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The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam
Islam
to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, and Ali
Ali
of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the later Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
based in Baghdad. It is a reference to the Sunni imperative "Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood).[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Abu Bakr 1.2 Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab 1.3 Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan 1.4 Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

2 Military expansion 3 Social policies

3.1 Civil activities 3.2 Settlements

4 Muslim views

4.1 Sunni perspectives 4.2 Shi'ite tradition

5 Timeline 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

History[edit]

The names of the first four caliphs inscribed at the dome of Yeni Mosque
Mosque
in Eminönü, Istanbul. Construction was begun during the regency of Safiye Sultan
Safiye Sultan
and completed by Turhan Hatice Valide Sultan, the mother of Sultan Mehmed IV.

The first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
are often described as the "Khulafāʾ Rāshidūn". The Rashidun
Rashidun
were either elected by a council (see the election of Uthman
Uthman
and Islamic democracy) or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the Rāshidūn were:[2][3]

Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(632–634 CE). Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab, ( Umar
Umar
І, 634–644 CE) – Umar
Umar
is often spelled Omar in some Western scholarship. Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan (644–656 CE) – Uthman
Uthman
is often spelled Othman (or Osman) in some non-Arabic scholarship. Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib (656–661 CE) – During this period however, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan
Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan
(Muawiyah I) controlled the Levant
Levant
and Egypt regions independently of Ali.

In addition to this, there are several views regarding additional rashidun:

Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, who was the eldest son of Fatimah
Fatimah
the daughter of Muhammad, briefly succeeded his father Ali
Ali
as caliph in 661 CE and is recognized by several historians as part of the Rashidun.[4] Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
abdicated his right to the caliphate in favour of Muawiyah I in order to end the potential for ruinous civil war.[2][3] ` Umar
Umar
ibn `Abdul-`Aziz, who was one of the Umayyad caliphs, has often been regarded by Sunni historians as one of the Rashidun, as quoted by Taftazani. More rarely, the Ottoman caliph Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed II) is also sometimes regarded to be among the rightly guided caliphs. In the Ibadi
Ibadi
tradition however, only the first two caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar
Umar
are considered to be the "Two Rightly Guided Caliphs". Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani also includes the Abbassid
Abbassid
caliphs, including Harun al-Rashid, in his enumeration.

Abu Bakr[edit] Main article: Abu Bakr Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(Abdullah ibn Abi Qahafa, (Arabic: عبد الله ابن أبي قحافة‎, translit. `Abdullāh bin Abī Quhāfah), c. 573 CE unknown exact date 634/13 AH) was a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death.[5] As caliph, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad, since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad's death according to Islam. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was called As-Siddiq (Arabic: اَلـصِّـدِّيْـق‎, "The Truthful"),[6] and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims. He prevented the recently converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, and consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda, while extending the Dar Al Islam
Islam
all the way to the Red Sea. Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab[edit] Main article: Umar

Umar

Family

Family tree of Umar Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Ali
(Wife) Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
(son) Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
(Daughter)

Asim ibn Umar
Umar
(son)

Views

Sunni view of Umar Ten Promised Paradise Shi'a view of Umar

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Succession to Muhammad Succession to Abu Bakr Military conquests Reforms (Pact of Umar)

Category Islam
Islam
portal

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Umar
Umar
(Arabic: عمر ابن الخطاب‎, translit. ` Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattāb, c. 586–590 – 644[6]:685) c. 2 Nov. ( Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
26, 23 Hijri[7]) was a leading companion and adviser to Muhammad. His daughter Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
was married to Muhammad
Muhammad
thus he became Muhammad's father-in-law. He became the second Muslim caliph after Muhammad's death and ruled for 10 years.[8] He succeeded Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
on 23 August 634 as the second caliph, and played a significant role in Islam. Under Umar
Umar
the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.[9] His legislative abilities, his firm political and administrative control over a rapidly expanding empire and his brilliantly coordinated multi-prong attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire that resulted in the conquest of the Persian empire in less than two years, marked his reputation as a great political and military leader. Among his conquests are Jerusalem, Damascus, and Egypt.[10] He was killed by a Persian captive. Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan[edit] Main article: Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan

Uthman The Generous – (Al Ghani)

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Family tree of Uthman The election Siege of Uthman Uthman
Uthman
Quran Military campaigns under Caliph
Caliph
Uthman

Category Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

` Uthman
Uthman
(Arabic: عثمان ابن عفان‎, translit. `Uthmān ibn `Affān) (c. 579 – 17 July 656) was one of the companions and son in law of Muhammad.Two of Muhammad's daughters Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
Muhammad
and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
Muhammad
was married to him one after another. Uthman
Uthman
was born into the Umayyad clan of Mecca, a powerful family of the Quraysh tribe. He became caliph at the age of 70. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran) in 650 and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651, and the conquest of Armenia
Armenia
was begun in the 640s.[11] His rule ended when he was assassinated. Uthman
Uthman
is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Quran
Quran
as it exists today,[12] based on text that had been gathered separately on parchment, bones and rocks during the lifetime of Muhammad
Muhammad
and also on a copy of the Quran
Quran
that had been collated by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and left with Muhammad's widow after Abu Bakr's death. The committee members were also reciters of the Quran
Quran
and had memorised the entire text during the lifetime of Muhammad. This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam
Islam
under Uthman's rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages. This had led to variant readings of the Quran
Quran
for those converts who were not familiar with the language. After clarifying any possible errors in pronunciation or dialects, Uthman
Uthman
sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, and destroyed variant texts.[13] Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib[edit] Main articles: Ali
Ali
as Caliph
Caliph
and First Fitna

Part of a series on

Ali

Views

Sunni view of Ali Shi'a view of Ali

Life

Marital life Birthplace First Fitna Assassination Timeline of Ali's life Alids Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm

Legacy

Nahj al-Balagha Al-Ghadir Qalam-e-Mowla Zulfiqar Imam Ali
Ali
Mosque Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim

Perspectives

Military career of Ali Ali
Ali
as Caliph The Fourteen Infallibles Imam (The Twelve Imams) Ali
Ali
in the Qur'an

Related articles

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
( Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph) Succession to Muhammad

Category Islam
Islam
portal

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Ali
Ali
(Arabic: علي ابن أبي طالب‎, translit. `Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib) was a cousin of Muhammad. He was the second companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
after Khadijah to accept Islam. He was only 10 years old at the time of his conversion. At the age of 21, he married Fatimah, Muhammed's youngest daughter by Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and became a son-in-law of Muhammed. He had three sons (Hasan, Husayn, and Muhsin) and two daughters (Umm Kulthum and Zaynab) with Fatimah. He was a scribe of the Quran, who kept a written copy of it, and memorized its verses as soon as they were revealed. During the Khilafat (Arabic: خِـلَافَـة‎, Caliphate) of Uthman, Umar and Abu Bakr, he was part of the Majlis ash-Shura (Arabic: مَـجْـلِـس الـشُّـوْرَى‎) and took care of Medina
Medina
in their absence.[citation needed] After the death of Uthman, Medina
Medina
was in political chaos for a number of days. After four days, when the rebels who assassinated Uthman
Uthman
felt that it was necessary that a new Khalifa should be elected before they left Medina, Many of the companions approached Ali
Ali
to take the role of caliph, which he refused to do initially.[citation needed] The rebels then offered Khilafat to Talha
Talha
and Zubair, who also refused. The Ansars also declined their offer to choose a new Khalifah. Thus, the rebels threatened to take drastic measures if a new Khalifah was not chosen within 24 hours. To resolve the issue, all Muslim leaders gathered at the mosque of the Prophet. They all agreed that the best person who fit all the qualities of a Caliph
Caliph
was Ali. Therefore, Ali was persuaded into taking the post. Talha
Talha
and Zubair and some others then performed Bayʿah (Arabic: بَـيْـعَـة‎, Oath of allegiance, literally a "sale" or "commercial transaction") at Ali's hand, followed by a general Bayʿah on 25th of Dhil-Hijjah, 656 CE. After his appointment as caliph, Ali
Ali
dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as Malik al-Ashtar. Ali
Ali
then transferred his capital from Medina
Medina
to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in what is now Iraq. The capital of the province of Syria, that is Damascus, was governed by Mu'awiyah, who was a kinsman of Uthman, Ali's slain predecessor.[14] His caliphate coincided with the First Fitna
First Fitna
(civil war when Muslims were divided over who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate).[15] and which was ended, on the whole, by Mu'awiyah's assumption of the caliphate. Ali
Ali
was assassinated, and died on the 21st of Ramadan in the city of Kufa
Kufa
(Iraq) in 661 CE by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite
Kharijite
who was later pardoned and left by Ali's son and successor, Hasan, according to Ali's will.[2][3] Military expansion[edit] Main article: Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
§ Military expansion Further information: Arab–Byzantine wars The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
greatly expanded Islam
Islam
beyond Arabia, conquering all of Persia, besides Syria (637), Armenia
Armenia
(639), Egypt (639) and Cyprus (654). Social policies[edit] During his reign, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
established the Bayt al-Mal (state treasury). Umar
Umar
expanded the treasury and established a government building to administer the state finances.[16] Upon conquest, in almost all cases, the caliphs were burdened with the maintenance and construction of roads and bridges in return for the conquered nation's political loyalty.[17] Civil activities[edit] Civil welfare in Islam
Islam
started in the form of the construction and purchase of wells. During the caliphate, the Muslims repaired many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered.[18] In addition to wells, the Muslims built many tanks and canals. Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks (such as a spring purchased by Talhah), and the needy, most canals were open to general public use. Some canals were constructed between settlements, such as the Saad canal that provided water to Anbar, and the Abi Musa Canal
Canal
to provide water to Basra.[19] During a famine, Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab ordered the construction of a canal in Egypt
Egypt
connecting the Nile
Nile
with the sea. The purpose of the canal was to facilitate the transport of grain to Arabia through a sea-route, hitherto transported only by land. The canal was constructed within a year by 'Amr ibn al-'As, and Abdus Salam Nadiv writes that "Arabia was rid of famine for all the times to come."[20] After four floods hit Mecca
Mecca
after Muhammad's death, Umar
Umar
ordered the construction of two dams to protect the Kaaba. He also constructed a dam near Medina
Medina
to protect its fountains from flooding.[17] Settlements[edit] The area of Basra
Basra
was very sparsely populated when it was conquered by the Muslims. During the reign of Umar, the Muslim army found it a suitable place to construct a base. Later the area was settled and a mosque was erected.[21][22][23] Upon the conquest of Madyan, it was settled by Muslims. However, soon the environment was considered harsh, and Umar
Umar
ordered the resettlement of the 40,000 settlers to Kufa. The new buildings were constructed from mud bricks instead of reeds, a material that was popular in the region, but caught fire easily. During the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
the area of Fustat
Fustat
was used by the Muslim army as a base. Upon the conquest of Alexandria, the Muslims returned and settled in the same area. Initially the land was primarily used for pasture, but later buildings were constructed.[24] Other already populated areas were greatly expanded. At Mosul, Arfaja al-Bariqi, at the command of Umar, constructed a fort, a few churches, a mosque and a locality for the Jewish population.[25] Muslim views[edit] The first four caliphs are particularly significant to modern intra-Islamic debates: for Sunni Muslims, they are models of righteous rule; for Shia Muslims, the first three of the four were usurpers. It is prudent to note here that accepted traditions of both Sunni and Shia Muslims detail disagreements and tensions between the four rightly guided caliphs.[citation needed] Sunni perspectives[edit] They were called the "Rightly-Guided" because they have been seen as model Muslim leaders by Sunni Muslims. This terminology came into a general use around the world, since Sunni Islam
Islam
has been the dominant Islamic tradition, and for a long time it has been considered the most authoritative source of information about Islam
Islam
in the Western world.[citation needed] They were all close companions of Muhammad, and his relatives: the daughters of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
Aisha
Aisha
and Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
respectively were married to Muhammad, and three of Muhammad's daughters[citation needed] Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
Muhammad
, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
Muhammad
were married to Uthman
Uthman
and Fatimah
Fatimah
to Ali. Likewise, their succession was not hereditary, something that would become the custom after them, beginning with the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate. Council decision or caliph's choice determined the successor originally. Sunnis have long viewed the period of the Rashidun
Rashidun
as exemplary and a system of governance—based upon Islamic righteousness and merit—they seek to emulate. Sunnis also equate this system with the worldly success that was promised by Allah, in the Quran
Quran
and hadith, to those Muslims who pursued His pleasure; this spectacular success has further added to the emulatory appeal of the Rashidun era.[26][27][28] Shi'ite tradition[edit] According to Shi'ite Islam, the first caliph should have been Ali, followed by other Shi'ite Imams, like his sons Hasan and Husayn. Shi'te Muslims support this claim with ahadith like those of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic: غَـدِيْـر خُـمّ‎ Pond of Khumm), his relationship to Muhammad
Muhammad
being similar to that between Hārūn (Arabic: هَـارُوْن‎, Aaron) and Mūsā (Arabic: مُـوْسَى‎, Moses). Timeline[edit] Note that a caliph's succession does not necessarily occur on the first day of the new year.

See also[edit]

Hadith
Hadith
of the ten promised paradise The Four Companions

Notes[edit]

^ admin@inter-islam.org. "Taraweeh: 8 or 20?". Inter-islam.org. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  ^ a b c شبارو, عصام محمد (1995). First Islamic Arab State (1 – 41 AH/ 623 – 661 CE). 3. Arab Renaissance House – Beirut, Lebanon. p. 370.  ^ a b c Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  ^ "The Four Caliphs – SHAYKH AL ISLAM". Islam786.org. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  ^ " Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
- Muslim caliph".  ^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, "Encyclopedia of Islam", Infobase Publishing, 2009 ^ Ibn Kathir, "al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah", part 7. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer, Islam
Islam
in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
to the First World War, American Institute of Islamic History and Cul, 2001, p. 34. ISBN 0-7388-5963-X. ^ Hourani, p. 23. ^ "The Caliphate". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  ^ Ochsenweld, William; Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2004). The Middle East: a history (sixth ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-244233-6.  ^ "Hisorical Quranic Menuscript attributed to Hazrat Usman Ibn Afffan - Australian Islamic Library". Australian Islamic Library. Retrieved 2016-05-07.  ^ https://archive.org/download/MaarifulQuran/Introduction.pdf ^ Shi'a: ' Ali
Ali
Archived 2008-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ref:

Lapidus (2002), p. 47 Holt (1977a), pp. 70–72 Tabatabaei (1979), pp.50–57

^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 411 ^ a b Nadvi (2000), pg. 408 ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 403-4 ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 405-6 ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 407-8 ^ Netton, Ian Richard (2013-12-19). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Routledge. ISBN 9781135179601.  ^ Fidai, Rafi Ahmad; Shaikh, N. M. (2002-01-01). THE COMPANION OF THE HOLY PROPHET. Adam Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788174352231.  ^ Bennison, Amira K. (2011-07-30). The Great Caliphs: The Golden Age of the 'Abbasid Empire. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857720269.  ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 416-7 ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 418 ^ Jeffry R. Halverson (27 Apr 2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 69. ISBN 9780230106581.  ^ Didier Fassin (31 Dec 2014). A Companion to Moral Anthropology (reprint ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 235. ISBN 9781118959503.  ^ Cristoffel A. O. van Nieuwenhuijze (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. BRILL. p. 28. ISBN 9789004106727. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs at Wikimedia Commons Rashidun
Rashidun
- Encyclopaedia Britannica

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