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Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
(literally, "Rama's birthplace") is the name given to the site that many Hindus believe to be the birthplace of Rama, the 7th avatar of the Hindu
Hindu
deity Vishnu.

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Early figures

Dattopant Thengadi Lala Lajpat Rai Sri Aurobindo Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bipin Chandra Pal Madan Mohan Malaviya Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Vallabhbhai Patel Purushottam Das Tandon Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Keshava Baliram Hedgewar Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar

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Syama Prasad Mukherjee Deendayal Upadhyaya Nanaji Deshmukh Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani Subramanian Swamy Murli Manohar Joshi Bal Thackeray Narendra Modi Uma Bharti Yogi Adityanath

Political parties

Bharatiya Janata Party Shiv Sena Hindu
Hindu
Mahasabha Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Rastriya Prajatantra Party

Defunct parties Bharatiya Jana Sangh Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Bharatiya Janshakti Party Janata Party Jammu Praja Parishad

Organisations Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Vishwa Hindu
Hindu
Parishad Sri Ram Sena Bajrang Dal Hindu
Hindu
Sena

Independent authors

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Swapan Dasgupta Dharampal Koenraad Elst David Frawley François Gautier Ram Gopal Sita
Sita
Ram Goel Girilal Jain Meenakshi Jain Rama
Rama
Jois Christophe Jaffrelot Bojil Kolarov K. S. Lal Rajiv Malhotra K. R. Malkani Harsh Narain Ramesh Nagaraj Rao Yvette Rosser Ram Swarup K. D. Sethna H. V. Sheshadri Arun Shourie Dattopant Thengadi

Hinduism

v t e

The Ramayana
Ramayana
states that the location of Rama's birthplace is on the banks of the Sarayu
Sarayu
river in the city of Ayodhya. A section of Hindus claim that the exact site of Rama's birthplace is where the Babri Masjid once stood in the present-day Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. According to this theory, the Mughals demolished a Hindu
Hindu
shrine that marked the spot, and constructed a mosque in its place. People opposed to this theory state that such claims arose only in the 18th century, and that there is no evidence for the spot being the birthplace of Rama. The political, historical and socio-religious debate over the history and location of the Babri Mosque, and whether a previous temple was demolished or modified to create it, is known as the Ayodhya
Ayodhya
dispute. In 1992, the demolition of Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
by Hindu
Hindu
nationalists triggered widespread Hindu-Muslim violence. Since then, the archaeological excavations have indicated the presence of a temple beneath the mosque rubble. Several other sites, including places in other parts of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal, have been proposed as birthplaces of Rama.

Contents

1 Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
site

1.1 Opposition to the claim 1.2 Proposed Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
temple

2 Other places 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 Further reading

Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
site[edit] Further information: Baqi Tashqandi The Ramayana, a Hindu
Hindu
epic whose earliest portions date back to 1st millennium BCE, states that the capital of Rama
Rama
was Ayodhya.[1] A section of Hindus claim that the site of the now-demolished Babri Mosque in Ayodhya
Ayodhya
is the exact birthplace of Rama. The mosque is believed to have been constructed during 1528-29 by a certain 'Mir Baqi' (possibly Baqi Tashqandi), who was a commander of the Mughal emperor Babur.[2] However, the historical evidence for these beliefs is scant.[3] In 1611, an English traveller William Finch visited Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and recorded the "ruins of the Ranichand [Ramachand] castle and houses". He made no mention of a mosque.[4] In 1634, Thomas Herbert described a "pretty old castle of Ranichand [Ramachand]" which he described as an antique monument that was "especially memorable".[5] However, by 1672, the appearance of a mosque at the site can be inferred because Lal Das's Awadh-Vilasa describes the location of birthplace without mentioning a temple.[6] In 1717, the Moghul Rajput noble Jai Singh II purchased land surrounding the site and his documents show a mosque.[7] The Jesuit missionary Joseph Tiefenthaler, who visited the site during 1766-1771, wrote that either Aurangazeb
Aurangazeb
or Babur
Babur
had demolished the Ramkot fortress, including the house that was considered as the birthplace of Rama
Rama
by Hindus. He further stated that a mosque was constructed in its place, but the Hindus continued to offer prayers at a mud platform that marked the birthplace of Rama.[8] In 1810, Francis Buchanan visited the site, and stated that the structure destroyed was a temple dedicated to Rama, not a house. Many subsequent sources state that the mosque was constructed after demolishing a temple.[8] Police officer and writer Kishore Kunal states that all the claimed inscriptions on the Babri mosque were fake. They were affixed sometime around 1813 (almost 285 years after the supposed construction of the mosque in 1528 AD), and repeatedly replaced.[9] Before the 1940s, the Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
was called Masjid-i-Janmasthan ("mosque of the birthplace"), including in the official documents such as revenue records.[10][11] Shykh Muhammad Azamat Ali Kakorawi Nami (1811–1893) wrote: "the Babari mosque was built up in 923(?) A.H. under the patronage of Sayyid Musa Ashiqan in the Janmasthan temple in Faizabad-Avadh, which was a great place of (worship) and capital of Rama’s father"[12] H.R. Neville, the editor of the Faizabad District Gazetteer (1870), wrote that the Janmasthan temple "was destroyed by Babur
Babur
and replaced by a mosque." He also wrote "The Janmasthan was in Ramkot and marked the birthplace of Rama. In 1528 A.D. Babur
Babur
came to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and halted here for a week. He destroyed the ancient temple and on its site built a mosque, still known as Babur's mosque. The materials of the old structure [i.e., the temple] were largely employed, and many of the columns were in good preservation."[13][14] Opposition to the claim[edit] See also: Ayodhya
Ayodhya
dispute A section of historians, such as R. S. Sharma, state that such claims of Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
site being the birthplace of Rama
Rama
sprang up only after the 18th century.[8] Sharma states that Ayodhya
Ayodhya
emerged as a place of Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage only in medieval times, since ancient texts do not mention it as a pilgrim centre. For example, chapter 85 of the Vishnu Smriti lists 52 places of pilgrimage, which do not include Ayodhya.[15] Sharma also notes that Tulsidas, who wrote the Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas
in 1574 at Ayodhya, does not mention it as a place of pilgrimage.[1] Rambhadracharya, on the other hand, has quoted a work of Tulsidas
Tulsidas
known as Dohā Śataka and is recorded in Allahbad High Court's verdict which clearly states the demolition of a temple, and building of a mosque.[citation needed] Many critics also claim that the present-day Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was originally a Buddhist site, based on its identification with Saketa
Saketa
described in Buddhist texts. According to historian Romila Thapar, ignoring the Hindu
Hindu
mythological accounts, the first historic mention of the city dates back to the 7th century, when the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang described it as a Buddhist site.[16] Proposed Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
temple[edit] See also: Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
Nyas In 1853, a group of armed Hindu
Hindu
ascetics belonging to the Nirmohi Akhara occupied the Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
site, and claimed ownership of the structure.[17] Subsequently, the civil administration stepped in, and in 1855, divided the mosque premises into two parts: one for Hindus, and the other for Muslims.[18] In 1883, the Hindus launched an effort to construct a temple on the platform. When the administration denied them the permission to do this, they took the matter to court. In 1885, the Hindu
Hindu
Sub Judge Pandit Hari Kishan Singh dismissed the lawsuit. Subsequently, the higher courts also dismissed the lawsuit in 1886, in favour of status quo. In December 1949, some Hindus placed idols of Rama
Rama
and Sita
Sita
in the mosque, and claimed that they had miraculously appeared there. As thousands of Hindu
Hindu
devotees started visiting the place, the Government declared the mosque a disputed area and locked its gates. Subsequently, multiple lawsuits from Hindus, asking for permission to convert the site into a place of worship.[18] In the 1980s, the Vishwa Hindu
Hindu
Parishad (VHP) and other Hindu nationalist groups and political parties launched a campaign to construct the Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
Mandir (" Rama
Rama
birthplace temple") at the site. The Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
government allowed Hindus to access the site for prayers.[19] On 6 December 1992, Hindu
Hindu
nationalists demolished the mosque, resulting in communal riots leading to over 2,000 deaths.[20] In 2003, the Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India
(ASI) conducted excavations of the site on court orders.[21] The ASI report indicated the presence of a 10th-century temple under the mosque.[22] Muslim groups and the historians supporting them disputed these findings, and dismissed them as politically motivated.[23][24] The Allahabad High Court, however, upheld the ASI's findings.[25] In 2010, Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
land be divided into 3 parts, with 1/3 going to the Ram Lalla or Infant Lord Rama
Rama
represented by the Hindu
Hindu
Maha Sabha for the construction of the Ram temple, 1/3 going to the Islamic Sunni Waqf Board
Sunni Waqf Board
and the remaining 1/3 going to a Hindu
Hindu
religious denomination Nirmohi Akhara.[26] The excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India
were heavily used as evidence by the court that the predating structure was a massive Hindu
Hindu
religious building.[27] In 2009, the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) released its election manifesto, repeating its promise to construct a temple to Rama
Rama
at the site.[28][29] Other places[edit] Those who believe that Rama
Rama
was a historic figure, place his birth before 1000 BCE. However, the archaeological excavations at Ayodhya have not revealed any settlement before that date. Consequently, a number of other places have been suggested as the birthplace of Rama.[1] In November 1990, the newly appointed Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar made an attempt to resolve the Ayodhya dispute amicably. Towards this objective, he asked Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim groups to exchange evidence on their claims over Ayodhya. The panel representing the Muslim organization Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
Action Committee (BMAC) was included R. S. Sharma, D. N. Jha, M. Athar Ali and Suraj Bhan. The evidence presented by them included scholarly articles discussing alternative theories about the birthplace of Rama. These sources mentioned 8 different possible birthplaces, including a site other than Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
in Ayodhya, Nepal
Nepal
and Afghanistan. One source claimed that Rama
Rama
was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt.[10] In his 1992 book Ancient geography of Ayodhya, historian Shyam Narain Pande argued that Rama
Rama
was born around present-day Herat
Herat
in Afghanistan.[30] In 1997, Pande presented his theory in the paper "Historical Rama
Rama
distinguished from God Rama" at the 58th session of the Indian History Congress in Bangalore. In 2000, Rajesh Kochhar similarly traced the birthplace of Rama
Rama
to Afghanistan, in his book The Vedic People: Their History and Geography. According to him, the Harriud river of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is the original "Sarayu", and Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was located on its banks.[31] In 1998, archaeologist Krishna Rao put forward his hypothesis about Banawali
Banawali
being Rama's birthplace. Banawali
Banawali
is an Indus-Sarasvati civilization archaeological site located in the Haryana
Haryana
state of India. Rao identified Rama
Rama
with the Sumerian king Rim-Sin I and his rival Ravana
Ravana
with the Babylonian king Hammurabi. He claimed to have deciphered Indus seals found along the Sarasvati rivers, and found the words " Rama
Rama
Sena" (Rim-Sin) and "Ravani dama" on those seals. He rejected Ayodhya
Ayodhya
as the birthplace of Rama, on the grounds that Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and other Ramayana
Ramayana
sites excavated by B. B. Lal do not show evidence of settlements before 1000 BCE. He also claimed that the writers of the later epics and the Puranas
Puranas
got confused because the ancient Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
applied their ancient place names to the new place names as they migrated eastwards.[32] In 2015, Abdul Rahim Quraishi of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB), argued that Rama
Rama
was born somewhere in present-day northwestern India or Pakistan. In his book Facts of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Episode (Myth of Ram Janmabhoomi), he cited writings of former ASI official Jassu Ram, who argued that Rehman Dheri
Rehman Dheri
was the birthplace of Rama. Rehman Dheri
Rehman Dheri
is located near Dera Ismail Khan
Dera Ismail Khan
in present-day Pakistan, and was earlier called "Ram Dheri" according to Jassu Ram.[33] Quraishi argued that the present-day Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was originally called Saket, and Hindus probably renamed it to "Ayodhya" in the 11th century CE.[34] See also[edit]

Ram Karmabhoomi

References[edit]

^ a b c Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(2003). "The Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Issue". In Robert Layton and Julian Thomas. Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge. pp. 127–137. ISBN 9781134604982.  ^ Noorani, A. G. (2003), The Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
Question, 1528-2003, Volume 1, Tulika Books, Introduction (p. xvii), ISBN 81-85229-78-3, It asserts that the Mughal Emperor Babar's Governor at Awadh, Mir Baqi Tashqandi, built the Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
(mosque) at Ayodhya
Ayodhya
... The mosque was built in 1528 ...  ^ Kunal, Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Revisited (2016), Chapter 6. ^ Jain, Rama
Rama
and Ayodhya
Ayodhya
(2013), p. 9, 120, 164. ^ Kunal, Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Revisited (2016), p. xv. ^ Kunal, Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Revisited (2016), p. xxvii. ^ Jain, Rama
Rama
and Ayodhya
Ayodhya
(2013), pp. 112-115. ^ a b c Robert Layton and Julian Thomas
Julian Thomas
(2003). Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge. pp. 2–9. ISBN 9781134604982.  ^ Kunal, Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Revisited (2016), p. 143. ^ a b K. Elst (1995). Gilbert Pollet, ed. Indian Epic Values: Rāmāyaṇa and Its Impact. Peeters. pp. 21–40. ISBN 9789068317015.  ^ K. Jaishankar (2009). "Communal Violence and Terrorism in India: Issues and Introspections". In Yakov Gilinskiy; Thomas Albert Gilly; Vladimir Sergevnin. The Ethics of Terrorism. Charles C Thomas. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780398079956.  ^ Shykh Azamat Ali Kakorawi Nami, Muraqqah-i Khusrawi or Tarikh-i Avadh cited by Harsh Narain
Harsh Narain
The Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Temple Mosque Dispute: Focus on Muslim Sources, 1993, New Delhi, Penman Publications. ISBN 81-85504-16-4. Pages 9-10. ^ H.R. Neville, Fyzabad District Gazetteer, Lucknow, 1905, pp 172–177) cited by Harsh Narain
Harsh Narain
The Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Temple Mosque Dispute: Focus on Muslim Sources, 1993, New Delhi, Penman Publications. ISBN 81-85504-16-4 ^ (H.R. Neville in the Barabanki District Gazetteer, Lucknow, 1905, pp 168–169) ^ Sikand, Yoginder (5 August 2006). "Ayodhya's Forgotten Muslim Past". Counter Currents. Retrieved 12 January 2008.  ^ Thapar 2003, A historical perspective on the story of Rama ^ Roma Chatterji (2014). Wording the World: Veena Das and Scenes of Inheritance. Fordham University Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780823261857.  ^ a b Sarvepalli Gopal (1993). Anatomy of a Confrontation: Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and the Rise of Communal Politics in India. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 64–77. ISBN 9781856490504.  ^ "What If Rajiv Hadn't Unlocked Babri Masjid?". Outlook. Retrieved 2012-06-20.  ^ "Timeline: Ayodhya
Ayodhya
holy site crisis". BBC News. 30 September 2010.  ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2004). "Archaeology at the Heart of a Political Confrontation: The Case of Ayodhya". Current Anthropology. 45 (2): 239–259. doi:10.1086/381044.  ^ Suryamurthy, R (26 August 2003). "ASI findings may not resolve title dispute". The Tribune.  ^ " Ayodhya
Ayodhya
verdict yet another blow to secularism: Sahmat". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.  ^ Muralidharan, Sukumar (September 2003). "Ayodhya: Not the last word yet". Frontline.  ^ Abhinav Garg (9 October 2010). "How Allahabad HC exposed 'experts' espousing Masjid cause". The Times of India. Times of India. Retrieved 1 November 2010.  ^ Ram Janm Bhumi Babri Masjid: Gist of Judgments Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Issues For Briefing" (PDF). Retrieved 11 June 2012.  ^ "BJP Lok Sabha Election, 2009 Manifesto – Naresh Kadyan – Care2 News Network". Care2.com. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ "Bhartiya Janta Party: Manifesto (Lok Sabha Election 2009)" (PDF). Bhartiya Janta Party official website. 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2013.  ^ Śyām Nārāyan Paṇde. Arihant International. 1992. pp. 25–43.  ^ Review of The Vedic People: Their History and Geography. Current Science. Volume 80, Issue 4. 25 February 2001. Page 584. ^ "Archaeologist questions Ram Janambhoomi being in Ayodhya". rediff.com. 6 July 1998.  ^ Abantika Ghosh (3 November 2015). "Ram not born in present-day Ayodhya, claims Muslim leader's book". Indian Express.  ^ "Book that says Ram's Ayodhya
Ayodhya
is in Pakistan". The Times of India. 11 June 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Jain, Meenakshi (2013). Rama
Rama
and Ayodhya. New Delhi: Aryan Books. ISBN 8173054517.  Kunal, Kishore (2016), Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Revisited, Prabhat Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-8430-357-5  Narain, Harsh (1993). The Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Temple Mosque Dispute: Focus on Muslim Sources. Delhi: Penman Publishers. 

Further reading[edit]

Engineer, Asghar Ali, ed. (1990). Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
Ramjanambhumi Controversy. Delhi: Ajanta Publications.  Bajaj, Jitendra, ed. (1993). Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and the Future of India. Madras: Centre for Policy Studies.  Dubashi, Jay (1992). The Road to Ayodhya. Delhi: South Asia Books. Elst, Koenraad (1991). Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and after: issues before Hindu
Hindu
society. Voice of India.  Elst, Koenraad (2002). Ayodhya: the case against the temple. Voice of India. ISBN 9788185990750.  Jain, Meenakshi The Battle for Rama: Case of the Temple at Ayodhya (Aryan Books International, 2017), ISBN 8173055793. Jha, Krishna; Jha, Dhirendra K. (2012). Ayodhya: The Dark Night. HarperCollins India. ISBN 978-93-5029-600-4.  B. B. Lal (2008). Rāma, His Historicity, Mandir, and Setu: Evidence of Literature, Archaeology, and Other Sciences. Aryan Books. ISBN 978-81-7305-345-0.  Nath, R. (1990). Babari Masjid of Ayodhya. Jaipur: The Historical Research Documentation program.  Nandy, A.; Trivedy, S.; Mayaram, S.; Yagnik, Achyut (1998). Creating a Nationality: The Ramjanmabhumi Movement and Fear of the Self. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-564271-6.  Rajaram, N. S. (2000). Profiles in Deception: Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and the Dead Sea Scrolls. New Delhi: Voice of India.  Sharma, Ram Sharan, ed. (1999). Communal History and Rama's Ayodhya (2nd ed.). Delhi: People's Publishing House.  Srivastava, Sushil (1991). Disputed Mosque, A historical inquiry. New Delhi: Vistaar Publication.  Arun Shourie, Arun Jaitley, Swapan Dasgupta, Rama
Rama
J Jois: The Ayodhya Reference: Supreme Court Judgement and Commentaries. 1995. New Delhi:Voice of India. ISBN 978-8185990309 Arun Shourie, Sita
Sita
Ram Goel, Harsh Narain, Jay Dubashi and Ram Swarup. Hindu
Hindu
Temples - What Happened to Them Vol. I, (A Preliminary Survey) (1990) ISBN 81-85990-49-2 Thacktson, Wheeler M., ed. (1996). Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. New York and London: Oxford University Press.  Thapar, Romila (2000). "A Historical Perspective on the Story of Rama". In Thapar, Romila. Cultural Pasts: Essays in Early Indian History. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-564050-0.  Varma, Thakur Prasad; Gupta, Swarajya Prakash. Ayodhya
Ayodhya
ka Itihas evam Puratattva — Rigveda kal se ab tak (History and Archaeology of Ayodhya— From the Time of the Rigveda to the Present) (in Hindi). New Delhi: Bharatiya Itihasa evam Samskrit Parishad and DK Printworld.  History versus Casuistry: Evidence of the Ramajanmabhoomi Mandir presented by the Vishwa Hindu
Hindu
Parishad to the Government of India in December-January 1990-91. New Delhi: Voice of India. van der Veer, Peter (1989). Gods on Earth: The Management of Religious Experience and Identity in a North Indian Pilgrimage Centre. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0485195100. 

v t e

Faizabad division
Faizabad division
topics

General

Awadh

Mythology, history

Archaeology of Ayodhya Ayodhya
Ayodhya
dispute Babri Mosque Nawab of Awadh Ram Janmabhoomi Rajesultanpur

Districts

Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Barabanki Faizabad Sultanpur

Rivers, dams, lakes

Ghaghara Gomti Choti Saryu

Languages, people

Awadhi Hindustani Khariboli Standard Hindi

Transport

NH 28 NH 96 NH 233 NH 232 Saket
Saket
International Airport Faizabad Akbarpur Airport Sultanpur Airport Amiti Airport

Lok Sabha constituencies

Ambedkar Nagar Faizabad Sultanpur Amethi Barabanki Sant Kabir Nagar

See also

Cities and towns in Ambedkar Nagar district Cities and towns in Amethi district Cities and towns in Barabanki district Cities and towns in Faizabad district Cities and towns in Sultanpur district Villages in Balrampur district Villages in Ambedkar Nagar district Villages in Barabanki district Villages in Faizabad district Villages in Sultanpur district People from Barabanki People from Faizabad People from Sultanpur

Other Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad S

.