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RASHīD AḥMAD IBN HIDāYAT AḥMAD AYYūBī ANṣāRī GANGOHī (1826 – 1905) was an Indian Deobandi
Deobandi
Islamic scholar , a leading figure of the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement , a Hanafi jurist and scholar of hadith .

Along with Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi he was a pupil of Mamluk Ali. Both studied the books of hadith under Shah Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi and later became Sufi disciples of Haji Imdadullah
Haji Imdadullah
. His lectures on Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
and Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami` at-Tirmidhi
were recorded by his student Muhammad
Muhammad
Yahya Kandhlawi, later edited, arranged, and commented on by Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi , and published as Lami` ad-Darari `ala Jami` al-Bukhari and al-Kawkab ad-Durri `ala Jami` at-Tirmidhi.

CONTENTS

* 1 Controversies * 2 Name * 3 Biography * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

CONTROVERSIES

In his book of verdicts the Fatawa e Rashidiya, Rashid mentioned many controversial verdicts that created opposition to him and even being declared as an infidel by Ahmed Raza Khan .

For example, when asked about permissibility of eating crow in the Islamic legislation he said that it is not just permissible but indeed an act of reward. At another instance he added that the title solely used for Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
in Islam
Islam
as "Rehmatul lil Aalimeen" translated as : Mercy for the universe can be used for anyone else also including the common followers.

NAME

Name

Name

In Tazkiratur Rashid his name and nasab is given as follows: Maulānā Rashīd Aḥmad ibn Maulānā Hidāyat Aḥmad ibn Qāẓī Pīr Bak͟hsh ibn Qāẓī G͟hulām Ḥasan ibn Qāẓī G͟hulām ‘Alī ibn Qāẓī ‘Alī Akbar ibn Qāẓī Muḥammad Aslam al-Anṣārī al-Ayyūbī. In the biographical work Nuzhat al-Khawatir he is mentioned with the nisbats "al-Anṣārī, al-Ḥanafī, ar-Rāmpūrī then al-Gangohī". In the introduction to al-Kawkab ad-Durri he is mentioned as "Mawlānā Abī Mas‘ūd Rashīd Aḥmad al-Anṣārī al-Ayyūbī al-Kankawhī al-Ḥanafī al-Jishtī an-Naqshbandī al-Qādirī as-Suhrawardī".

His given name was Rashid Ahmad; Abu Masud was his kunya . His heritage can be traced back to a famous companion of the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, namely Ayub Ansari (who died in 674). Ayub Ansari had hosted the prophet in his home in Medina
Medina
city, when he made hegira (migration) to Medina
Medina
city in 622.

BIOGRAPHY

Rashid Ahmad was born on Monday, 6 Dhu al-Qi'dah 1244 AH (1826 AD) in Gangoh
Gangoh
, Saharanpur District
Saharanpur District
, British India
British India
(in present-day Uttar Pradesh , India
India
). He was born in the mahallah of Sarai, close to the tomb of Abdul Quddus Gangohi . Both his father Maulana Hidayat Ahmad and his mother Karimun Nisa belonged to Ansari Ayyubi families, claiming descent from Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
. His ancestral village was Rampur , but his grandfather Qazi
Qazi
Pir Bakhsh had settled in Gangoh.

Hidayat Ahmad was an Islamic scholar connected to the Waliullahi tradition, and in tasawwuf (Sufism) an authorized khalifah (successor) of Shah Ghulam Ali Mujaddidi Dihlawi . He died in 1252 AH (1836) at the age of 35, when Rashid was seven. A few years later Rashid's younger brother Sa'id Ahmad also died, at the age of nine.

After the death of Hidayat Ahmad the responsibility for Rashid's upbringing fell to his grandfather Qazi
Qazi
Pir Bakhsh. He also had four maternal uncles: Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Naqi, Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi, Maulana Abdul Ghani, and Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Shafi. He was especially close to Abdul Ghani, who took on a fatherly role for him. He also had a close friendship with his younger cousin, Abun Nasr, son of Abdul Ghani's.

Rashid Ahmad received his elementary education from a local teacher, Miyanji Qutb Bakhsh Gangohi. He read the Qur'an in Gangoh, probably at home with his mother. Then he studied the primary Persian books with his older brother Inayat Ahmad. He completed Persian studies in Karnal
Karnal
with his maternal uncle Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi, and also partly with Muhammad
Muhammad
Ghaus. Afterwards he studied the primary books of Arabic grammar (sarf and nahw) with Muhammad
Muhammad
Bakhsh Rampuri, on whose encouragement he then traveled to Delhi in pursuit of knowledge in 1261 AH (1845), at the age of 17.

After arriving in Delhi he studied Arabic with Qazi
Qazi
Ahmaduddin Punjabi Jehlami. Afterwards he attended the classes of different teachers before becoming a pupil of Maulana Mamluk Ali Nanautawi, a scholar of the Shah Waliullah line, and a professor at Delhi College . It was in this period that Rashid Ahmad met and developed a close companionship with Mamluk Ali's nephew, Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi . Both were private pupils of Mamluk Ali. After he completed his studies with Mamluk Ali, he stayed a few more years in Delhi to study under other teachers. He became a pupil of Mufti Sadruddin Azurdah, with whom he studied some books of the ulum-i aqliyah (rational sciences). He studied the books of hadith and tafsir under Shah Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi. Shah Ahmad Sa'id, the older brother of Shah Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi, was also among his teachers.

After four years in Delhi, Rashid returned home to Gangoh. He married Khadijah, daughter of his uncle Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Naqi, at the age of 21. It was not until after his marriage that he memorized the Qur'an. He then travelled to Thana Bhawan, where he gave bay'ah (allegiance) at the hand of Haji Imdadullah
Haji Imdadullah
in the Sufi path. He remained in Imdadullah's company and service for 42 days. When he prepared to leave for Gangoh, Imdadullah held his hand and gave him permission to take disciples.

While Nanautawi and Gangohi are often mentioned as co-founders of Darul Uloom Deoband, Rizvi writes that there is no historical evidence that Gangohi played a role in its establishment in 1283 AH. However, due to his close relationship with Nanautawi and others involved, it is unlikely that he was unaware of its founding. Rizvi cites a record of Gangohi's written inspection of the madrasah on 3 Rajab 1285 AH as the earliest evidence for his formal relationship with the madrasah. It was also common for graduates of the madrasah to attend Rashid Ahmad's hadith lectures in Gangoh.

In 1297 AH, after the death of Qasim, Rashid was made sarparast (patron) of Darul Uloom Deoband. From 1314 AH he was also sarparast of the Darul Uloom's sister madrasah, Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur .

He died on a Friday, 8 Jumada II 1323 AH (1905 AD) after the adhan (call to prayer) of Jumuah prayer.

SEE ALSO

* Muhammad
Muhammad
Mian Mansoor Ansari

NOTES

* ^ Arabic : هدايت أحمد‎, Hidāyat Aḥmad, or هداية أحمد, Hidāyah Aḥmad

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F http://haqislam.org/maulana-rashid-ahmad-gangohi/, Profile of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
on haqislam.org website, Published 14 February 2010, Retrieved 28 January 2017 * ^ A B C D E F G "The Epitome of Shari\'ah and Tariqah: Shaykh Rashid Ahmad al-Gangohi". Deoband.org website. Translated into English by Ismaeel Nakhuda. 26 April 2009. Excerpted from ‘Abd al-Hayy ibn Fakhr ad-Din al-Hasani; Abu ’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Hasani an-Nadwi. Nuzhat al-Khawatir, Published 26 April 2009, Retrieved 28 January 2017 * ^ Brannon Ingram (UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
and the Deobandi
Deobandi
Critique of Sufism, p 479. * ^ Gangohi, Rasheed Ahmed. Fatawa Rashidiya. p. 597. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q ‘Āshiq Ilāhī Mīraṭhī (1908). تذکرۃ الرشید / Taẕkiratur-Rashīd (in Urdu). Sāḍhaurah: Bilālī Sṭīm . * ^ A B C D E F ‘Abd al-Ḥayy ibn Fakhr ad-Dīn al-Ḥasanī; Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī al-Ḥasanī an-Nadwī (1999). "الشيخ العلامة رشيد أحمد الگنگوهي / ash-Shaykh al-'Allāmah Rashīd Aḥmad al-Gangohī". نزهة الخواطر وبهجة المسامع والنواظر / Nuzhat al-khawāṭir wa-bahjat al-masāmi‘ wa-al-nawāẓir (in Arabic). Vol. 8 (1st ed.). Bayrūt: Dār Ibn Ḥazm. pp. 1229–1231. * ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Yahya ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Ismail al-Kandahlawi; Rashid Ahmad al-Kankawhi; Muhammad
Muhammad
Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. "مقدمة المحشي / Muqaddimat al-Muhashshi". الكوكب الدري على جامع الترمذي / al-Kawkab ad-durrī ‘alá Jāmi‘ at-Tirmidhī (in Arabic). p. 12. * ^ A B C D Muḥammad Zakarīyā Kāndhlawī (1973). "حضرت اقدس مولانا رشید احمد صاحب گنگوہی / Haẓrat Aqdas Maulānā Rashīd Aḥmad Ṣaḥib Gangohī". تاریخ مشائخ چشت / Tārīk͟h Mashā’ik͟h-i Chisht (in Urdu). Biharabad, Karachi: Maktabatush-Shaik͟h. * ^ A B C Sayyid Mahbub Rizvi (1980). History of the Dar al-Ulum Deoband. Vol. 1. Translated by Murtaz Husain F. Quraishi. Dar al-Ulum, Deoband: Idara-e Ihtemam. * ^ http://www.darululoom-deoband.com/english/introulema/founders3.htm, Profiles of many founders of Deoband including Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
on darululoom-deoband.com website, Retrieved 29 January 2017

* v * t * e

Muslim scholars of the Hanafi School

* by century (AH * CE )

2ND/8TH

* Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
(founder of the school) * Abdullah ibn Mubarak * Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
* Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani * Yahya ibn Ma\'in

3RD/9TH

* Abu Mansur al- Maturidi * Al-Tahawi * Isa ibn Aban * Yahya ibn Aktham

4TH/10TH

* Abu Laith * Al-Jaṣṣās

5TH/11TH

* Ali Hujwiri * Sarakhsi

6TH/12TH

* Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi * Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani

7TH/13TH

* Rumi
Rumi

8TH/14TH

* Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi
Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi
* Al-Ḫaṣṣāf * Badr al-Din al-Ayni * Ibn Abi al-Izz * Mulla Shams ad-Din al-Fanari * Uthman bin Ali Zayla\'i

10TH/16TH

* Abdul-Haqq Dehlavi * Abu Sa\'ud al-Ḥanafi * Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
* Ali al-Qari * Ibrāhīm al-Ḥalabī

11TH/17TH

* Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi * Bari Imam
Bari Imam
* Khayr al-Din al-Ramli * Qazi
Qazi
Syed Rafi Mohammad

12TH/18TH

* Makhdoom Muhammad
Muhammad
Hashim Thattvi * Murtada al-Zabidi * Qazi
Qazi
Syed Inayatullah * Qazi
Qazi
Syed Mohammad Rafi * Qazi
Qazi
Syed Mohammad Zaman * Shah Abdul Aziz * Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
* Syed Hayatullah * Syed Mohammad Ashraf

13TH/19TH

* Abd Allah ibn Abbas ibn Siddiq * Al-Maydani * Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
* Haji Dost Muhammad
Muhammad
Qandhari * Ibn Abidin * Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
* Meher Ali Shah * Rashid Ahmad Gangohi * Shibli Nomani * Yusuf Ma Dexin
Yusuf Ma Dexin
* Ashraf Ali Thanwi * Husain Ahmad Madani
Husain Ahmad Madani
* Anwar Shah Kashmiri
Anwar Shah Kashmiri
* Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
* Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi * Mahmud al-Hasan
Mahmud al-Hasan

14TH/20TH

* Abd Allah Siraj * Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni * Abdul Haq * Kanthapuram A.P. Aboobacker Musliyar * Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi * Akhtar Raza Khan * Arshadul Qaudri * Asad Muhammad
Muhammad
Saeed as-Sagharji * Azizul Haque * Faraz Rabbani * Ghulam Rasool Jamaati * Hamid Raza Khan
Hamid Raza Khan
* Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
*