the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
there was an economic boom in the lives of the ordinary people due to the revolutionary economic policies developed by Umar
Umar
( 634-644 CE/AD) and his successor Uthman
Uthman
( 644-656 ). At first it was Umar
Umar
who introduced these reforms on strong bases, his successor Uthman
Uthman
who himself was an intelligent businessman, further reformed them. During Uthman's reign the people of the empire enjoyed a prosperous life. Bait-ul-Maal[edit] Main article: Bayt al-mal Bait-ul-Maal (literally, The house of money) was the department that dealt with the revenues and all other economic matters of the state. In the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
there was no permanent Bait-ul-Mal or public treasury. Whatever revenues or other amounts were received were distributed immediately. There were no salaries to be paid, and there was no state expenditure. Hence the need for the treasury at the public level was not felt. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
( 632-634 ) earmarked a house where all money was kept on receipt. As all money was distributed immediately the treasury generally remained locked up. At the time of the death of Abu Bakr there was only one dirham in the public treasury. Establishment of Bait-ul-Maal[edit] Main article: Bayt al-mal In the time of Umar
Umar
things changed. With the extension in conquests money came in larger quantities, Umar
Umar
also allowed salaries to men fighting in the army. Abu Huraira
Abu Huraira
who was the Governor
Governor
of Bahrain
Bahrain
sent a revenue of five hundred thousand dirhams. Umar
Umar
summoned a meeting of his Consultative Assembly and sought the opinion of the Companions about the disposal of the money. Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan advised that the amount should be kept for future needs. Walid bin Hisham suggested that like the Byzantines separate departments of treasury and accounts should be set up. After consulting the Companions Umar
Umar
decided to establish the central Treasury
Treasury
at Medina. Abdullah bin Arqam was appointed as the Treasury Officer. He was assisted by Abdur Rahman bin Awf
Abdur Rahman bin Awf
and Muiqib. A separate Accounts Department was also set up and it was required to maintain record of all that was spent. Later provincial treasuries were set up in the provinces. After meeting the local expenditure the provincial treasuries were required to remit the surplus amount to the central treasury at Medina. According to Yaqubi the salaries and stipends charged to the central treasury amounted to over 30 million dirhams. A separate building was constructed for the royal treasury by the name bait ul maal, which in large cities was guarded by as many as 400 guards.

The coins were of Persian origin, and had an image of the last Persian emperor. Muslims added the sentence Bismillah to it.

In most of the historical accounts it states that among the Rashidun caliphs Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan was the first to strike coins; some accounts however state that Umar
Umar
was the first to do so. When Persia
Persia
was conquered three types of coins were current in the conquered territories, namely Baghli of eight dang; Tabari of four dang; and Maghribi of three dang. Umar
Umar
(according to some accounts Uthman) made an innovation and struck an Islamic dirham of six dang. Social welfare and pensions were introduced in early Islamic law as forms of zakāt (charity), one of the Five Pillars of Islam, since the time of the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliph Umar
Umar
in the 7th century. The taxes (including zakāt and jizya) collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(Algazel, 1058–1111), the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred. The Caliphate
Caliphate
was thus one of the earliest welfare states.[47][48] Economic resources of the State[edit] The economic resources of the State were:

Zakāt Ushr Jazya Fay Khums Kharaj

Zakat[edit] Main article: Zakat Zakāt (زكاة) is the Islamic concept of luxury tax. It was taken from the Muslims in the amount of 2.5% of their dormant wealth (over a certain amount unused for a year) to give to the poor. Only persons whose annual wealth exceeded a minimum level (nisab) were collected from. The nisab does not include primary residence, primary transportation, moderate amount of woven jewelry, etc. Zakāt is one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Islam
and it is obligation on all Muslims who qualify as wealthy enough. Jizya[edit] Main article: Jizya Jizya
Jizya
or jizyah (جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye). It was a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non- Muslim
Muslim
men of military age since non-Muslims did not have to pay zakāt. The tax was not supposed to be levied on slaves, women, children, monks, the old, the sick,[49] hermits and the poor.[50] It is important to note that not only were some non-Muslims exempt (such as sick, old), they were also given stipends by the state when they were in need.[50] Fay[edit] Fay was the income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a land with any natural mineral reserves. Khums[edit] Main article: Khums Ghanimah or Khums
Khums
was the booty captured on the occasion of war with the enemy. Four-fifths of the booty was distributed among the soldiers taking part in the war while one-fifth was credited to the state fund. Kharaj[edit] Main article: Kharaj Kharaj
Kharaj
was a tax on agricultural land. Initially, after the first Muslim
Muslim
conquests in the 7th century, kharaj usually denoted a lump-sum duty levied upon the conquered provinces and collected by the officials of the former Byzantine
Byzantine
and Sasanian empires, or, more broadly, any kind of tax levied by Muslim
Muslim
conquerors on their non- Muslim
Muslim
subjects, dhimmis. At that time, kharaj was synonymous with jizyah, which later emerged as a poll tax paid by dhimmis. Muslim
Muslim
landowners, on the other hand, paid only ushr, a religious tithe, which carried a much lower rate of taxation.[51] Ushr[edit] Ushr was a reciprocal 10% levy on agricultural land as well as merchandise imported from states that taxed the Muslims on their products. Umar
Umar
was the first Muslim
Muslim
ruler to levy ushr. When the Muslim
Muslim
traders went to foreign lands for the purposes of trade they had to pay a 10% tax to the foreign states. Ushr was levied on reciprocal basis on the goods of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim
Muslim
dominions. Umar
Umar
issued instructions that ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship, that it will not affect the trade activities in the Islamic empire. The tax was levied on merchandise meant for sale. Goods imported for consumption or personal use but not for sale were not taxed. The merchandise valued at 200 dirhams or less was not taxed. When the citizens of the State imported goods for the purposes of trade, they had to pay the customs duty or import tax at lower rates. In the case of the dhimmis the rate was 5% and in the case of the Muslims' 2.5%. In the case of the Muslims the rate was the same as that of zakāt. The levy was thus regarded as a part of zakāt and was not considered a separate tax. Allowance[edit] Beginning of the allowance[edit] After the Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
and Battle of al-Qadisiyyah
Battle of al-Qadisiyyah
the Muslims won heavy spoils. The coffers at Medina
Medina
became full to the brim and the problem before Umar
Umar
was what should be done with this money. Someone suggested that money should be kept in the treasury for the purposes of public expenditure only. This view was not acceptable to the general body of the Muslims. Consensus was reached on the point that whatever was received during a year should be distributed. The next question that arose for consideration was what system should be adopted for distribution. One suggestion was that it should be distributed on an ad hoc basis and whatever was received should be equally distributed. Against this view it was felt that as the spoils were considerable, that would make the people very rich. It was therefore decided that instead of ad hoc division the amount of the allowance to the stipend should be determined beforehand and this allowance should be paid to the person concerned regardless of the amount of the spoils. This was agreed to. About the fixation of the allowance there were two opinions. There were some who held that the amount of the allowance for all Muslims should be the same. Umar
Umar
did not agree with this view. He held that the allowance should be graded according to one's merit with reference to Islam. Then the question arose as to what basis should be used for placing some above others. Suggested that a start should be made with the Caliph
Caliph
and he should get the highest allowance. Umar
Umar
rejected the proposal and decided to start with the clan of Muhammad. Umar
Umar
set up a committee to compile a list of persons in nearness to Muhammad. The committee produced the list clan-wise. Bani Hashim appeared as the first clan. Then the clan of Abu Bakr, and in third place the clan of Umar. Umar
Umar
accepted the first two placements but delegated his clan lower down on the scale with reference to nearness in relationship to Muhammad. In the final scale of allowance that was approved by Umar
Umar
the main provisions were:[citation needed]

The widows of Muhammad
Muhammad
received 12,000 dirhams each; `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, the uncle of Muhammad
Muhammad
received an annual allowance of 7000 dirhams; The grandsons of Muhammad, Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
and Hussain ibn Ali
Ali
got 5000 dirhams each; The veterans of the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
got an allowance of 6000 dirhams each; Those who had become Muslims by the time of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah got 4000 dirhams each; Those who became Muslims at the time of the Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
got 3000 dirhams each; The veterans of the Apostasy
Apostasy
wars got 3000 dirhams each. The veterans of the Battle of Yarmouk
Battle of Yarmouk
and the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah got 2000 dirhams each.

In this award Umar's son Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
got an allowance of 3000 dirhams. On the other hand, Usama ibn Zaid got 4000. The ordinary Muslim
Muslim
citizens got allowances of between 2000 and 2500. The regular annual allowance was given only to the urban population, because they formed the backbone of the state's economic resources . The Bedouin living in the desert, cut off from the states affairs making no contributions in the developments were often given stipends. On assuming office, Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan increased these stipends by 25%.[citation needed] Evaluation[edit] That was an economic measure which contributed to the prosperity of the people at lot. The citizens of the Islamic empire became increasingly prosperous as trade activities increased. In turn, they contributed to the department of bait al maal and more and more revenues were collected. Welfare works[edit] The mosques were not mere places for offering prayers; these were community centers as well where the faithful gathered to discuss problems of social and cultural importance. During the caliphate of Umar
Umar
as many as four thousand mosques were constructed extending from Persia
Persia
in the east to Egypt
Egypt
in the west. Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
and Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
were enlarged first during the reign of Umar
Umar
and then during the reign of Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan who not only extended them to many thousand square meters but also beautified them on a large scale. During the caliphate of Umar
Umar
many new cities were founded. These included Kufa, Basra, and Fustat. These cities were laid in according with the principles of town planning. All streets in these cities led to the Friday mosque
Friday mosque
which was sited in the center of the city. Markets were established at convenient points, which were under the control of market officers who was supposed to check the affairs of market and quality of goods. The cities were divided into quarters, and each quarter was reserved for particular tribes. During the reign of Caliph
Caliph
Umar, there were restrictions on the building of palatial buildings by the rich and elites, this was symbolic of the egalitarian society of Islam, where all were equal, although the restrictions were later revoked by Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
because of the financial prosperity of ordinary men, and the construction of double story building was permitted. As a result, many palatial buildings were constructed throughout the empire with Uthman
Uthman
himself building a huge palace in Medina
Medina
which was famous and, named Al-Zawar; he constructed it from his personal resources. Many buildings were built for administrative purposes. In the quarters called Dar-ul-Amarat government offices and houses for the residence of officers were provided. Buildings known as Diwans were constructed for the keeping of official records. Buildings known as Bait-ul-Mal were constructed to house royal treasuries. For the lodging of persons suffering sentences as punishment, Jails were constructed for the first time in Muslim
Muslim
history. In important cities Guest Houses were constructed to serve as rest houses for traders and merchants coming from far away places. Roads and bridges were constructed for public use. On the road from Medina
Medina
to Mecca, shelters, wells, and meal houses were constructed at every stage for the ease of the people who came for hajj. Military
Military
cantonments were constructed at strategic points. Special stables were provided for cavalry. These stables could accommodate as many as 4,000 horses. Special
Special
pasture grounds were provided and maintained for Bait-ul-Mal animals. Canals were dug to irrigate fields as well as provide drinking water for the people. Abu Musa canal (after the name of governor of Basra Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari) was a nine-mile (14 km) long canal which brought water from the Tigris
Tigris
to Basra. Another canal known as Maqal canal was also dug from the Tigris. A canal known as the Amir al-Mu'minin canal (after the title Amir al-Mu'minin that was ordered by Caliph
Caliph
Umar) was dug to join the Nile
Nile
to the Red Sea. During the famine of 639 food grains were brought from Egypt
Egypt
to Arabia through this canal from the sea which saved the lives of millions of inhabitants of Arabia. Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
canal (after the name of governor of Kufa
Kufa
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas) dug from the Euphrates
Euphrates
brought water to Anbar. 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
the governor of Egypt, during the reign of Caliph
Caliph
Umar, even proposed the digging of a canal to join the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to the Red Sea. This proposal, however, did not materialize due to unknown reasons, and it was 1200 years later that such a canal was dug, today's Suez Canal. Shuaibia was the port for Mecca. but it was inconvenient, so Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
selected Jeddah
Jeddah
as the site of the new seaport, and a new port was built there. Uthman also reformed the city's police departments. Military[edit] Main article: Rashidun
Rashidun
Army

" Rashidun
Rashidun
elite soldier"[citation needed] equipped for infantry warfare. He wears an iron-bronze helmet, a hauberk and lamellar leather armour. His sword is hung from a baldric, and he carries a leather shield.

The Rashidun
Rashidun
army was the primary military body of the Islamic armed forces of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun
Rashidun
navy. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army maintained a very high level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization, along with motivation and self initiative of the officer corps. For much of its history this army was one of the most powerful and effective military forces in all of the region. At the height of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
the maximum size of the army was around 100,000 troops.[52] The Rashidun
Rashidun
army was divided into the two basic categories, infantry and light cavalry. Reconstructing the military equipment of early Muslim
Muslim
armies is problematic. Compared with Roman armies or later medieval Muslim
Muslim
armies, the range of visual representation is very small, often imprecise and difficult to date. Physically very little material evidence has survived and again, much of it is difficult to date.[53] The soldiers used to wear iron and bronze segmented helmets that came from Iraq
Iraq
and were of Central Asian type.[54] The standard form of protective body armor was chainmail. There are also references to the practice of wearing two coats of mail (dir’ayn), the one under the main one being shorter or even made of fabric or leather. Hauberks and large wooden or wickerwork shields were used as a protection in combat.[53] The soldiers were usually equipped with swords that were hung in a baldric. They also possessed spears and daggers.[55][page needed] Umar
Umar
was the first Muslim ruler to organize the army as a state department. This reform was introduced in 637. A beginning was made with the Quraish and the Ansar and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia and to Muslims of conquered lands. The basic strategy of early Muslim
Muslim
armies sent out to conquer foreign lands was to exploit every possible weakness of the enemy army in order to achieve victory. Their key strength was mobility. The cavalry had both horses and camels. The camels were used as both transport and food for long marches through the desert (Khalid bin Walid’s extraordinary march from the Persian border to Damascus
Damascus
utilized camels as both food and transport). The cavalry was the army’s main striking force and also served as a strategic mobile reserve. The common tactic was to use the infantry and archers to engage and maintain contact with the enemy forces while the cavalry was held back till the enemy was fully engaged. Once fully engaged the enemy reserves were absorbed by the infantry and archers, and the Muslim
Muslim
cavalry was used as pincers (like modern tank and mechanized divisions) to attack the enemy from the sides or to attack enemy base camps. The Rashidun
Rashidun
army was, in quality and strength, below standard compared with the Sasanian and Byzantine armies. Khalid ibn Walid
Khalid ibn Walid
was the first general of the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
to conquer foreign lands and to trigger the wholesale deposition of the two most powerful empires. During his campaign against the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
( Iraq
Iraq
633 - 634) and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire ( Syria
Syria
634 - 638) Khalid developed brilliant tactics that he used effectively against both the Sasanian and Byzantine
Byzantine
armies. Abu Bakr's strategy was to give his generals their mission, the geographical area in which that mission would be carried out, and the resources that could be made available for that purpose. He would then leave it to his generals to accomplish their missions in whatever manner they chose. On the other hand, Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
in the latter part of his Caliphate
Caliphate
used to direct his generals as to where to stay and when to move to the next target and who was to command the left and right wing of the army in each particular battle. This made the phase of conquest comparatively slower but provided well-organized campaigns. Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
used the same method as Abu Bakr: he would give missions to his generals and then leave it to them how they should accomplish it. Caliph
Caliph
Ali
Ali
also followed the same method.

List of Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs[edit]

Period Caliph Calligraphic Relationship with Muhammad Parents House Notes

8 June 632 – 22 August 634 Abū Bakr (أبو بكر) 'Abdullah Șaḥābī Aṣ-Ṣiddīq

Father of Aisha, Muhammad's wife

' Uthman
Uthman
Abu Quhafa, ṣaḥābī Salma Umm-ul-Khair, ṣaḥābīyah

Banu Taim

Commonly known as Aṣ-Ṣiddīq (الصديق, "The Truthful") Reigned until his death[26][27]

23 August 634 – 3 November 644 ' Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab (عمر بن الخطاب) Șaḥābī Al-Farooq Amir al-Mu'minin

Father of Hafsa, Muhammad's wife

Khattab ibn Nufayl Hantamah bint Hisyam

Banu Adi

Also known with his epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes between right and wrong") Assassinated by Persians in response to the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Persia[26][27]

11 November 644 – 20 June 656 ' Uthman
Uthman
ibn 'Affan (عثمان بن عفان) Șaḥābī Dhun Nurayn Amir al-Mu'minin

Husband of Muhammad's daughters, Ruqayya and later Umm Kulthum. Muhammad's Second cousin.

'Affan ibn Abi al-'As Arwa bint Kurayz, ṣaḥābīyah

Banu Ummaya

Also known as Dhun-Nurayn (Possessor of Two Lights) because he married two Muhammad's daughters Assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house[26][27]

20 June 656 – 29 January 661 ' Ali
Ali
ibn Abi-Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) Șaḥābī Amir al-Mu'minin

Muhammad's first cousin Husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah Husband of Umamah bint Zainab, Muhammad's granddaughter

Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad, ṣaḥābīyah

Banu Hashim

Also known as First Imam of Shia Assassinated during Fajr prayer in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufah[26][27]

See also[edit]

Historical Arab states and dynasties

Ancient Arab States

Kingdom of Saba 1200 BC–275 AD

Kingdom of Awsan 800 BC–500 BC

Kingdom of Ma'in 800 BC–100 BC

Kingdom of Qedar 800 BC–300 BC

Kingdom of Lihyan 600 BC–100 BC

Kingdom of Qataban 400 BC–200 AD

Nabataean Kingdom 400 BC–106 AD

Kingdom of Kindah 200 BC–633 AD

Kingdom of Himyar 200 BC–525 AD

Kingdom of Osroene 132 BC–244 AD

Kingdom of Characene 127 BC–221 AD

Royal family of Emesa 64 BC–300s AD

Kingdom of Araba 100s–241 AD

Ghassanid kingdom 220–638 AD

Lakhmid Kingdom 300–602 AD

Arab Empires

Rashidun 632–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–1258

Fatimids 909–1171

Eastern Dynasties

Emirate of Crete 824–961

Dulafids 840–897

Kaysites 860–964

Shirvanshah 861-1538

Alavids 864–928

Hamdanids 890–1004

Rawadids 955–1071

Jarrahids 970–1107

Uqaylids 990–1096

Numayrids 990–1081

Mirdasids 1024–1080

Muzaffarids 1314–1393

Ma'anids 1517–1697

Shihabid 1697–1842

Al-Azm family 1720–1807

Western Dynasties

Emirate of Córdoba 756–929

Muhallabids 771–793

Idrisids 788–974

Aghlabids 800–909

Emirate of Sicily 831–1091

Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba 929–1031

Kanzids 1004–1412

Tujibids 1013–1039

Abbadids 1023–1091

Hammudids 1026–1057

Jawharids 1031–1091

Hudids 1039–1110

Sumadihids 1041–1091

Nasrids 1230–1492

Saadis 1554–1659

Senussids 1837–1969

Arabian Peninsula

Ziyadids 819–1138

Yufirids 847–997

Ukhaidhirds 865–1066

Rassids 897–1962

Qarmatians 899–1077

Wajihids 926–965

Sharifate of Mecca 968–1925

Sulayhids 1047–1138

Sulaymanids 1063–1174

Uyunids 1076–1253

Zurayids 1083–1174

Nabhanids 1154–1624

Mahdids 1159–1174

Rasulids 1229–1454

Usfurids 1253–1320

Jarwanids 1305–1487

Kathirids 1395–1967

Tahirids 1454–1526

Jabrids 1463–1521

Qasimids 1597–1872

Ya'arubids 1624–1742

Upper Yafa 1800–1967

Rashidids 1836–1921

Qu'aitids 1858–1967

Emirate of Beihan 1903–1967

Idrisids 1906–1934

Mutawakkilite Kingdom 1926–1970

Current monarchies

Alaouites (Morocco) 1631–present

Al Qasimi
Al Qasimi
(Ras al Khaymah) 1727–present

Al Qasimi
Al Qasimi
(Sharjah) 1727–present

Al Saud (Saudi Arabia) 1744–present

Al Said
Al Said
(Oman) 1749–present

Al Sabah (Kuwait) 1752–present

Al Nahyan (Abu Dhabi) 1761–present

Al Nuaim (Ajman ) 1810–present

Al Mu'alla (Umm al-Quwain) 1775–present

Al Khalifa (Bahrain) 1783–present

Al Thani (Qatar) 1825–present

Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
(Dubai) 1833–present

Al Sharqi
Al Sharqi
(Fujairah) 1833–present

Hashemites
Hashemites
(Jordan) 1921–present

v t e

Book: Muslim
Muslim
conquests

Talut The Four Companions The Ten Promised Paradise Islamic Golden Age Timeline of Medina

References[edit]

^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 495. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 15 September 2016.  ^ Sowerwine, James E. (May 2010). Caliph
Caliph
and Caliphate: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 5. ISBN 9780199806003.  ^ Modern reformist thought in the Muslim
Muslim
world. By Mazheruddin Siddiqi, Adam Publishers & Distributors, p. 147 ^ Ochsenweld, William; Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2004). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-244233-6.  ^ Hinds, Martin (October 1972). "The Murder of the Caliph
Caliph
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Muslim
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"Chapter 19: The Battle of Chains". p. 1. Archived from the original on Jan 26, 2002.  "Chapter 20: The Battle of the River". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06.  "Chapter 21: The Hell of Walaja". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06.  "Chapter 22: The River of Blood". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-08-22.  "Chapter 23: The Conquest of Hira". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06.  "Chapter 24: Anbar and Ain-ut-Tamr". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06.  "Chapter 25: Daumat-ul-Jandal Again". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06.  "Chapter 26: The Last Opposition". p. 1. Archived from the original on 2002-03-06. 

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Sources[edit]

Charles, Robert H. (2007) [1916]. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text. Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. 

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