RASHīD AḥMAD IBN HIDāYAT AḥMAD AYYūBī ANṣāRī GANGOHī
(Urdu : رشید احمد بن ہدایت احمد ایوبی
انصاری گنگوہی ; 1826 – 1905) was an Indian
Islamic scholar , a leading figure of the
Deobandi movement ,
Hanafi jurist and scholar of hadith .
Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi he was a pupil of Mamluk Ali.
Both studied the books of hadith under Shah Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi and
later became Sufi disciples of
Haji Imdadullah . His lectures on
Sahih al-Bukhari and
Jami` at-Tirmidhi were recorded by his student
Muhammad Yahya Kandhlawi, later edited, arranged, and commented on by
Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi
Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi , and published as Lami` ad-Darari `ala
Jami` al-Bukhari and al-Kawkab ad-Durri `ala Jami` at-Tirmidhi.
* 1 Name
* 2 Biography
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
In Tazkiratur Rashid his name and nasab is given as follows:
Maulānā Rashīd Aḥmad ibn Maulānā Hidāyat Aḥmad ibn Qāẓī
Pīr Bak͟hsh ibn Qāẓī G͟hulām Ḥasan ibn Qāẓī G͟hulām
‘Alī ibn Qāẓī ‘Alī Akbar ibn Qāẓī Muḥammad Aslam
al-Anṣārī al-Ayyūbī. In the biographical work Nuzhat
al-Khawatir he is mentioned with the nisbats "al-Anṣārī,
al-Ḥanafī, ar-Rāmpūrī then al-Gangohī". In the introduction
to al-Kawkab ad-Durri he is mentioned as "Mawlānā Abī Mas‘ūd
Rashīd Aḥmad al-Anṣārī al-Ayyūbī al-Kankawhī al-Ḥanafī
al-Jishtī an-Naqshbandī al-Qādirī as-Suhrawardī".
His given name was Rashid Ahmad; Abu Masud was his kunya . His
heritage can be traced back to a famous companion of the prophet
Muhammad , namely
Ayub Ansari (who died in 674).
Ayub Ansari had
hosted the prophet in his home in
Medina city, when he made hegira
Medina city in 622.
Rashid Ahmad was born on Monday, 6 Dhu al-Qi'dah 1244 AH (1826 AD) in
Saharanpur District ,
British India (in present-day Uttar
India ). He was born in the mahallah of Sarai, close to
the tomb of
Abdul Quddus Gangohi . Both his father
Ahmad and his mother Karimun Nisa belonged to Ansari Ayyubi families,
claiming descent from
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari . His ancestral village
was Rampur , but his grandfather
Qazi Pir Bakhsh had settled in
Hidayat Ahmad was an
Islamic scholar connected to the Waliullahi
tradition, and in tasawwuf (Sufism) an authorized khalifah
Shah Ghulam Ali Mujaddidi Dihlawi . He died in 1252
AH (1836) at the age of 35, when Rashid was seven. A few years later
Rashid's younger brother Sa'id Ahmad also died, at the age of nine.
After the death of Hidayat Ahmad the responsibility for Rashid's
upbringing fell to his grandfather
Qazi Pir Bakhsh. He also had four
Muhammad Taqi, Maulana
Abdul Ghani, and
Muhammad Shafi. He was especially close to
Abdul Ghani, who took on a fatherly role for him. He also had a close
friendship with his younger cousin, Abun Nasr, son of Abdul Ghani's.
Rashid Ahmad received his elementary education from a local teacher,
Miyanji Qutb Bakhsh Gangohi. He read the Qur'an in Gangoh, probably
at home with his mother. Then he studied the primary Persian books
with his older brother Inayat Ahmad. He completed Persian studies in
Karnal with his maternal uncle
Muhammad Taqi, and also partly with
Muhammad Ghaus. Afterwards he studied the primary books of Arabic
grammar (sarf and nahw) with
Muhammad Bakhsh Rampuri, on whose
encouragement he then traveled to Delhi in pursuit of knowledge in
1261 AH (1845), at the age of 17.
After arriving in Delhi he studied Arabic with
Punjabi Jehlami. Afterwards he attended the classes of different
teachers before becoming a pupil of
Maulana Mamluk Ali Nanautawi, a
scholar of the Shah Waliullah line, and a professor at Delhi College .
It was in this period that Rashid Ahmad met and developed a close
companionship with Mamluk Ali's nephew,
Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi .
Both were private pupils of Mamluk Ali. After he completed his studies
with Mamluk Ali, he stayed a few more years in Delhi to study under
other teachers. He became a pupil of Mufti Sadruddin Azurdah, with
whom he studied some books of the ulum-i aqliyah (rational sciences).
He studied the books of hadith and tafsir under Shah Abdul Ghani
Mujaddidi. Shah Ahmad Sa'id, the older brother of Shah Abdul Ghani
Mujaddidi, was also among his teachers.
After four years in Delhi, Rashid returned home to Gangoh. He married
Khadijah, daughter of his uncle
Muhammad Naqi, at the age of
21. It was not until after his marriage that he memorized the Qur'an.
He then travelled to Thana Bhawan, where he gave bay'ah (allegiance)
at the hand of
Haji Imdadullah in the Sufi path. He remained in
Imdadullah's company and service for 42 days. When he prepared to
leave for Gangoh, Imdadullah held his hand and gave him permission to
While Nanautawi and Gangohi are often mentioned as co-founders of
Darul Uloom Deoband, Rizvi writes that there is no historical evidence
that Gangohi played a role in its establishment in 1283 AH. However,
due to his close relationship with Nanautawi and others involved, it
is unlikely that he was unaware of its founding. Rizvi cites a record
of Gangohi's written inspection of the madrasah on 3 Rajab 1285 AH as
the earliest evidence for his formal relationship with the madrasah.
It was also common for graduates of the madrasah to attend Rashid
Ahmad's hadith lectures in Gangoh.
In 1297 AH, after the death of Qasim, Rashid was made sarparast
(patron) of Darul Uloom Deoband. From 1314 AH he was also sarparast of
the Darul Uloom's sister madrasah,
Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur .
He died on a Friday, 8 Jumada II 1323 AH (1905 AD) after the adhan
(call to prayer) of
Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari
* ^ Arabic : هدايت أحمد, Hidāyat Aḥmad, or
هداية أحمد, Hidāyah Aḥmad
* ^ A B C D E F http://haqislam.org/maulana-rashid-ahmad-gangohi/,
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi on haqislam.org website, Published 14
February 2010, Retrieved 28 January 2017
* ^ A B C D E F G "The Epitome of Shari\'ah and Tariqah: Shaykh
Rashid Ahmad al-Gangohi". Deoband.org website. Translated into English
by Ismaeel Nakhuda. 26 April 2009. Excerpted from ‘Abd al-Hayy ibn
Fakhr ad-Din al-Hasani; Abu ’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Hasani an-Nadwi.
Nuzhat al-Khawatir, Published 26 April 2009, Retrieved 28 January 2017
* ^ Brannon Ingram (UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA), Suﬁs, Scholars
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the
Deobandi Critique of
Suﬁsm, p 479.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q ‘Āshiq Ilāhī Mīraṭhī
(1908). تذکرۃ الرشید / Taẕkiratur-Rashīd (in Urdu).
Sāḍhaurah: Bilālī Sṭīm .
* ^ A B C D E F ‘Abd al-Ḥayy ibn Fakhr ad-Dīn al-Ḥasanī;
Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī al-Ḥasanī an-Nadwī (1999). "الشيخ
العلامة رشيد أحمد الگنگوهي / ash-Shaykh
al-‘Allāmah Rashīd Aḥmad al-Gangohī". نزهة الخواطر
وبهجة المسامع والنواظر / Nuzhat al-khawāṭir
wa-bahjat al-masāmi‘ wa-al-nawāẓir (in Arabic). Vol. 8 (1st
ed.). Bayrūt: Dār Ibn Ḥazm. pp. 1229–1231.
Muhammad Yahya ibn
Muhammad Ismail al-Kandahlawi; Rashid Ahmad
Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi. "مقدمة المحشي
/ Muqaddimat al-Muhashshi". الكوكب الدري على جامع
الترمذي / al-Kawkab ad-durrī ‘alá Jāmi‘ at-Tirmidhī (in
Arabic). p. 12.
* ^ A B C D Muḥammad Zakarīyā Kāndhlawī (1973). "حضرت
اقدس مولانا رشید احمد صاحب گنگوہی /
Haẓrat Aqdas Maulānā Rashīd Aḥmad Ṣaḥib Gangohī".
تاریخ مشائخ چشت / Tārīk͟h Mashā’ik͟h-i Chisht (in
Urdu). Biharabad, Karachi: Maktabatush-Shaik͟h.
* ^ A B C Sayyid Mahbub Rizvi (1980). History of the Dar al-Ulum
Deoband. Vol. 1. Translated by Murtaz Husain F. Quraishi. Dar al-Ulum,
Deoband: Idara-e Ihtemam.
Profiles of many founders of Deoband including
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi on
darululoom-deoband.com website, Retrieved 29 January 2017
Muslim scholars of the
* by century (AH
* CE )
Abu Hanifa (founder of the school)
Abdullah ibn Mubarak
* Yahya ibn Ma\'in
* Abu Mansur al-
Isa ibn Aban
Yahya ibn Aktham
Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi
Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani
* Ibn al-Sa\'ati
Badr al-Din al-Ayni
Ibn Abi al-Izz
Mulla Shams ad-Din al-Fanari
* Uthman bin Ali Zayla\'i
* Ibn Humam
Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi
Khayr al-Din al-Ramli
Qazi Syed Rafi Mohammad
Muhammad Hashim Thattvi
Qazi Syed Inayatullah
Qazi Syed Mohammad Rafi
Qazi Syed Mohammad Zaman
Shah Abdul Aziz
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
Syed Mohammad Ashraf
Abd Allah ibn Abbas ibn Siddiq
Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
* Haji Dost
Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri
Meher Ali Shah
* Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Yusuf Ma Dexin
Abd Allah Siraj
Abdul Hamid Qadri Badayuni
* Abdul Haq
Kanthapuram A.P. Aboobacker Musliyar
Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi
Akhtar Raza Khan
Muhammad Saeed as-Sagharji
Ghulam Rasool Jamaati
Hamid Raza Khan
Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
Muhammad Abdul Malek
Muhammad Idrees Dahiri
Muhammad Masihullah Khan
Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari
Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
Shah Saeed Ahmed Raipuri
Syed Ameen Badasha
Syed Shujaat Ali Qadri
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 18839170
* LCCN : n90623378
* GND : 132405148
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