Ramla (Hebrew: רַמְלָה, Ramla; Arabic: الرملة,
ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city
in central Israel. The city is predominantly
Jewish with a significant
Ramla was founded circa 705–715 CE by the Umayyad
governor and future caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik.
Ramla lies along
the route of the Via Maris, connecting old
Cairo (Fustat) with
Damascus, at its intersection with the road connecting the port of
Jaffa with Jerusalem.
It was conquered many times in the course of its history, by the
Abbasids, the Ikhshidids, the Fatimids, the Seljuqs, the Crusaders,
the Mameluks, the Turks, the British, and the Israelis. After an
outbreak of the
Black Death in 1347, which greatly reduced the
population, an order of
Franciscan monks established a presence in the
Arab and Ottoman rule the city became an important trade
center. Napoleon's French Army occupied it in 1799 on its way to Acre.
The town had an
Arab majority before most of its
Arab inhabitants were
expelled or fled during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The town was
subsequently repopulated by
Jewish immigrants. In 2001, 80% of the
Jewish and 20%
Arab Muslims and 4% Arab
In recent years, attempts have been made to develop and beautify the
city, which has been plagued by neglect, financial problems and a
negative public image. New shopping malls and public parks have been
built, and a municipal museum opened in 2001.
A 2013 Israeli police report documented that the Central District
ranks fourth among Israel's seven districts in terms of drug-related
arrests. Today, five prisons are located in Ramla, including the
maximum-security Ayalon Prison.
1.2 Crusader Period
1.3 Ottoman era
1.4 British Mandate era
1.4.1 1947/8 civil war
1.5 State of Israel
3 Landmarks and notable buildings
Cave with rare ecosystem
10 Notable people
11 Twin towns—Sister cities
12 See also
15 External links
According to the 9th-century
Arab geographer Ya'qubi, ar-Ramleh
(Ramla) was founded in 716 by the governor of the
Ummayad District of
Palestine (Jund Filastin), Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, brother and
Caliph Walid I. Its name was derived from the Arabic word
raml (رمل), meaning sand. The name of La Rambla, a major street
of Barcelona, is ultimately derived from the same linguistic origin.
The early residents came from nearby Ludd (Lydda, Lod). Ramla
flourished as the capital of Jund Filastin, which was one of the five
districts of the Syrian province of the
Ummayad and Abbasid
Ramla was the principal city and district capital almost until the
arrival of the
Crusaders in the 11th century. In the 8th century,
the Ummayads built the White Mosque, which was hailed as the finest in
the land, outside of Jerusalem. The remains of this mosque, flanked by
a minaret added at a later date, can still be seen today. In the
courtyard are underground water cisterns from this period.
Ramla was sometimes referred to as Filastin, in keeping with the
common practice of referring to districts by the name of their main
The 10th-century geographer al-Muqaddasi ("the Jerusalemite")
Ramla at the peak of its prosperity:
"It is a fine city, and well built; its water is good and plentiful;
it fruits are abundant. It combines manifold advantages, situated as
it is in the midst of beautiful villages and lordly towns, near to
holy places and pleasant hamlets. Commerce here is prosperous, and the
markets excellent...The bread is of the best and the whitest. The
lands are well favoured above all others, and the fruits are the most
luscious. This capital stands among fruitful fields, walled towns and
Ramla's economic importance, shared with the neighboring city of
Lydda, was based on its strategic location.
Ramla was at the
intersection of two major roads, one linking
Egypt with Syria (the
so-called "Via Maris") and the other linking
Jerusalem with the
In 1068 a ground-rupturing earthquake centered in Wadi
Ramla totally destroyed, killing some 15,000-25,000 inhabitants. The
city lay abandoned for four years and never fully recovered it
The armies of the
First Crusade took the hastily evacuated town
without a fight. In the early years of the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem though, control over this strategic location led to three
consecutive battles between the
Crusaders and Egyptian armies from
Ascalon. As Crusader rule stabilized,
Ramla became the seat of a
seigneury in the Kingdom of
Lordship of Ramla within
the County of
Jaffa and Ascalon). It was a city of some economic
significance and an important way station for pilgrims travelling to
Crusaders identified it with the biblical Ramathaim and
called it Arimathea.
Ramla, 1487, by Conrad Grünenberg
Around 1163, rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, who also mistook it for a more
ancient city, visited "Rama, or Ramleh, where there are remains of the
walls from the days of our ancestors, for thus it was found written
upon the stones. About 300 Jews dwell there. It was formerly a very
great city; at a distance of two miles (3 km) there is a large Jewish
1698 scene by Cornelis de Bruijn
Ramleh, by Félix Bonfils, pre-1885
In the early days of the Ottoman period, in 1548, 528
and 82 Christian families were living in Ramla.
On March 2, 1799,
Napoleon Bonaparte occupied
Ramla during his
unsuccessful bid to conquer Palestine, using the
Franciscan hospice as
his headquarters. The village appeared as Ramleh on the map of
Pierre Jacotin compiled during this campaign.
In 1838 Edward Robinson found Ramleh to be a town of about 3000
inhabitants, surrounded by olive-groves and vegetables. It had few
streets, and the houses were made of stone and were well-built. There
were several mosques in the town.
Victor Guérin noted that the Latin (Catholic) population was
reduced to two priests and 50 parishioners. In 1869, the
population was given as 3,460; 3000 Muslims, 400 Greek Orthodox and 60
In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine
noted that there was a bazaar in the town, "but its prosperity has
much decayed, and many of the houses are falling into ruins, including
the Serai." Expansion began only at the end of the 19th
In 1889, 31
Jewish worker families settled in the town, which had no
Jewish population at the time.
British Mandate era
1922 census of Palestine
1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate
authorities, ‘’Ramleh’’ had a population of 7,312 inhabitants;
5,837 Muslims, 1,440 Christians and 35 Jews. The Christian were
1,226 Orthodox, 2 Syrian Orthodox (Jacobites), 150 Roman Catholics, 8
Melchites, 4 Maronite, 15 Armenian, 2 Abyssinian Church and 36
It had creased in the 1931 census to 10,347; 8,157 Muslims, 5 Jews,
2,194 Christians and 2 Druze, in a total of 2339 houses.
Ramla was connected to wired electricity (supplied by the Zionist
owned Palestine Electric Company) towards the end of the 1920s.
Economist Basim Faris noted this fact as proof of Ramla's higher
standard of living than neighboring Lydda. In Ramla, he wrote,
“economic demands triumph over nationalism” while Lydda, “which
is ten minutes’ walk from Ramleh, is still averse to such a
convenience as electric current, and so is not as yet served; perhaps
the low standard of living of the poor population prevents the use of
the service at the present rates, which cannot compete with petroleum
Sheikh Mustafa Khairi was mayor of
Ramla from 1920 to 1947.
The 1945/46 survey gives 'Ramle' a population of 15,160; of whom
Muslim and 3,260 Christian.
View of Ramla
1947/8 civil war
Main article: 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle
Ramleh from air, 1948
Ramleh mosque 1948 from Palmach archive
A second mosque in Ramleh, 1948, from the Palmach archive
Ramla was part of the territory allotted to a proposed
under the 1947 UN Partition Plan. However, Ramla's geographical
location and its strategic position on the main supply route to
Jerusalem made it a point of contention during the 1948 Arab-Israeli
War. A bomb by the
Jewish militia group
Irgun went off in the Ramla
market on February 18, killing 7 residents and injuring 45.
After a number of unsuccessful raids on Ramla, the Israeli army
launched Operation Dani.
Ramla was captured on 12–12 July 1948, a
few days after the capture of Lydda. The
Arab resistance surrendered
on July 12, and most of the remaining inhabitants were driven out
on the orders of David Ben-Gurion. A disputed claim, advanced by
scholars including Ilan Pappé, characterizes this as ethnic
cleansing. After the Israeli capture, some 1,000 Arabs remained in
Ramla, and more were transferred to the town by the IDF from outlying
Arab settlements which the military wanted emptied. As of 2000, the
total population of
Arab refugees and their descendents with origins
Ramla was estimated by
Benny Morris and other historians at
State of Israel
Ramla became a mixed Jewish-
Arab town within the state of Israel. Arab
homes of those who left in
Ramla were given by the Israeli government
Jewish immigrants arriving at this time. In
February 1949, the
Jewish population was over 6,000.
economically depressed over the next two decades, although the
population steadily mounted, reaching 34,000 by 1972.
Ramla had one of Israel's highest crime rates.
The city suffered severe damage from earthquakes in 1033, 1068, 1070,
1546, and 1927.
Landmarks and notable buildings
Tower of Ramla, built in the 13th century
The Tower of Ramla, also known as the White Tower, was built in the
13th century. It served as the minaret of the White Mosque(al-Masjid
al-Abyad) erected by
Caliph Suleiman in the 8th century, of which only
remnants remain today. The tower is six stories high, with a
spiral staircase of 119 steps.
The Hospice of St.
Nicodemus and St. Joseph of
Arimathea on Ramla's
main boulevard, Herzl Street, is easily recognized by its clock-faced,
square tower. It belongs to the
Napoleon used the
hospice as his headquarters during his Palestine campaign in 1799.
Ramla Museum is housed in the former municipal headquarters of the
British Mandatory authorities. The building, from 1922, incorporates
Arab architecture such as arched windows and patterned
tiled floors. After 1948, it was the central district office of the
Israeli Ministry of Finance. In 2001, the building became a museum
documenting the history of Ramla.
The Pool of Arches, an underground water cistern, is currently under
restoration. Also known as St. Helen’s Pool and Bīr al-Anezīya, it
was built during the reign of the caliph Haroun al-Rashid in 789 AD
(the early Islamic period) to provide
Ramla with a steady supply of
Ramleh Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery
Ramleh Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery is the largest
Commonwealth war cemetery in Israel. The Giv'on immigration detention
centre is located in Ramla.
A tradition reported by
Ishtori Haparchi (1280–1355) and other early
Jewish writers is that
Ramla was the biblical Gath of the
Philistines. Initial archaeological claims seemed to indicate
Ramla was not built on the site of an ancient city, although
in recent years the ruins of an old city site were uncovered on the
southern outskirts of Ramla. Earlier, Mazar had proposed that
ancient Gath lay at a site Ras Abu Hamid east of Ramla. Avi-Yonah,
however, considered that to be a different Gath, usually now called
Gath-Gittaim. This view is also supported by other scholars, those
holding that there was, both, a Geth (believed to be Tell es-Safi) and
Gath-Rimmon (in or near Ramla).
Archaeological excavations in
Ramla conducted in 1992–1995 unearthed
the remains of a dyeing industry (Dar al-Sabbaghin, house of the
Dyers) near the White Mosque; hydraulic installations such as pools,
subterranean reservoirs and cisterns; and abundant ceramic finds that
include glass, coins and jar handles stamped with Arabic
Cave with rare ecosystem
Main article: Ayalon Cave
In May 2006, a cave was discovered in
Ramla which sustains a most
seldom type of ecosystem, based on bacteria that create all the energy
they need chemically, from the sulfur compounds they find in the
water, with no light or organic food coming in from the surface. A
bulldozer working in the Nesher cement quarry on the outskirts of
Ramla accidentally broke into the subterranean cavern. The finds have
been attributed to the cave's isolation, which led to the evolution of
a whole food chain of specially developed organisms, including several
previously unknown species of invertebrates. With several large halls
on different levels, it measures 2,700 metres (8,900 ft) long,
making it the third largest limestone cave in Israel.
One of the finds was an eyeless scorpion, given the name Akrav
israchanani honoring the researchers who identified it,
and Hanan Dimentman. All ten specimen of the blind scorpion found in
the cave had been dead for several years, possibly because recent
overpumping of the groundwater has led the underground lake to shrink,
and with it the food supply to dwindle. Seven more species of
troglobite crustaceans and springtails were discovered in "Noah's Ark
Cave", as the Ayyalon
Cave has been dubbed by journalists, several of
them unknown to science.
According to the
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), a total of
63,462 people were living in
Ramla at the end of 2004. In 2001, the
ethnic makeup of the city was 80% Jewish, 20%
and 4% Christian Arabs).
Ramla is the center of
Karaite Judaism in
According to CBS data, there were 21,000 salaried workers and 1,700
self-employed persons in
Ramla in 2000. The mean monthly wage for a
salaried worker was NIS 4,300, with a real increase of 4.4% over the
course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of NIS 5,200,
with a real increase of 3.3%, compared to NIS 3,300 for women, with a
real increase of 6.3%. The average income for self-employed persons
was NIS 4,900. A total of 1,100 persons received unemployment
benefits, and 5,600 received income supplements.
Israel Cement Enterprises, Israel's sole producer of cement,
maintains its flagship factory in Ramla.
Ramla station building, circa 1930
Ramla Railway Station
Ramla Railway Station provides an hourly service on the Israel
Railways Tel Aviv–
Jerusalem line. The station is located in north
east side of the city and originally opened in April 1891, making it
the oldest active railway station in Israel. It was most recently
reopened on April 12, 2003 after having been rebuilt in a new location
closer to the town's center.
According to CBS, there are 31 schools and 12,000 students in the
city. These include 22 elementary schools with a student population of
7,700 and nine high schools with a population of 3,800. In 2001, 47%
of Ramla's 12th grade students graduated with a bagrut matriculation
certificate. Many of the
Jewish schools are run by
The Arabs, both Muslims and Christian, increasingly depend on own
private schools and not Israeli governmental schools. There are
currently two Christian schools, such as Terra Santa School, the Greek
Orthodox School, and there is one Islamic school in preparations.
The Open House in
Ramla is a preschool and daycare center for
Jewish children. In the afternoons, Open House runs extracurricular
coexistence programs for Jewish, Christian, and
Ron Atias, taekwondo athlete who represented
Israel at the 2016 Summer
Khalil al-Wazir a.k.a. Abu Jihad: Palestinian
Arab co-founder of the
Michael Fanous: peace activist
Amir Hadad: tennis player
Arab nationalist leader of Youth Congress Party
Barno Itzhakova: Tajik vocalist, immigrated to
Ramla in 1991
Moni Moshonov: (born 1951), actor and comedian
Yishai Oliel (born 2000): tennis player
Shay Tubali: writer
Khayr al-Din al-Ramli: 17th-century Islamic legal scholar
Elias Abuelazam: serial killer
Twin towns—Sister cities
Ramla is twinned with:
Kansas City, Missouri
Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
^ "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF).
Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
^ King, Edmund (2004) "Stephen (c.1092–1154)" Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, online
edition accessed Oct 27, 2009
^ University of
Haifa Excavation in Marcus Street, Ramala; Reports and
studies of the Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies and
^ Pilger, 2011, p. 194
^ "עיריית רמלה – אתר האינטרנט". Ramla.muni.il.
Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ "Zachary J. Foster, "Are
Ramla the Drug Capitals of Israel
and Palestine?," Palestine Square Blog December 30, 2015".
^ or "sandy"; Palmer, 1881, p. 217
^ Petersen, 2005, p. 95
^ Le Strange, 1890, p?
^ Encyclopedia of Islam, article "al-Ramla"; Myriam Rosen-Ayalon, The
first century of Ramla, Arabica, vol 43, 1996, pp250–263.
Ashtory HaParchi (lived in Palestine ca. 1310–1355), in his
travel book Kaftor VaPerach twice mentions this practice; also a 1326
report in The Travels of Ibn Battuta, ed. H.A.R. Gibb (Cambridge
University Press, 1954), 1:71–82. For the earlier period: Amikam
Elad, Two identical inscriptions from
Jund Filastin from the reign of
Abbasid Caliph, Al-Muqtadir, Journal of the Economic and Social
History of the Orient, vol. 35 (1992) pp301–360.
^ Foster, Zachary J. (2016). "Was
Jerusalem Part of Palestine? The
Forgotten City of Ramla, 900–1900". British Journal of Middle
Eastern Studies. doi:10.1080/13530194.2016.1142426.
^ Le Strange, 1890, p. 304
^ Le Strange, 1890, p? ; Encyclopedia of Islam, article
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-21. Retrieved
^ Encyclopedia of Islam, article "al-Ramla".
^ Pringle, 1998, p. 181
^ Marcus Nathan Adler (1907). The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela.
London: Oxford University Press. pp. 26–27. Adler notes
that earlier translations wrote "3" rather than "300", but he
considers that incorrect.
^ Cohen and Lewis, 1978, p. ?
^ From the sources listed above: no Jews in 1525, 1538, 1548, 1592;
two in 1852
^ "INS Scholarship 1998: Jaffa, 1799". Napoleon-series.org. Retrieved
May 6, 2009.
^ Karmon, 1960, p. 171
^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, pp. 25-33
^ Guérin, 1868, pp. 34-55
^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 252
^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 253
^ Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, "The Population of the Large Towns in Palestine
During the First Eighty Years of the Nineteenth Century, According to
Western Sources", in Studies on Palestine during the Ottoman Period,
ed. Moshe Ma'oz (Jerusalem, 1975), 49–69.
^ HaMelitz newspaper, 26/11/1889 page 2, National Library of Israel
^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Ramleh, p. 21
^ Barron, 1923, Table XIV, p. 21
^ Mills, 1932, p. 22
^ Faris, A. Basim (1936) Electric Power in Syria and Palestine.
Beirut: American University of Beirut Press, pp. 66-67. Also see:
Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 71, 74
^ "Sheikh Mustafa Yousef Ahmad Abdelrazzaq El-Khairi (El-Khayri) The
Ramla (1920–1947)". Palestineremembered.com. Retrieved May
^ Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 30
^ UN map Archived 2009-01-24 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Embassy of Israel, London, website. 2002. Quoting Zeez Vilani –
Ramla past and present'.
^ Scotsman February 24, 1948 :'
Jerusalem (Monday) – The ‘High
Command’ of the
Arab military organisation issued a communiqué to
the newspapers here to-day claiming full responsibility for the
explosion in Ben Yehuda Street on Sunday. It was said to be in
reprisal for an attack by
Irgun at Ramleh several days ago.'
^ Morris, 2004, p. 427
^ Many of the refugees including a large number of children died (at
least 400+ according to the
Arab historian 'Aref al-Aref) from thirst,
hunger, and heat exhaustion after being stripped of their valuables on
the way out by Israeli soldiers. Morris, "
Operation Dani and the
Palestinian Exodus from Lydda and Ramle in 1948", The Middle East
Journal, 40 (1986) 82–109; Morris, 2004, pp. 429–430, who quotes
the orders; Rabin memoirs (censored section, The New York Times,
October 23, 1979).
^ For the use of the term "ethnic cleansing," see, for example, Pappé
On whether what occurred in Lydda and Ramle constituted ethnic
Morris 2008, p. 408: "although an atmosphere of what would later be
called ethnic cleansing prevailed during critical months, transfer
never became a general or declared Zionist policy. Thus, by war's end,
even though much of the country had been 'cleansed' of Arabs, other
parts of the country—notably central Galilee—were left with
Arab populations, and towns in the heart of the
Jewish coastal strip,
Haifa and Jaffa, were left with an Arab
Spangler 2015, p. 156: "During the Nakba, the 1947 [sic] displacement
of Palestinians, Rabin had been second in command over Operation Dani,
the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinian towns of towns of Lydda and
Schwartzwald 2012, p. 63: "The facts do not bear out this contention
[of ethnic cleansing]. To be sure, some refugees were forced to flee:
fifty thousand were expelled from the strategically located towns of
Lydda and Ramle ... But these were the exceptions, not the rule, and
ethnic cleansing had nothing to do with it."
Golani and Manna 2011, p. 107: "The explusion of some 50,000
Palestinians from their homes ... was one of the most visible
atrocities stemming from Israel's policy of ethnic cleansing."
^ A. Golan, Lydda and Ramle: "From Palestinian-
Arab to Israeli Towns",
1948–1967, Middle Eastern Studies 39,4 (2003) 121–139.
^ "Police study: Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Haifa, Ramle and Eilat Israel's most
violent cities". Ha'aretz. October 9, 2011. Retrieved February 1,
^ D. H. K. Amiran (1996). "Location Index for Earthquakes in Israel
since 100 B.C.E.".
Israel Exploration Journal. 46 (1/2):
Israel Antiquities Authority – Gallery of Sites and Finds".
Antiquities.org.il. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ The Guide to Israel, Zeev Vilnai, Hamakor Press, Jerusalem, 1972, p.
Ramla Pool of Arches". Iaa-conservation.org.il. 2005-12-27.
^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach, vol. II, chapter 11, s.v.
ויבנה בארץ פלשתים, (3rd edition)
Jerusalem 2007, p. 78
^ B. Mazar (1954). "Gath and Gittaim".
Israel Exploration Journal. 4
^ Nimrod Luz (1997). "The Construction of an Islamic City in
Palestine. The Case of
Umayyad al-Ramla". Journal of the Royal Asiatic
Society, Third Series. 7 (1): 27–54.
^ Ramla: Excavations and Surveys in
^ Mazar (Maisler), Benjamin (1954). "Gath and Gittaim". Israel
Exploration Journal. 4 (3): 233. JSTOR 27924579. (Registration
^ Michael Avi-Yonah. "Gath". Encyclopedia Judaica. 7 (second ed.).
^ Rainey, Anson (1998). "Review by: Anson F. Rainey". Journal of the
American Oriental Society. 118 (1): 73. JSTOR 606301.
(Registration required (help)).
^ Rainey, Anson (1975). "The Identification of Philistine Gath".
Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies.
Nelson Glueck Memorial Volume: 63–76. JSTOR 23619091.
(Registration required (help)).
^ "Vincenz :
Ramla The Shelby White – Leon Levy Program for
Archaeological Publications". Fas.harvard.edu. Archived from the
original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ "Underground world found at quarry –
Israel Culture, Ynetnews".
Ynetnews.com. June 20, 1995. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ "One year later, 'Noah's Ark' cave is no longer a safe haven".
Haaretz. 19 July 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ "Ramla, Israel". Kansas City Sister Cities.
^ "Karaite Center".
Ramla Tourism Site. Archived from the original on
Israel Cement Enterprises Ltd". Nesher.co.il. Archived from
the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
Jaffa Station History, retrieved November 6, 2009
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
^ "portland imc – 2002.07.18 – Peace Offering".
Portland.indymedia.org. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^ "Tennis – 2002 – WIMBLEDON – July 1 – Aisam-Ul-Haq Qureshi".
ASAP Sports. July 1, 2002. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
^  Archived March 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of
the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
Cohen, Amnon; Lewis, Bernard (1978). Population and Revenue in the
Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century.
Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of
Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography,
and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration
Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
Government of Palestine.
Guérin, Victor (1868). Description Géographique Historique et
Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 1. Paris:
Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of
Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation
Organization Research Centre.
Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF).
Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3,4): 155–173; 244–253.
Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of
Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of
Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem
Revisited. Cambridge University Press.
Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and
English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder
and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer.
Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Petersen, Andrew (2005). The Towns of Palestine Under
British Archaeological Reports. ISBN 1841718211.
Pococke, Richard (1745). A description of the East, and some other
countries. 2. London: Printed for the author, by W. Bowyer.
(Pococke, 1745, vol 2, p. 4; cited in Robinson and Smith, vol. 3,
1841, p. 233)
Pilger, John (2011). Freedom Next Time. Random House.
Pringle, Denys (1998). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of
Jerusalem: L-Z (excluding Tyre). II. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0 521 39037 0.
Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine,
Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838.
3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
Strange, le, Guy (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of
Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the
Palestine Exploration Fund.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ramla.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ramla.
Official site (in Hebrew)
"A Dangerous Tour at Ramle", by Eitan Bronstein
Israel Service Corps:
Ramla Community Involvement
The Tower of Ramla, 1877
Survey of Western Palestine, Map 13: IAA, Wikimedia commons
Central District of Israel
Judea and Samaria Area
Tel Aviv District
Israeli cities with a 50,000+ population
200,000 and more
Modi'in Illit (located in the West Bank)