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The Raphidophyceae (raphidophytes, formerly referred to as Chloromonadophyceae and Chloromonadineae) are a small group of eukaryotic algae that includes both marine and freshwater species. All raphidophytes are unicellular, with large cells (50 to 100 μm), but no cell walls. Raphidophytes possess a pair of flagella, organised such that both originate from the same invagination (or gullet). One flagellum points forwards,and is covered in hair-like mastigonemes, while the other points backwards across the cell surface, lying within a ventral groove. Raphidophytes contain numerous ellipsoid chloroplasts, which contain chlorophylls a, c1 and c2. They also make use of accessory pigments including β-carotene and diadinoxanthin. Unlike other heterokontophytes, raphidophytes do not possess the photoreceptive organelle (or eyespot) typical of this group. In terms of ecology, raphidophytes occur as photosynthetic autotrophs across a range of aquatic systems. Freshwater species are more common in acidic waters, such as pools in bogs. Marine species often produce large blooms in summer, particularly in coastal waters. Off the Japanese coast, the resulting red tides often cause disruption to fish farms, although raphidophytes are not usually responsible for toxic blooms. The position of this group varied in former classifications. Some protozoologists treated the chloromonads as an order within the phytoflagellates. Some phycologists classified them with the Xanthophyceae and the Eustigmatophyceae in the division Xanthophyta. Others considered them as related to the Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae, or Cryptophyceae Recently, the heliozoan Actinophyrida was moved to the group.

Taxonomy

Classification based on Cavalier-Smith and Scoble 2013 * Class Raphidomonadea Silva 1980 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2013 aphidophyceae Chadefaud 1950 emend. Silva 1980 s.l.** nplaced genera*** Genus ''Psammamonas'' Grant et al. 2013 *** Genus ''Chloromorum'' Tomas et al. ** Subclass Raphopoda Cavalier-Smith 2013 *** Order Commatiida Cavalier-Smith 1997 **** Family Commatiidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Genus ''Commation'' Thomsen & Larsen 1993 *** Order Actinophyrida Hartmann 1913 ctinophrydia Kühn 1926; Actinophrydea Hartmann 1913**** Family Actinosphaeriidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Genus ''Actinosphaerium'' Ritter von Stein 1857 '[[Camptonema''_Schaudinn_1894;_''[[Echinosphaerium.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Camptonema.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Camptonema">'[[Camptonema'' Schaudinn 1894; ''[[Echinosphaerium">Camptonema.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Camptonema">'[[Camptonema'' Schaudinn 1894; ''[[Echinosphaerium'' Hovasse 1965] **** Family [[Helioraphidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Genus ''[[Heliorapha'' Cavalier-Smith 2013 **** Family [[Actinophryidae Dujardin 1841 ***** Genus ''Actinophrys'' Ehrenberg 1830 '[[Trichoda''_Müller_1773_nomen_oblitum;_''[[Peritricha_(genus).html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Trichoda.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="''[[Trichoda''_Müller_1773_nomen_oblitum;_''[[Peritricha_(genus)">Peritricha''_Bory_de_St.Vincent_1824_nomen_dubium_non_Stein_1859.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Trichoda">'[[Trichoda'' Müller 1773 nomen oblitum; ''[[Peritricha (genus)">Peritricha'' Bory de St.Vincent 1824 nomen dubium non Stein 1859">Trichoda">'[[Trichoda'' Müller 1773 nomen oblitum; ''[[Peritricha (genus)">Peritricha'' Bory de St.Vincent 1824 nomen dubium non Stein 1859 ** Subclass [[Raphidophycidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 [Raphidophyceae Chadefaud 1950 emend. Silva 1980 s.s.; Chloromonadophyceae Rothmaler 1951; Raphidophyta] *** Order [[Raphidomonadales hattonellales Throndsen 1993; Chloromonadida; Chloromonadales; Raphidomonadida Heywood & Leedale 1983; Chloromonadina Klebs 1892**** Genus ''Viridilobus'' Demir-Hilton et al. 2012 **** Family Fibrocapsaceae Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Genus ''Fibrocapsa'' Toriumi & Takano 1973 **** Family Haramonadaceae Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Genus ''Haramonas'' Horiguchi 1996 **** Family Chattonellaceae Throndsen ***** Genus ''Oltmannsia'' Schiller 1925 ***** Genus ''Chlorinimonas'' Yamaguchi et al. 2010 ***** Genus ''Heterosigma'' Hada 1967 ex Hara & Chihara 1987 ***** Genus ''Chattonella'' Biecheler 1936 '[[Hornellia''_Subrahmanyan_1954;_''[[Hemieutreptia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Hornellia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Hornellia">'[[Hornellia'' Subrahmanyan 1954; ''[[Hemieutreptia">Hornellia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Hornellia">'[[Hornellia'' Subrahmanyan 1954; ''[[Hemieutreptia'' Hada 1974] **** Family [[Vacuolariaceae ***** Genus ''[[Swirenkoiamonas'' Skvortzov 1968 ***** Genus ''[[Vacuolaria'' Cienkowski 1870 ***** Genus ''[[Merotricha'' Mereschkowsky 1877 ***** Genus ''Gonyostomum'' Diesing 1866

References

{{Taxonbar|from=Q134928 Category:Ochrophyta