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The Rajahnate of Butuan
Butuan
(also called as Kingdom of Butuan; Butuanon: Gingharian hong Butuan, Cebuano: Gingharian sa Butuan, Filipino: Kaharian ng Butuan/Karahanan ng Butuan, Chinese: 蒲端國, Púduānguó in Chinese records), was an Indic polity centered on present Mindanao
Mindanao
island in the modern city of Butuan
Butuan
in what is now the southern Philippines. It was known for its mining of gold, its gold products and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area. The kingdom had trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Japan, China, India, Indonesia, Persia, Cambodia
Cambodia
and areas now comprised in Thailand.[3][4] The balangay (large outrigger boats) that have been found along the east and west banks of the Libertad river (old Agusan River) have revealed much about Butuan's history. As a result, Butuan
Butuan
is considered to have been a major trading port in the Caraga
Caraga
region during the pre-colonial era.[5]

Contents

1 Historiography

1.1 Chinese records

2 Excavated artifacts 3 Origins of the name 4 Recorded monarchs 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Historiography[edit] Chinese records[edit] See also: Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Philippines, Religion
Religion
in pre-colonial Philippines, Indosphere, and Indianisation

The world in 1200 AD: The Butuan
Butuan
Rajahnate and its neighbors.

Evidence indicates that Butuan
Butuan
was in contact with the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
of China
China
by at least 1001 AD. The Chinese annal Song Shih recorded the first appearance of a Butuan
Butuan
tributary mission (Li Yui-han 李竾罕 and Jiaminan) at the Chinese Imperial Court on March 17, 1001 AD and it described Butuan
Butuan
(P'u-tuan) as a small Hindu country with a Buddhist monarchy in the sea that had a regular connection with the Champa
Champa
kingdom and intermittent contact with China
China
under the Rajah named Kiling.[6] The rajah sent an envoy under I-hsu-han, with a formal memorial requesting equal status in court protocol with the Champa
Champa
envoy. The request was denied later by the Imperial court, mainly because of favoritism over Champa.[7] A new ruler with the Indianized name Sri Bata Shaja later succeeded in attaining diplomatic equality with Champa
Champa
by sending the flamboyant ambassador Likanhsieh. Likanhsieh shocked the Emperor Zhenzong
Emperor Zhenzong
by presenting a memorial engraved on a gold tablet, some white dragon (Bailong 白龍) camphor, Moluccan cloves, and a South Sea slave at the eve of an important ceremonial state sacrifice.[8] This display of irreverence sparked interests from China
China
over the small Rajahnate and the diplomatic relations between the two polities reached its peak during the Yuan dynasty. Chinese records about the Rajahnate stopped after the reign of Rajah
Rajah
Colambu, the last independent Rajah
Rajah
of Butuan. He was formally subjugated into the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
after he made a blood compact with Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
in 1521. Excavated artifacts[edit] Further information: Butuan
Butuan
Ivory Seal and Butuan
Butuan
Silver Paleograph

The Butuan
Butuan
Ivory Seal, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The Kawi script
Kawi script
lettering says "But-wan" and the smaller lettering (similar to Baybayin) says "Bu-wa" (diacritics for the "Wan/Ban" in Kawi and "Bu/Ba" in the smaller letters have worn off).

A silver strip excavated from the 1970s in Butuan
Butuan
inside of a wooden coffin. The characters display a Hindu-Buddhist influence, probably a form of early writing in the Philippines. (c. 14th–15th century)

Numerous jars have been found in the Butuan
Butuan
area that indicate the wealth of the kingdom and the existence of foreign traditions.[9] Some of these jars have been dated as follows:

Sathing Phra (900–1100 AD) Haripunjaya (800–900 AD) Japanese (12th to 16th centuries AD)[10] Chinese (10th to 15th centuries AD) Khmer (9th to 10th centuries AD) Thai (14th to 15th centuries AD) Champa
Champa
(11th to 13th centuries AD) Persian (9th to 10th centuries AD)

Artifacts have been recovered from within the vicinities of Ambangan Archeological Site in Libertad that attest to the historical accounts that Butuan
Butuan
traded with India,[11] Japan, Han Chinese, and Southeast Asian countries during these periods.[12] Origins of the name[edit] The name Butuan
Butuan
is believed to have existed long before the Spanish conquistadores arrived in the Philippine archipelago. One possible indication of this is a rhinoceros ivory seal with design carved in ancient Javanese or early Kawi script
Kawi script
(used around the 10th century CE) which, according to a Dutch scholar, was deciphered as But-wan. Another account suggests the name derives from the word batuan, a mangosteen-related fruit common in Mindanao. Another alternative is that the name derives from Datu
Datu
Bantuan, possibly a former datu of the region.[13] Recorded monarchs[edit]

The Royal Title of the Reigning Rajah Events From Until

Datu
Datu
Bantuan

- 989

Rajah
Rajah
Kiling The Embassy of I-shu-han (李竾罕) 989 1009

Sri Bata Shaja Mission by Likanhsieh (李于燮) 1011 ?

Rajah
Rajah
Colambu Annexation by Ferdinand Magellan ? 1521

See also[edit]

Pre-Colonial History of the Philippines

Barangay government

Ten datus of Borneo

Legendary

Suwarnapumi

Chryse

Ophir

Tawalisi

Wāḳwāḳ

Sanfotsi

Zabang

States in Luzon

Caboloan
Caboloan
(Pangasinan)

Ma-i

Rajahnate of Maynila

Namayan

Tondo

States in the Visayas

Kedatuan of Madja-as

Kedatuan of Dapitan

Rajahnate of Cebu

States in Mindanao

Rajahnate of Butuan

Sultanate of Sulu

Sultanate of Maguindanao

Sultanates of Lanao

Key figures

Jayadewa Dayang Kalangitan Ache Lakan Dula Sulaiman III Katuna Tarik Sulayman Tupas Kabungsuwan Kudarat Humabon Lapu-Lapu Alimuddin I Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram

History of the Philippines

Portal: Philippines

view talk edit

Butuan Balangay Golden Tara Butuanon people Indian cultural influences in early Philippine polities

References[edit]

^ Fred S. Cabuang (September 6, 2007). "Saving Butuanon language". Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-09.  ^ http://opinion.inquirer.net/10991/%E2%80%98piloncitos%E2%80%99-and-the-%E2%80%98philippine-golden-age%E2%80%99 ^ [1] ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/2071/ ^ Lealiz, Sia (February 4, 2009). "Discovering the Ancient Kingdom of Butuan". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-10-09.  ^ "Timeline of history". Retrieved 2009-10-09.  ^ Scott, William Prehispanic Source Materials: For the Study of Philippine History, p. 66 ^ Song Shih Chapter 7 to 8 ^ Luna, Lillian (2004). MAPEH for Secondary Students. Art Books and History Books. St Bernadette Publications Inc. ISBN 971-621-327-1.  ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ [4] ^ "Historic Butuan". Retrieved 2009-10-09. 

External links[edit]

Butuan
Butuan
silver strips Flag and symbols Butuan
Butuan
ivory seals

v t e

Historical and present-day states in the Philippines

   

Pre-16th century c. 500 BC–1601 Igorot Plutocracy c. 900–1589 Tondo c. 971–1339 Ma-i c. 1001–1600s Rajahnate of Butuan c. 1175–1571 Namayan c. 1258–1571 Rajahnate of Maynila 1405–1915 Sultanate of Sulu c. 1406–1576 Caboloan c. 1500–1888 Sultanate of Maguindanao c. 1200–1565 Rajahnate of Cebu c. 1100s–1563 Kedatuan of Dapitan c. 1200–1569 Kedatuan of Madja-as

16th century 1565–1898 Spanish East Indies

17th century Lanao sultanates

18th century 1762–1764 British Manila

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