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Randolph Jefferson (October 1, 1755 – August 7, 1815) was the younger brother of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and a planter. He was Thomas' only brother to survive infancy. He was a twin to Anna Scott Jefferson, Thomas' youngest sister. Randolph and Anna were 12 years younger than Thomas. He married his first cousin, Anne Lewis, on 30 July 1781 in Albemarle County.[1] They had five sons and a daughter who survived. They resided at Snowden in Buckingham County. Anne died some time after the birth of their last son in 1796-97, and before Randolph's May 1808 will. Randolph remarried after May 1808 and before December 1809 to Mitchie B. Pryor of Buckingham County. She conceived a son before Randolph died in August 1815.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Marriage and family

2.1 Suggested paternity of Sally Hemings' children

3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References

Biography[edit] Born at Shadwell, the Jefferson family plantation in Albemarle County, Virginia, Randolph Jefferson spent his entire life in Virginia. He attended The Grammar School at the College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
and was tutored in higher subjects by Thomas Gwatkin, who taught Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at the College.[1] Records show he resided at the College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
from Oct 1771 until Sept 1772.[1][8] Additionally, he took violin lessons from Frances Alberti, the same instructor as his brother.[9] Prior to that, he attended Ben Snead's English School in Albemarle County, as did his sisters.[10] The historian Dumas Malone
Dumas Malone
writes in his book, Jefferson and His Time: The Sage of Monticello, that Randolph did not share his older brother's eloquence. His letters to Thomas show a disregard of grammar and the use of colloquialisms such as "tech" instead of "touch."[11] Randolph Jefferson served in the Revolution
Revolution
and in the local militia, and he furnished provisions for Virginia
Virginia
troops, pasture for cavalry horses, and Negro slave laborers at Scotts Ferry to help remove military stores. Along with his brother, Jefferson signed an Oath of Allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
on 21 April 1779. He seems to have been an amiable man. A court record states that Randolph did not "possess the skill for the judicious management of his affairs, and that in all the occasions of life a diffidence in his own opinions." It said he was a kind man, but he was easily influenced by others.[11][12][13][14] A former Monticello
Monticello
enslaved man, Isaac Jefferson, recalled in 1847 that "Old Master's brother, Mass Randall, was a mighty simple man: used to come out among black people, play the fiddle and dance half the night: hadn't much more sense that Isaac."[2][15][16] Thomas was considerate and affectionate toward Randolph; they addressed each other as "Dear Brother," and exchanged visits and services with each other. Letters document that Thomas lent Randolph the harness for a gig, had his watch repaired, gave him a dog, sent him vegetable seeds, and gave him a spinning jenny.[11] Captain Jefferson, as Randolph was called, inherited his plantation, Snowden, from their father Peter Jefferson. It was located about twenty miles south of Monticello, in Buckingham County, across from Scott's Ferry. Jefferson earned his title, Captain, while serving for a nearly a decade in the Buckingham County Militia.[1] His life at Snowden was relatively simple compared to life at Monticello; however, he was an affluent planter and dependent on enslaved labor. In early 1816, only two days after Randolph's second wife and widow Mitchie B. Jefferson moved out, the dwelling house at Snowden burned to the ground.[1] Marriage and family[edit] Jefferson's first marriage was to his first cousin, Anne Lewis, on July 30, 1780,[17] however, another account states that they were married in 1781.[1][18] Ann was the daughter of Colonel Charles Lewis of Buck Island and Mary Randolph, the sister of Jane Randolph Jefferson.[17][19] Isham Randolph of Dungeness was the grandfather in common of both Randolph Jefferson and Ann Jefferson Lewis. They had five sons of record mentioned sequentially in Randolph's 1808 will, as written by his brother: Thomas; Robert Lewis; Peter Field; Isham Randolph; and James Lilburne.[1] As a child, Thomas was a resident at Monticello
Monticello
for extended periods of schooling in 1799 and 1800, and possibly 1801. Thomas eventually married his first cousin, Mary Randolph Lewis, the daughter of Charles Lilburn Lewis of Monteagle.[17][18] They also had one daughter, Anne "Nancy" Jefferson, who married Zachariah Nevil.[1] After Anne died, Randolph Jefferson married Mitchie B. Pryor of Buckingham. Suggested paternity of Sally Hemings' children[edit] Main article: Jefferson–Hemings controversy The Jefferson–Hemings controversy
Jefferson–Hemings controversy
concerns the question of whether there was an intimate relationship between U.S. President Thomas Jefferson and his mixed-race slave, Sally Hemings, that resulted in his fathering her six children of record. Randolph Jefferson was proposed in one study as a possible alternate to his brother. Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Randolph, told a historian in the 1850s that Peter Carr, a nephew of Jefferson's (the son of his sister), had fathered Hemings' children. Historians generally asserted this denial for over 130 years. While some historians of the late twentieth century started reanalyzing the body of evidence, for many consensus was not reached until after a Y-DNA
Y-DNA
analysis in 1998: results showed a match between the Jefferson male line and a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally's youngest son. There was no match between the Carr line and the Eston Hemings
Eston Hemings
descendant. The Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Heritage Society, formed in 1999 after the DNA results were published, commissioned its own independent scholars' report; completed in 2001, it suggested that Randolph Jefferson or one of his sons rather than his brother, Thomas Jefferson, was the father of Hemings' children.[20] Critics of the report noted Randolph had never been seriously proposed as a candidate until after the DNA study of 1998.[21] Cynthia Burton supports Randolph as a potential father.[22] Alexander Boulton noted that "previous testimony had agreed" that Hemings had only one father for her children.[21] Some researchers documented that Randolph Jefferson was seldom at Monticello.[23] Robert Turner is a Jefferson scholar who disagrees[clarification needed].[24] The Monticello
Monticello
Jefferson-Hemings Report (2000) noted that Randolph made only four recorded visits to Monticello
Monticello
(in September 1802, September 1805, May 1808, and sometime in 1814); none is related to Sally Hemings's conceptions. In August 1807, a probable conception time for Eston Hemings, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
wrote to his brother about visiting, but there is no evidence that the younger man arrived. Similarly, no documentation of a Randolph visit appears at the probable conception time for Madison Hemings.[9][25] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Randolph Jefferson

16. John Jefferson

8. Thomas Jefferson

4. Thomas Jefferson, Jr.

18. Christopher Branch Jr.

9. Mary Branch

2. Peter Jefferson

20. John Field

10. Peter Field

5. Mary Field

22. Henry Sloane

11. Judith Sloane

23. Judith Fuller

1. Randolph Jefferson

24. Richard Randolph

12. William Randolph

25. Elizabeth Ryland

6. Isham Randolph of Dungeness

26. Henry Isham

13. Mary Isham

27. Catherine Banks

3. Jane Randolph Jefferson

28. Thomas Rogers

14. Charles Rogers

29. Elizabeth Snow

7. Jane Rogers

30. William Lilburn

15. Jane Lilburn

31. Elizabeth Nicholson

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Yeck, Joanne (2012). The Jefferson Brothers. Kettering, OH: Slate River Press. ISBN 9780983989813.  ^ a b Cynthia H. Burton, Jefferson Vindicated--Fallacies, Omissions, and Contradictions in the Hemings Genealogical Search, 2005 ^ Vogt and Keithley, Albemarle County Marriages, 1780-1853, Vol. 1, 1991 ^ Will of Randolph Jefferson dated 28 May 1808, ViU ^ Jefferson Family Bible, LVA ^ Buckingham Court Deposition of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
dated 5 Sep 1815, ViU ^ Albemarle County Personal Property Tax records ^ Bursar's Book, 1770-1777, College Archives, College of William and Mary ^ a b Yeck, Joanne (2011). "A Most Valuable Citizen: A Profile of Randolph Jefferson". Magazine of Albemarle County History. 69: 1–37.  ^ James A. Bear, Jr. and Lucia Stanton, Jefferson's Memorandum Books, 1991. ^ a b c Mayo and Bear, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and his Unknown Brother ^ John H. Gwathmey, Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution ^ Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Deposition, Buckingham Co. Court, 15 Sept. 1815 ^ Jefferson Papers at UVA, microfilm, ViU. ^ James A. Bear, Jr., Jefferson at Monticello, 1967 ^ "Isaac Granger Jefferson". ^ a b c Sorley, Merrow Egerton (2000) [1935]. "Chapter 13: Col Charles Lewis of Buck Island". Lewis of Warner Hall: The History of a Family. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co. pp. 365, 370–371. ISBN 9780806308319.  ^ a b Woods, Edgar (1901). Albemarle County in Virginia. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Michie Company.  ^ McAllister, John Meriwether; Tandy, Lura Boulton, eds. (1906). "Charles Lewis". Genealogies of the Lewis and Kindred Families. Columbia, Missouri: E.W. Stephens Publishing Co. p. 101.  ^ " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account", Monticello Website, accessed 22 June 2011 ^ a b Alexander Boulton, "The Monticello
Monticello
Mystery-Case Continued" Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine., reviews of The Jefferson-Hemings Myth: An American Travesty; A President in the Family: Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings
Sally Hemings
and Thomas Woodson; and Free Some Day: African American Families at Monticello; in 'William & Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 58, No. 4, October 2001. Quote: Past defenses of Jefferson having proven inadequate, the TJHS advocates have pieced together an alternative case that preserves the conclusions of earlier champions but introduces new "evidence" to support them. Randolph Jefferson, for example, had never seriously been considered as a possible partner of Sally Hemings
Sally Hemings
until the late 20th century, when DNA evidence indicated that a member of the Jefferson family was unquestionably the father of Eston. ^ Burton, Cynthia H. "Why Randolph Jefferson is the Likely Candidate" fredericksburg.com, February 8, 2012 Archived January 24, 2013, at Archive.is ^ Jeanette K. B. Daniels, AG, CGRS, Marietta Glauser, Diana Harvey, and Carol Hubbell Ouellette, " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Sally Hemings, A Look at Some Original Documents", Heritage Quest Magazine, May/June 2003 ^ Turner, Robert F. "Evidence Regarding TJ/Hemings is Deeply Flawed" fredericksburg.com, February 7, 2012 ^ Monticello
Monticello
Jefferson-Hemings Report: Appendix J

References[edit]

Fawn M. Brodie Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History 1974 Noble E. Cunningham, Jr. In Pursuit of Reason: The Life of Thomas Jefferson 1987 Annette Gordon-Reed, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, 1997; reprint 1999 with response to DNA results Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time: The Sage of Monticello
Monticello
1977

v t e

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1801–1809) 2nd U.S. Vice President (1797–1801) 1st U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793) U.S. Minister to France (1785–1789) 2nd Governor of Virginia
Virginia
(1779–1781) Delegate, Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding documents of the United States

A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) Initial draft, Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775) 1776 Declaration of Independence

Committee of Five authored physical history "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed"

1786 Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom

freedom of religion

French Revolution

Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(1789)

Presidency

Inaugural Address (1801 1805) Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark Expedition

Corps of Discovery timeline Empire of Liberty

Red River Expedition Pike Expedition Cumberland Road Embargo Act of 1807

Chesapeake–Leopard affair Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

First Barbary War Native American policy Marbury v. Madison West Point Military Academy State of the Union Addresses (texts 1801 1802 1805) Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Other noted accomplishments

Early life and career Founder, University of Virginia

history

Land Ordinance of 1784

Northwest Ordinance 1787

Anti-Administration party Democratic-Republican Party Jeffersonian democracy

First Party System republicanism

Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measure of the United States (1790) Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
Resolutions A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801)

Jeffersonian architecture

Barboursville Farmington Monticello

gardens

Poplar Forest University of Virginia

The Rotunda The Lawn

Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol White House
White House
Colonnades

Other writings

Notes on the State of Virginia
Virginia
(1785) 1787 European journey memorandums Indian removal letters Jefferson Bible
Jefferson Bible
(1895) Jefferson manuscript collection at the Massachusetts Historical Society The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment American Philosophical Society American Revolution

patriots

Member, Virginia
Virginia
Committee of Correspondence Committee of the States Founding Fathers of the United States Franco-American alliance Jefferson and education Religious views Jefferson and slavery Jefferson and the Library of Congress Jefferson disk Jefferson Pier Pet mockingbird National Gazette Residence Act

Compromise of 1790

Sally Hemings

Jefferson–Hemings controversy Betty Hemings

Separation of church and state Swivel chair The American Museum magazine Virginia
Virginia
dynasty

Elections

United States Presidential election 1796 1800 1804

Legacy

Bibliography Jefferson Memorial Mount Rushmore Birthday Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Center for the Protection of Free Expression Jefferson Lecture Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Star for Foreign Service Jefferson Lab Monticello
Monticello
Association Jefferson City, Missouri Jefferson College Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
School of Law Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
University Washington and Jefferson National Forests Other placenames Currency depictions

Jefferson nickel Two-dollar bill

U.S. postage stamps

Popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Jefferson in Paris
Jefferson in Paris
(1995 film) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1997 film) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Jefferson's Garden (2015 play) Hamilton (2015 musical) Jefferson–Eppes Trophy Wine bottles controversy

Family

Peter Jefferson
Peter Jefferson
(father) Jane Randolph Jefferson
Jane Randolph Jefferson
(mother) Lucy Jefferson Lewis (sister) Randolph Jefferson (brother) Isham Randolph (grandfather) William Randolph
William Randolph
(great-grandfather) Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
(wife) Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
Randolph (daughter) Mary Jefferson Eppes (daughter) Harriet Hemings
Harriet Hemings
(daughter) Madison Hemings
Madison Hemings
(son) Eston Hemings
Eston Hemings
(son) Thomas J. Randolph (grandson) Francis Eppes (grandson) George W. Randolph
George W. Randolph
(grandson) John Wayles Jefferson
John Wayles Jefferson
(grandson) Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
(son-in-law) John Wayles Eppes (son-in-law) John Wayles (father-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(brother-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(nephew)

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James Madison

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 48071101 LCCN: n80138

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