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April 1792 – 11 April 1801 as Chief of Sukerchakia Misl 12 April 1801 – 27 June 1839 as Emperor of the Punjab.

Investiture 12 April 1801 at Lahore
Lahore
Fort

Successor Maharaja
Maharaja
Kharak Singh

Born Buddh Singh 13 November 1780[3] Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl
Sukerchakia Misl
(modern-day Pakistan)

Died 27 June 1839(1839-06-27) (aged 58) Lahore, Punjab, Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
(present-day Pakistan)

Burial Cremated remains stored in the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
in Lahore, Punjab region
Punjab region
of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(modern-day Pakistan)

Spouse See Marriages

Issue Maharaja
Maharaja
Kharak Singh Ishar Singh Maharaja
Maharaja
Sher Singh Tara Singh Kashmira Singh Peshaura Singh Multana Singh Maharaja
Maharaja
Duleep Singh

Father Sardar
Sardar
Maha Singh

Mother Raj Kaur

Religion Sikhism

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
(1780 –1839)[4][5] was the leader of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the early half of the 19th century. He survived smallpox in infancy but lost sight in his left eye. He fought his first battle alongside his father at age 10. After his father died, he fought several wars to expel the Afghans in his teenage years and was proclaimed as the " Maharaja
Maharaja
of Punjab" at age 21.[4][6] His empire grew in the Punjab region under his leadership through 1839.[7][8] Prior to his rise, the Punjab region
Punjab region
had numerous warring misls (confederacies), twelve of which were under Sikh
Sikh
rulers and one Muslim.[6] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
successfully absorbed and united the Sikh misls and took over other local kingdoms to create the Sikh
Sikh
Empire. He repeatedly defeated invasions by outside armies, particularly those arriving from Afghanistan, and established friendly relations with the British.[9] Ranjit Singh's reign introduced reforms, modernisation, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity.[10][11] His Khalsa
Khalsa
army and government included Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims and Europeans.[12] His legacy includes a period of Sikh
Sikh
cultural and artistic renaissance, including the rebuilding of the Harimandir Sahib
Harimandir Sahib
in Amritsar
Amritsar
as well as other major gurudwaras, including Takht Sri Patna Sahib, Bihar
Bihar
and Hazur Sahib Nanded, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
under his sponsorship.[13][14] He was popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, or "Lion of Punjab". Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was succeeded by his son Maharaja
Maharaja
Kharak Singh.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Wives 1.3 Punishment by the Akal Takht 1.4 Sons 1.5 Death

2 Sikh
Sikh
Empire

2.1 Historical context 2.2 Rise to fame, early conquests 2.3 Expansion

2.3.1 Geography of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire

2.4 Governance 2.5 Religious policies 2.6 Khalsa
Khalsa
Army

2.6.1 Reforms 2.6.2 Infrastructure investments

2.7 Muslim accounts 2.8 Decline

3 Legacy

3.1 Gurdwaras 3.2 Memorials and museums

4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

Birthplace of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
in Gujranwala, Pakistan.

Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was born on 13 November 1780, to Maha Singh
Maha Singh
Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur – the daughter of Raja
Raja
Gajpat Singh of Jind, in Gujranwala, in the Majha
Majha
region of Punjab (now in Pakistan).[4][15] His birth name was Buddh Singh, after his ancestor who was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, a Khalsa, and whose descendants created the Sukerchakia misl before the birth of Ranjit Singh, which became the most powerful of many small Sikh
Sikh
kingdoms in northwestern Southern Asia in the wake of the disintegrating Mughal Empire.[16] The child's name was changed to Ranjit (literally, "victor in battle") by his father to commemorate his army's victory over the Muslim Chatha chieftain Pir Muhammad.[4][17] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
contracted smallpox as an infant, which resulted in the loss of sight in his left eye and a pockmarked face.[4] He was short in stature, never schooled, and did not learn to read or write anything beyond the Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
alphabet,[18] however, he was trained at home in horse riding, musketry and other martial arts.[4] At age 12, his father died.[16] He then inherited his father's Sukkarchakkia misl estates and was raised by his mother Raj Kaur, who, along with Lakhpat Rai, also managed the estates.[4] The first attempt on his life was made when he was age 13, by Hashmat Khan, but Ranjit Singh prevailed and killed the assailant instead.[19] At age 18, his mother died and Lakhpat Rai was assassinated, and thereon he was helped by his mother-in-law from his first marriage.[20] In his teens, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
took to alcohol, a habit that intensified in the later decades of his life, according to the chronicles of his court historians and the Europeans who visited him.[21][22] However, he neither smoked nor ate beef,[4] and required all officials in his court, regardless of their religion, to adhere to these restrictions as part of their employment contract.[22] Wives[edit]

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh's family genealogy

Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
married many times, in various ceremonies, and had twenty wives.[23][24] Some scholars note that the information on Ranjit Singh's marriages is unclear, and there is evidence that he had many mistresses. According to Khushwant Singh in an 1889 interview with the French journal Le Voltaire, his son Dalip (Duleep) Singh remarked, "I am the son of one of my father's forty-six wives".[25] At age 15, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
married his first wife Mehtab Kaur,[16] the only daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur, and the granddaughter of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the founder of the Kanhaiya Misl.[4] This marriage was pre-arranged in an attempt to reconcile warring Sikh
Sikh
misls, wherein Mahtab Kaur was betrothed to Ranjit Singh. However, the marriage failed, with Mehtab Kaur
Mehtab Kaur
never forgiving the fact that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and she mainly lived with her mother after marriage. The separation became complete when Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
married his second wife Raj Kaur of Nakai Misl
Misl
in 1798.[26] Mehtab Kaur
Mehtab Kaur
died in 1813.[25] Raj Kaur (renamed Datar Kaur), the daughter of Sardar
Sardar
Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, was Ranjit Singh's second wife and the mother of his heir, Kharak Singh.[20] She changed her name from Raj Kaur to avoid confusion with Ranjit Singh's mother. Throughout her life she remained the favourite of Ranjit Singh, who called her Mai Nakain.[27] Like his first marriage, the second marriage brought him a strategic military alliance.[20] His second wife died in 1818.[25]

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
with some of his wives.

Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat (a misl north of Lahore, not to be confused the state of Gujarat).[28] After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them via the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur gave birth to Multana Singh in 1819, and Daya Kaur gave birth to Kashmira Singh in 1819 and to Pashaura Singh in 1821.[29] His other wives include Moran Sarkar
Moran Sarkar
in 1802, Chand Kaur
Chand Kaur
in 1815, Lakshmi in 1820, Mehatab Kaur in 1822, Saman Kaur in 1832, as well as Guddan, Banso, Gulbahar, Gulab, Ram Devi, Rani, Bannat, Har and Danno before his last marriage.[25] Jind Kaur
Jind Kaur
was the final spouse of Ranjit Singh. Her father, Manna Singh Aulakh, extolled her virtues to Ranjit Singh, who was concerned about the frail health of his only heir, Kharak Singh. The Maharaja married her in 1835 by 'sending his arrow and sword to her village'. On 6 September 1838 she gave birth to Duleep Singh, who became the last Maharaja
Maharaja
of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire.[30] Punishment by the Akal Takht[edit] In 1802, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
married Moran Sarkar, a Muslim nautch girl.[25] This action, and other non- Sikh
Sikh
activities of the Maharaja, upset orthodox Sikhs, including the Nihangs, whose leader Akali Phula Singh was the Jathedar
Jathedar
of the Akal Takht.[31] When Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
visited Amritsar, he was called outside the Akal Takht, where he was made to apologise for his mistakes. Akali Phula Singh
Akali Phula Singh
took Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
to a tamarind tree in front of the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and prepared to punish him by flogging.[31] Then Akali Phula Singh
Akali Phula Singh
asked the nearby Sikh
Sikh
pilgrims whether they approved of Ranjit Singh's apology. The pilgrims responded with Sat Sri Akal
Sat Sri Akal
and Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was released and forgiven. Sons[edit] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
had eight sons. Kharak Singh
Kharak Singh
was the eldest from his second wife. His first wife gave birth to Ishar Singh, who died at the age of two, and, after her separation from Ranjit Singh, to the twins Tara Singh and Sher Singh. The two widows he took under his protection and married gave birth to Multana Singh, Kashmira Singh and Pashaura Singh. Duleep Singh
Duleep Singh
was from his last wife.[32] Ranjit Singh acknowledged only Kharak Singh
Kharak Singh
and Duleep Singh
Duleep Singh
as his biological sons[33][34] Death[edit]

The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque.

In the 1830s, Singh suffered from numerous health complications as well as a stroke, which some historical records attribute to alcoholism and a failing liver.[28][35] He died in his sleep on 27 June 1839.[23] Four of his wives, and seven concubines with royal titles committed sati by throwing themselves on his funeral pyre.[23][36] Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
Empire

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh circa 1816–29

Historical context[edit] After the death of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in 1707, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
fell apart and declined in its ability to tax or govern most of the Indian subcontinent. In the northwestern region, particularly the Punjab, the creation of the Khalsa
Khalsa
community of Sikh
Sikh
warriors by Guru Gobind Singh accelerated the decay and fragmentation of the Mughal power in the region.[37] Raiding Afghans attacked the Indus
Indus
river valleys but met resistance from both organised armies of the Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs as well as irregular Khalsa
Khalsa
militias based in villages. The Sikhs had appointed their own zamindars, replacing the previous Muslim revenue collectors, which provided resources to feed and strengthen the warriors aligned with Sikh
Sikh
interests.[37] Meanwhile, colonial traders and the East India Company had begun operations in India on its eastern and western coasts.[37] By the second half of the 18th century, the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(now Pakistan
Pakistan
and parts of north India) were a collection of fourteen small warring regions.[6] Of the fourteen, twelve were Sikh-controlled misls (confederacies), one named Kasur (near Lahore) was Muslim controlled, and one in the southeast was led by an Englishman named George Thomas.[6] This region constituted the fertile and productive valleys of the five rivers – Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Bias and Sutlej.[28] The Sikh
Sikh
misls were all under the control of the Khalsa
Khalsa
fraternity of Sikh
Sikh
warriors, but they were not united and constantly warred with each other over revenue collection, disagreements, and local priorities; however, in the event of external invasion such as from the Muslim armies of Ahmed Shah Abdali from Afghanistan, they would usually unite.[6] Towards the end of 18th century, the five most powerful misls were those of Sukkarchakkia, Kanhayas, Nakkais, Ahluwalias and Bhangi Sikhs.[6][16] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
belonged to the first, and through marriage had a reliable alliance with Kanhayas and Nakkais.[6] Among the smaller misls, some such as the Phulkias misl had switched loyalties in the late 18th century and supported the Afghan army invasion against their Khalsa
Khalsa
brethren.[6] The Kasur
Kasur
region, ruled by Rajput-Muslim, always supported the Afghan invasion forces and joined them in plundering Sikh
Sikh
misls during the war.[6] Rise to fame, early conquests[edit]

"Randjiit Sing Baadour" by Alfred de Dreux

Ranjit Singh's fame grew in 1797, at age 17, when the Afghan Muslim ruler Shah Zaman, of the Ahmad Shah Abdali dynasty, attempted to annex Panjab region into his control through his general Shahanchi Khan and 12,000 soldiers.[4][6] The battle was fought in the territory that fell in Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
controlled misl, whose regional knowledge and warrior expertise helped resist the invading army. This victory gained him recognition.[4] In 1798, the Afghan ruler sent in another army, which Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
did not resist. He let them enter Lahore, then encircled them with his army, blocked off all food and supplies, burnt all crops and food sources that could have supported the Afghan army. Much of the Afghan army retreated back to Afghanistan.[4] In 1799, Raja
Raja
Ranjit Singh's army of 25,000 Khalsa, supported by another 25,000 Khalsa
Khalsa
led by his mother-in-law Rani Sada Kaur of Kanhaiya misl, in a joint operation attacked the region controlled by Bhangi Sikhs centered around Lahore. The rulers escaped, marking Lahore
Lahore
as the first major conquest of Ranjit Singh.[6][38] The Sufi Muslim and Hindu population of Lahore
Lahore
welcomed the rule of Ranjit Singh.[4] In 1800, the ruler of Jammu region ceded control of his region to Ranjit Singh.[39] In 1801, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
proclaimed himself as the " Maharaja
Maharaja
of Punjab", and agreed to a formal investiture ceremony, which was carried out by Baba Sahib Singh Bedi - a descendant of Guru Nanak. On the day of his coronation, prayers were performed across mosques, temples and gurudwaras in his territories for his long life. [40] Ranjit Singh called his rule as "Sarkar Khalsa", and his court as "Darbar Khalsa". He ordered new coins to be issued in the name of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
named the "NanakShahi" ("of the Emperor Nanak"). [4][41][42] Expansion[edit] In 1802 Ranjit Singh, aged 22, took Amritsar
Amritsar
from the Bhangi Sikh misl, paid homage at the Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
temple, which had previously been attacked and desecrated by the invading Afghan army, and announced that he would renovate and rebuild it with marble and gold.[43]

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh's throne, c. 1820–1830, Hafiz Muhammad Multani, now at V & A Museum

On 1 January 1806, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
signed a treaty with the British officials of the East India Company, in which he agreed that his Sikh forces would not attempt to expand south of the Sutlej
Sutlej
river, and the Company agreed that it would not attempt to militarily cross the Sutlej
Sutlej
river into the Sikh
Sikh
territory.[44] In 1807, Ranjit Singh's forces attacked the Muslim ruled misl of Kasur and, after a month of fierce fighting, defeated the Afghan chief Qutb-ud-Din, thus expanding his empire northwest towards Afghanistan.[4] He took Multan
Multan
in 1818, and the whole Bari Doab
Bari Doab
came under his rule with that conquest. In 1819, he successfully defeated the Afghan Sunni Muslim rulers and annexed Srinagar and Kashmir, stretching his rule into the north and the Jhelum valley, beyond the foothills of the Himalayas.[4][45] The most significant encounters between the Sikhs in the command of the Maharaja
Maharaja
and the Afghans were in 1813, 1823, 1834 and in 1837.[8] In 1813, Ranjit Singh's general Dewan Mokham Chand
Dewan Mokham Chand
led the Sikh
Sikh
forces against the Afghan forces of Shah Mahmud led by Dost Mohammad Khan.[46] The Afghans lost their stronghold at Attock in that battle. In 1813–14, Ranjit Singh's first attempt to expand into Kashmir
Kashmir
was foiled by Afghan forces led by General Azim Khan, due to a heavy downpour, the spread of cholera, and poor food supply to his troops. In 1818, Darbar's forces led by Misr Dewan Chand occupied Multan, killing Muzaffar Khan and defeating his forces, leading to the end of Afghan influence in the Punjab.[47] In July 1818, an army from the Punjab defeated Jabbar Khan, a younger brother of governor of Kashmir
Kashmir
Azim Khan, and acquired Kashmir, along with a yearly revenue of Rs seventy lacs. Dewan Moti Ram was appointed governor of Kashmir. In November 1819, Dost Mohammed accepted the sovereignty of the Maharaja
Maharaja
over Peshawar, along with a revenue payment of Rs one lac a year. The Maharaja
Maharaja
specifically ordered his forces not to harass or molest any civilian. In 1820 and 1821, Dera Ghazi Khan, Hazara and Mankera, with huge tracts of land between Jhelum and Indus, Singh Sagar Daob, were also annexed. The victories of Kashmir, Peshwar and Multan
Multan
were celebrated by naming three newborns after them. Prince Kashmira Singh, Peshaura Singh and Prince Multana Singh were born to Daya Kaur and Ratan Kaur, wives of Ranjit Singh. In 1823, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
defeated a large army of Yusufzai north of the Kabul River.[48] In 1834, Mohammed Azim Khan once again marched towards Peshawar
Peshawar
with an army of 25,000 Khattak and Yasufzai tribesmen in the name of jihad, to fight against infidels. The Maharaja
Maharaja
defeated the forces. Yar Mohammad was pardoned and was reinvested as governor of Peshawar
Peshawar
with an annual revenue of Rs one lac ten thousand to Lahore
Lahore
Darbar.[49] In 1837, the Battle of Jamrud
Battle of Jamrud
and his march through Kabul in 1838, in cooperation with the colonial British army stationed in Sindh, became the last confrontation between the Sikhs led by him and the Afghans, which helped extend and establish the western boundaries of the Sikh Empire.[50][51] In 1838, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
with his troops marched into Kabul to take part in the victory parade along with the British after restoring Shah Shoja to the Afghan throne at Kabul.[5] Geography of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit]

Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
at its peak

The Sikh
Sikh
Empire, also known as the Sikh
Sikh
Raj and Sarkar-i-Khalsa,[52] was in the Punjab region, the name of which means "the land of the five rivers". The five rivers are the Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenab
Chenab
and Jhelum, all of which are tributaries of the river Indus.[53] The geographical reach of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
under Singh included all lands north of Sutlej
Sutlej
river, and south of the high valleys of the northwestern Himalayas. The major towns at time included Srinagar, Attock, Peshawar, Bannu, Rawalpindi, Jammu, Gujrat, Sialkot, Kangra, Amritsar, Lahore
Lahore
and Multan.[28][54] Governance[edit] Singh allowed men from different religions and races to serve in his army and his government in various positions of authority.[55] His army included a few Europeans, such as Jean-François Allard, but he did not employ British people, who were attempting to create a colony in the Indian subcontinent.[56] Despite not employing them, he did maintain a diplomatic channel with the British; in 1828, he sent gifts to George IV and in 1831, he sent a mission to Simla to confer with the British Governor General, William Bentinck;[57] while in 1838, he cooperated with them in removing the hostile Islamic Sultan in Afghanistan.[51] Religious policies[edit] Ranjit Singh's policies were based on respect for all communities, Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. [40]. A devoted Sikh, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
restored and built historic Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwaras – most famously, the Harmandir Sahib, and used to celebrate his victories by offering thanks at the Harmandar. He also joined the Hindus in their temples, prohibited cow slaughter out of respect for Hindu sentiments [40], and visited Sufi mosques and holy places. He ordered his soldiers to neither loot nor molest civilians. [58] The Sikhs led by Singh never razed places of worship to the ground belonging to the enemy.[59] However, he did convert Muslim mosques into other uses. For example, Ranjit Singh's army desecrated Lahore's Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
and converted it into an ammunition store,[60] and horse stables.[61] Lahore's Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) was converted into "Moti Mandir" (Pearl Temple) by the Sikh
Sikh
army,[61][62] and Sonehri Mosque were converted into a Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwara, but upon the request of Sufi Fakirs, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
restored the latter back to a mosque.[63] Lahore's Begum Shahi Mosque was also used as a gunpowder factory, earning it the nickname Barudkhana Wali Masjid, or "Gunpowder Mosque."[64] Singh's sovereignty was accepted by Afghan and Punjabi Muslims, who fought under his banner against the Afghan forces of Nadir Shah and later of Azim Khan. His court was ecumenical in composition: his prime minister, Dhian Singh, was a Dogra; his foreign minister, Fakir Azizuddin, was a Muslim; and his finance minister, Dina Nath, was a Brahmin. Artillery commanders such as Mian Ghausa were also Muslims. There were no forced conversions in his time. His wives Bibi Mohran, Gilbahar Begum retained their faith and so did his Hindu wives.[65] Khalsa
Khalsa
Army[edit] For the army commanders, see List of generals of Ranjit Singh. Main articles: Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa
Khalsa
Army, Fauj-i-Ain, and Fauj-i-Khas

Ranjit Singh's army included Europeans. Left: Jean-François Allard, Right: Alexander Gardner

The army under Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was not limited to the Sikh
Sikh
community. The soldiers and troop officers included Sikhs, but also included Hindus, Muslims and Europeans.[66] Hindu Brahmins and people of all creeds and castes served his army,[67][68] while the composition in his government also reflected a religious diversity.[66][69] His army included Polish, Russian, Spanish, Prussian and French officers.[11] In 1835, as his relationship with the British warmed up, he hired a British officer named Foulkes.[11] However, the Khalsa
Khalsa
army of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
reflected regional population, and as he grew his army, he dramatically increased the Rajput and Jat Sikhs who became the predominant members of his army.[10] In the Doab region his army was composed of the Jat Sikhs, in Jammu and northern Indian hills it was Hindu Rajputs, while relatively more Muslims served his army in the Jhelum river area closer to Afghanistan than other major Panjab rivers.[70] Reforms[edit] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganised responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship.[69] He reformed the staffing to emphasise steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery.[10] He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.[10] While Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
introduced reforms in terms of training and equipment of his military, he failed to reform the old Jagirs (Ijra) system of Mughal middlemen.[71][72] The Jagirs system of state revenue collection involved certain individuals with political connections or inheritance promising a tribute (nazarana) to the ruler and thereby gaining administrative control over certain villages, with the right to force collect customs, excise and land tax at inconsistent and subjective rates from the peasants and merchants; they would keep a part of collected revenue and deliver the promised tribute value to the state.[71][73][74] These Jagirs maintained independent armed militia to extort taxes from the peasants and merchants, and the militia prone to violence.[71] This system of inconsistent taxation with arbitrary extortion by militia, continued the Mughal tradition of ill treatment of peasants and merchants throughout the Sikh
Sikh
Empire, and is evidenced by the complaints filed to Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
by East India Company officials attempting to trade within different parts of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire.[71][72] According to historical records, states Sunit Singh, Ranjit Singh's reforms focused on military that would allow new conquests, but not towards taxation system to end abuse, nor about introducing uniform laws in his state or improving internal trade and empowering the peasants and merchants.[71][72][73] This failure to reform the Jagirs-based taxation system and economy, in part led to a succession power struggle and a series of threats, internal divisions among Sikhs, major assassinations and coups in the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in the years immediately after the death of Ranjit Singh;[75] an easy annexation of the remains of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
into British India
British India
followed, with the colonial officials offering the Jagirs better terms and the right to keep the system intact.[76][77][78] Infrastructure investments[edit] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
ensured that Panjab manufactured and was self-sufficient in all weapons, equipment and munitions his army needed.[11] His government invested in infrastructure in the 1800s and thereafter, established raw materials mines, cannon foundries, gunpowder and arm factories.[11] Some of these operations were owned by the state, others operated by private Sikh
Sikh
operatives.[11] However, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
did not make major investments in other infrastructure such as irrigation canals to improve the productivity of land and roads. The prosperity in his Empire, in contrast to the Mughal- Sikh
Sikh
wars era, largely came from the improvement in the security situation, reduction in violence, reopened trade routes and greater freedom to conduct commerce.[79] Muslim accounts[edit] The mid 19th-century Muslim historians, such as Shahamat Ali who experienced the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
first hand, presented a different view on Ranjit Singh's Empire and governance.[80][81] According to Ali, Ranjit Singh's government was despotic, and he was a mean monarch in contrast to the Mughals.[80] The initial momentum for the Empire building in these accounts is stated to be Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
led Khalsa
Khalsa
army's "insatiable appetite for plunder", their desire for "fresh cities to pillage", and entirely eliminating the Mughal era "revenue intercepting intermediaries between the peasant-cultivator and the treasury".[75] According to Ishtiaq Ahmed, Ranjit Singh's rule led to further persecution of Muslims in Kashmir, expanding the previously selective persecution of Shia Muslims and Hindus by Afghan Sunni Muslim rulers between 1752 and 1819 before Kashmir
Kashmir
became part of his Sikh Empire.[45] Bikramjit Hasrat describes Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
as a "benevolent despot".[82] The Muslim accounts of Ranjit Singh's rule were questioned by Sikh historians of the same era. For example, Ratan Singh Bhangu in 1841 wrote that these accounts were not accurate, and according to Anne Murphy, he remarked, "when would a Musalman praise the Sikhs?"[83] In contrast, the colonial era British military officer Hugh Pearse in 1898 criticised Ranjit Singh's rule, as one founded on "violence, treachery and blood".[84] Sohan Seetal disagrees with this account and states that Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
had encouraged his army to respond with a "tit for tat" against the enemy, violence for violence, blood for blood, plunder for plunder.[85] Decline[edit] Singh made his empire and the Sikhs a strong political force, for which he is deeply admired and revered in Sikhism. However, his era also marked a general decline in religious and moral fervour towards a life of alcoholism and licentiousness, along with a demoralisation of the Sikh
Sikh
court and nobility. He failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh
Sikh
government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire rapidly declined after his death. The British subsequently easily defeated the confused and demoralised Khalsa
Khalsa
forces, then disbanded them into destitution.[86] Sikhism
Sikhism
itself did not decline.[87] Clive Dewey has argued that the decline of the empire after Singh's death owes much to the jagir-based economic and taxation system which he inherited from the Mughals and retained. After his death, a fight to control the tax spoils emerged, leading to a power struggle among the nobles and his family from different wives. This struggle ended with a rapid series of palace coups and assassinations of his descendants, and eventually the annexation of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
by the British.[75] Legacy[edit]

A lithograph by Emily Eden
Emily Eden
showing one of the favourite horses of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and his collection of jewels, including the Koh-i-Noor

Singh is remembered for uniting Sikhs and founding the prosperous Sikh Empire. He is also remembered for his conquests and building a well-trained, self-sufficient Khalsa
Khalsa
army to protect the empire.[88] He amassed considerable wealth, including gaining the possession of the Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
diamond from Shuja Shah Durrani
Shuja Shah Durrani
of Afghanistan, which he left to Jagannath Temple in Puri, Odisha
Odisha
in 1839.[89][90] Gurdwaras[edit] Perhaps Singh's most lasting legacy was the restoration and expansion of the Harmandir Sahib, the most revered Gurudwara of the Sikhs, which is now known popularly as the "Golden Temple".[91] Much of the present decoration at the Harmandir Sahib, in the form of gilding and marblework, was introduced under the patronage of Singh, who also sponsored protective walls and water supply system to strengthen security and operations related to the temple.[13] He also directed construction of two of the most sacred Sikh
Sikh
temples, being the birthplace and place of assassination of Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
- Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, respectively - whom he much admired.[citation needed]

The Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
(also known as the Golden Temple) was completely renovated by Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh.

Memorials and museums[edit]

Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
in Lahore, Pakistan, marks the place where Singh was cremated, and four of his queens and seven concubines committed sati.[92][93] On 20 August 2003, a 22-foot-tall bronze statue of Singh was installed in the Parliament of India.[94] A museum at Ram Bagh in Amritsar
Amritsar
contains objects related to Singh, including arms and armour, paintings, coins, manuscripts, and jewellery. Singh had spent much time at the palace in which it is situated, where a garden was laid out in 1818[95]

See also[edit]

Baradari of Ranjit Singh History of Punjab Jind Kaur List of generals of Ranjit Singh

References[edit]

^ The Sikh
Sikh
Army 1799–1849 By Ian Heath, Michael Perry(Page 3), "...and in April 1801 Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
proclaimed himself Sarkar-i-wala or head of state... ^ A history of the Sikhs by Kushwant Singh, Volume I(Page 195) ^ S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak (2007). "1-Political Condition". In S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak. Studies in Contemporary Indian History – Punjab Through the Ages Volume 2. Sarup & Sons, New Delhi. p. 2. ISBN 81-7625-738-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kushwant Singh. "RANJIT SINGH (1780–1839)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ a b Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Encyclopædia Britannica, Khushwant Singh (2015) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, (Edition: Volume V22, Date: 1910-1911), Page 892. ^ a b Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh
Sikh
empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh
Sikh
empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 113–124. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ a b c d Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 65–68.  ^ a b c d e f Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. pp. 143–147. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ a b Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.  ^ Kerry Brown (2002). Sikh
Sikh
Art and Literature. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-134-63136-0.  ^ According to Sher Singh, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
is believed to be the descendent of the Sansi clan. See: Singh, Sher (1965). The Sansis of Punjab: a Gypsy and denotified tribe of Rajput origin. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. pp.  Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: the most glorious Sansi, p. 13.  ^ a b c d Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–34, 15–16. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ a b c Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 6, 253–254. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ a b Ben Macintyre (2008). The Man Who Would Be King: The First American in Afghanistan. Macmillan. pp. 154–157. ISBN 978-1-4668-0379-4.  ^ a b c Anita Anand (2015). Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-63286-081-1.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ a b c d e Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 300–301 footnote 35. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Sardar
Sardar
Singh Bhatia. "Mahitab Kaur (d, 1813)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Sardar
Sardar
Singh Bhatia. " Raj Kaur (d, 1838)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ a b c d Vincent Arthur Smith (1920). The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911. Oxford University Press. pp. 690–693.  ^ Sardar
Sardar
Singh Bhatia. "Daya Kaur, Rani (d. 1843) and Ratan Kaur, Rani". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Hasrat, B. J. "Jind Kaur, Maharani (1817–1863)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ a b Singh, Kartar (1975). Stories from Sikh
Sikh
History: Book-VII. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 160.  ^ "Articles on named sons of Ranjit Singh". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief: Harbans Singh. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 18 August 2015.  ^ Fane, Henry Edward (1842). Five Years in India, Volume 1, Chapter VII, page 120. Henry Colburn. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ E. Dalhousie Login (1916). "Lady Login's Recollections, Chapter VII, page 85". Smith, Elder & Co, London. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (2001). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.  ^ Altekar, Anant S. (1956). The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization: From Prehistoric Times to the Present Day. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 132. ISBN 978-8120803244.  ^ a b c Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.  ^ a b c Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (15 March 2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-84885-321-8.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 18, 177. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Anita Anand (2015). Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-63286-081-1.  ^ a b Ishtiaq Ahmed (1998). State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-85567-578-0.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 113–116. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Patwant Singh (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 120–124. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.  ^ Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 227–231, 246. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ a b Kaushik Roy; Peter Lorge (2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-1-317-58710-1.  ^ Ganda Singh. "KHALSA". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 7 February 2016.  ^ Jean Marie Lafont (2002). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566111-8.  ^ Marshall 2005, p. 116. ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (2001). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3. ^ Kuiper, Kathleen (2010). The culture of India. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 136. ISBN 1615301496.  ^ Henry Thoby Prinsep (2011). Origin of the Sikh
Sikh
Power in the Punjab, and Political Life of Muha- Raja
Raja
Runjeet Singh. Cambridge University Press. pp. 152–161. ISBN 978-1-108-02872-1.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ K.S. Duggal, Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh
Sikh
Sovereign, Abhinav Publications (1989) ISBN 81-7017-244-6 ^ Sidhwa, Bapsi (2005). "City of Sin and Splendour: Writings on Lahore". Penguin Books. Retrieved 7 January 2017. , Quote: In Lahore, just as he had grasped its historic citadel and put it to his own hardy use or desecrated the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
and converted it into a functional ammuniation store..." ^ a b Amin, Mohamed; Willetts, Duncan; Farrow, Brendan (1988). Lahore. Ferozsons. p. 95. ISBN 9789690006943.  ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Printed at the New Imperial Press. p. 125.  ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1892). Lahore: Its History, Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Printed at the New Imperial Press. pp. 221–223, 339.  ^ "Maryam Zamani Mosque". Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 19: 97. 1996.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Singh, Khushwant (11 October 2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-19-567308-1. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ a b Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 56, 67.  ^ Khushwant Singh (2008). Ranjit Singh. Penguin Books. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-14-306543-2.  ^ Kaushik Roy (2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ a b Singh, Khushwant (2008). Ranjit Singh: Maharaja
Maharaja
of the Punjab. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-143-06543-2.  ^ Teja Singh; Sita Ram Kohli (1986). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 83–85.  ^ a b c d e Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–65. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ a b c Kate Brittlebank (2008). Tall Tales and True: India, Historiography and British Imperial Imaginings. Monash University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-876924-61-4.  ^ a b J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–119. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.  ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.  ^ a b c Clive Dewey (1991). D. A. Low, ed. Political Inheritance of Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 263–265. ISBN 978-1-349-11556-3.  ^ Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ Nicola Mooney (2011). Rural Nostalgias and Transnational Dreams: Identity and Modernity Among Jat Sikhs. University of Toronto Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-8020-9257-1.  ^ Major, Andrew J. (1991). DA Low, ed. "The Punjabi Chieftains and the Transition from Sikh
Sikh
to British Rule". Springer, Cambridge University Commonwealth Series: 53–85. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-11556-3_3. ISBN 978-1-349-11558-7.  ^ Sunit Singh (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh
Sikh
Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ a b Christopher Alan Bayly (1996). Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-66360-1.  ^ Chitralekha Zutshi (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5.  ^ Bikramajit Hasrat (1977). Life and Times of Ranjit Singh: A Saga of Benevolent Despotism. V.V. Research Institute. pp. 83, 198. OCLC 6303625.  ^ Anne Murphy (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 121–126. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.  ^ Gardner, Alexander (1898). "Chapter XII". Memoirs of Alexander Gardner – Colonel of Artillery in the Service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. William Blackwood & Sons. p. 211.  ^ Sohan Singh Seetal (1971). Rise of the Sikh
Sikh
Power and Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. Dhanpat Rai. p. 56. OCLC 6917931.  (note: the original book has 667 pages; the open access version of the same book released by Lahore
Lahore
Publishers on archive.com has deleted about 500 pages of this book; see the original) ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 207–208. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.  ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 208–216. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.  ^ Ian Heath (2005). The Sikh
Sikh
Army 1799–1849. Bloomsbury. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1-84176-777-2.  ^ The Real Ranjit Singh; by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 January 2001, 2nd ed. ^ Isabel Burton (2012). Arabia, Egypt, India: A Narrative of Travel. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-108-04642-8.  ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.  ^ ‘Sati’ choice before Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit’s Ranis, The Tribune, Jun 28, 2015 ^ The Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
- Places & Architecture ^ Singh, Ranjit (20 August 2003). "Parliament to get six more portraits, two statues". Times of India. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ " Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Museum, Amritsar". Punjab Museums. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Jacques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-first Century. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.  Heath, Ian (2005). The Sikh
Sikh
Army 1799–1849. Oxford: Osprey Publishing (UK). ISBN 1-84176-777-8.  Lafont, Jean-Marie Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, Lord of the Five Rivers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-19-566111-7 Marshall, Julie G. (2005), Britain and Tibet 1765–1947: a select annotated bibliography of British relations with Tibet and the Himalayan states including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan (Revised and Updated to 2003 ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-33647-5  Sandhawalia, Preminder Singh Noblemen and Kinsmen: history of a Sikh family. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1999 ISBN 81-215-0914-9 Waheeduddin, Fakir Syed The Real Ranjit Singh; 2nd ed. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1981 ISBN 81-7380-778-7 (First ed. published 1965 Pakistan). Griffin, Sir Lepel Henry (1909). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. The National Archives: Civil and Military Gazette Press. ISBN 978-8175365155. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Umdat Ut Tawarikh by Sohan Lal Suri, Published by Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev University Amritsar
Amritsar
. The Real Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 January 2001, 2nd ed. First ed. published 1965 Pakistan. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: First Death Centenary Memorial, by St. Nihal Singh. Published by Languages Dept., Punjab, 1970. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and his times, by J. S. Grewal, Indu Banga. Published by Dept. of History, Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev University, 1980. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, by Harbans Singh. Published by Sterling, 1980. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, by K. K. Khullar. Published by Hem Publishers, 1980. The reign of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: structure of power, economy and society, by J. S. Grewal. Published by Punjab Historical Studies Dept., Punjabi University, 1981. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, as patron of the arts, by Ranjit Singh. Published by Marg Publications, 1981. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Politics, Society, and Economy, by Fauja Singh, A. C. Arora. Published by Publication Bureau, Punjabi University, 1984. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and his Times, by Bhagat Singh. Published by Sehgal Publishers Service, 1990. ISBN 81-85477-01-9. History of the Punjab: Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, by Shri Ram Bakshi. Published by Anmol Publications, 1991. The Historical Study of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh's Times, by Kirpal Singh. Published by National Book Shop, 1994. ISBN 81-7116-163-4. An Eyewitness account of the fall of Sikh
Sikh
empire: memories of Alexander Gardner, by Alexander Haughton Campbell Gardner, Baldev Singh Baddan, Hugh Wodehouse Pearse. Published by National Book Shop, 1999. ISBN 81-7116-231-2. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms, by Kartar Singh Duggal. Published by Abhinav Publications, 2001. ISBN 81-7017-410-4. Fauj-i-khas Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
and His French Officers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev University, 2002. ISBN 81-7770-048-0. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, by Mohinder Singh, Rishi Singh, Sondeep Shankar, National Institute of Panjab Studies (India). Published by UBS Publishers' Distributors with National Institute of Panjab Studies, 2002. ISBN 81-7476-372-4,. Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers, by Jean Marie Lafont. Published by Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-566111-7. The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore
Lahore
Durbar, by Amarinder Singh. Published by Roli Books, 2010. Glory of Sikhism, by R. M. Chopra, Sanbun Publishers, 2001. Chapter on "Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh".

External links[edit]

Gallery on Sikhs Raj with Rare portraits of Sikh
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maharaja
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of Punjab.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sikh
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profile from sikh-history.com Ranjit Singh Official government of Pakistan
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cultural history article on Maharaja Ranjit Singh RoyalArk on Punjab's dynasty, includes extensive bios

Biographies

Detailed article on Ranjit Singh's Army  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ranjit Singh". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Preceded by Charat Singh Leader of the Sukerchakia Misl 1792–1839 Succeeded by None

Preceded by None Maharaja
Maharaja
of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire 1801–1839 Succeeded by Kharak Singh

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