HOME
The Info List - Raion


--- Advertisement ---



A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "rayon" (meaning "honeycomb, department"),[1] which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".[2] The term "raion" also can be used simply as a kind of administrative division without anything to do with ethnicity or nationality. A raion is a standardized administrative entity across most of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and is usually a subdivision two steps below the national level. However, in smaller USSR republics, it could be the primary level of administrative division (Administrative divisions of Armenia, Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan). After the fall of the Soviet Union, some of the republics dropped raion from their use (Armenia). In Bulgaria, it refers to an internal administrative subdivision of a city not related to the administrative division of the country as a whole, or, in the case of Sofia
Sofia
municipality a subdivision of that municipality.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 List of countries with raion subdivisions 3 History

3.1 Raions in the Soviet Union 3.2 Raions outside the Soviet Union 3.3 Raions after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

4 Modern raions

4.1 Abkhazia 4.2 Azerbaijan 4.3 Belarus 4.4 Bulgaria 4.5 Moldova 4.6 South Ossetia 4.7 Transnistria 4.8 Russia

4.8.1 Administrative districts 4.8.2 Municipal district 4.8.3 City
City
districts

4.9 Ukraine

5 Notes 6 References

Etymology[edit] The word "raion" (or "rayon") is often used in translated form: Azerbaijani: rayon; Belarusian: раён, rajon; Bulgarian: район; Georgian: რაიონი, raioni; Latvian: rajons; Lithuanian: rajonas; Polish: rejon; Romanian: raion; Russian: райо́н and Ukrainian: райо́н. The source of the word in French, rayon, comes from pre-medieval Frankish *hrāta 'honeycomb' and is not related with the English region or its source, Latin regio. List of countries with raion subdivisions[edit] Fourteen countries have or had entities that were named "raion" or the local version of it.

Country From Until Local name Comment Details

Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(partially recognised state)

(existing) araion (араион) inherited from the Abkhaz ASSR Districts of Abkhazia

Armenia

1995

inherited from the Armenian SSR Districts of Armenia

Austria

~ 1918 Rayon, Rajon Used only by the k.k. Gendarmerie to designate police districts ("Behördenrayon", lit. authorities' raion).

Azerbaijan

(existing) rayon, pl. rayonlar; inherited from the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR Districts of Azerbaijan

Belarus

(existing) Belarusian: раён, rajon inherited from the Belorussian SSR Districts of Belarus

Bulgaria

(existing)

raions are subdivisions of three biggest cities: Sofia, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
and Varna. Sofia
Sofia
is subdivided to 24 raions ( Sofia
Sofia
districts), Plovdiv
Plovdiv
- 6, Varna
Varna
- 5 raions

China

(existing) rayoni restricted to the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region
Region
as influenced by the USSR. The districts of Ürümqi City
City
and Karamay City
City
are called "rayoni" in Uyghur.

Crimea ( Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
- short lived Republic recognized by only a few UN member states) 2014-03-16 2014-03-16

inherited from Ukraine. The Republic is now split into the federal subjects of Russia
Russia
named Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and Sevastopol

Estonia

1990 Estonian: rajoon inherited from the Estonian SSR. In 1990 transformed into district municipalities (Estonian: maakond) Districts of Estonia

Georgia

(existing) Georgian: რაიონი raioni inherited from the Georgian SSR ; 2006 as first-level entities reorganized into municipalities. A raioni remains a territorial subdivision of Georgia's capital, Tbilisi. Districts of Georgia

Kazakhstan

(existing) Russian: райо́н inherited from the Kazakh SSR Districts of Kazakhstan

Latvia

2009-07-01 rajons; pl. rajoni inherited from the Latvian SSR Districts of Latvia

Lithuania

1994 Lithuanian: rajonas inherited from the Lithuanian SSR. In 1994 transformed into district municipalities (Lithuanian: rajono savivaldybė) Districts of Lithuania

Moldova

(existing) Moldovan: raion introduced in administrative reform in 2003 Districts of Moldova

Romania

1968-02-16 Romanian: raion one of the Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Romania Districts of the People's Republic of Romania

Russian Federation

(existing) Russian: райо́н inherited from the Russian SFSR Districts of Russia

South Ossetia-Alania
South Ossetia-Alania
(partially recognised state)

(existing)

inherited from the South Ossetian AO Districts of South Ossetia

Soviet Union

1991-12-26 (end of entity)

At various levels below the constituent republics.

Transnistria
Transnistria
(breakaway territory; de jure part of Moldova)

(existing)

inherited from the Moldavian SSR Districts of Transnistria

Ukraine

(existing)

inherited from the Ukrainian SSR, there are a total of 450 raions which are the administrative divisions of oblasts (provinces) and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Major cities of regional significance as well as the two national cities with special status ( Kiev
Kiev
and Sevastopol) are also subdivided into raions (constituting a total of 111 nationwide). Districts of Ukraine

History[edit] Raions in the Soviet Union[edit] In the Soviet Union, raions were administrative divisions created in the 1920s to reduce the number of territorial divisions inherited from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and to simplify their bureaucracies.[4] The process of conversion to the system of raions was called raionirovanie ("regionalization"). It was started in 1923 in the Urals, North Caucasus, and Siberia
Siberia
as a part of the Soviet administrative reform and continued through 1929, by which time the majority of the country's territory was divided into raions instead of the old volosts and uyezds.[4] The concept of raionirovanie was met with resistance in some republics, especially in Ukraine, where local leaders objected to the concept of raions as being too centralized in nature and ignoring the local customs. This point of view was backed by the Soviet Commissariat of Nationalities.[4] Nevertheless, eventually all of the territory of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was regionalized. Soviet raions had self-governance in the form of an elected district council (raysovet) and were headed by the local head of administration, who was either elected or appointed. Raions outside the Soviet Union[edit] Further information: Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Romania Following the model of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
raions have been introduced in Bulgaria, Romania. In China
China
the term is used in Uyghur in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. In Romania they have been later replaced. Raions after the dissolution of the Soviet Union[edit] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, raions as administrative units continue to be used in Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Latvia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. They are also used in breakaway regions: Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria.

Set Quantity Comment

Districts of Abkhazia 7 first-level

Districts of Azerbaijan 59 first-level, 18 other entities at that level exist

Districts of Belarus 118 second-level below oblasts and Minsk City

Districts of Moldova 32 first-level, 5 other entities at that level exist

Districts of South Ossetia 4 first-level, 1 other entity at that level exists

Districts of Russia

second-level below federal subjects

Districts of Transnistria 5 first-level

Districts of Ukraine 490 and 118 city raions second-level, numbers as of 2004, including Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and Crimea

In Georgia they exist as districts in Tbilisi. Modern raions[edit] Abkhazia[edit] Main article: Districts of Abkhazia Abkhazia
Abkhazia
is divided into seven districts. Azerbaijan[edit] Main article: Districts of Azerbaijan Belarus[edit] Main article: Districts of Belarus In Belarus, raions (Belarusian: раён, rajon[5]) are administrative units subordinated to oblasts. See also: Category:Districts of Belarus. Bulgaria[edit] In Bulgaria, raions are subdivisions of three biggest cities: Sofia, Plovdiv
Plovdiv
and Varna. Sofia
Sofia
is subdivided to 24 raions ( Sofia
Sofia
districts), Plovdiv
Plovdiv
- 6, Varna
Varna
- 5 raions. Moldova[edit]

Administrative divisions of Moldova

South Ossetia[edit] Main article: Districts of South Ossetia Transnistria[edit] Main article: Districts of Transnistria Russia[edit] Administrative districts[edit] Further information: Category:Districts of Russia
Russia
by federal subject In modern Russia, division into administrative districts largely remained unchanged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The term "district" ("raion") is used to refer to an administrative division of a federal subject or to a district of a big city. In two federal subjects, however, the terminology was changed to reflect national specifics:

Sakha (Yakutia) Republic: ulus (улус) Tyva Republic: kozhuun (кожуун)[6]

Municipal district[edit] See also: Municipal divisions of Russia
Russia
and Category:Municipal divisions of Moscow A municipal district (муниципа́льный райо́н) is a type of municipal formation which comprises a group of urban and/or rural settlements, as well as inter-settlement territories, sharing a common territory. The concept of the municipal districts was introduced in the early 2000s and codified on the federal level during the 2004 municipal reform. Municipal districts are commonly formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts, although in practice there are some exceptions to this rule—Sortavalsky Municipal District
District
in the Republic of Karelia, for example, is formed around the town of Sortavala, which neither has a status of nor is a part of any administrative district. City
City
districts[edit] Further information: Category: City
City
districts of Russia Many major cities in Russia
Russia
(except for federal cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg) are divided into city districts. Such city districts are usually considered to be administrative divisions of the city and prior to 2014 could not be a separate municipal formation. Examples of such city districts are Sovetsky City
City
District
District
in Nizhny Novgorod and Adlersky City
City
District
District
in Sochi. Ukraine[edit] Main articles: Raions of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Urban districts of Ukraine In Ukraine, there are a total of 450 raions which are the administrative divisions of oblasts (provinces) and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Major cities of regional significance as well as the two national cities with special status ( Kiev
Kiev
and Sevastopol) are also subdivided into raions (constituting a total of 111 nationwide). Notes[edit]

^ Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961, repr. 1981), s.v. raion. ^ Saunders, R.A., Strukov, V. Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. "Scarecrow Press", 2010, ISBN 978-0-8108-5475-8, S. 477. ^ http://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2133624321 ^ a b c James R. Millar. Encyclopedia of Russian History. Macmillan Reference USA. New York, 2004. ISBN 0-02-865693-8 ^ According to the Instruction on Latin Transliteration of Geographical Names of the Republic of Belarus, Decree of the State Committee on Land Resources, Surveying and Cartography of the Republic of Belarus
Belarus
dated 23.11.2000 No. 15 recommended for use by the Working Group on Romanization Systems of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) — http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/9th-uncsgn-docs/e-conf-98-crp-21.pdf. See also: Instruction on transliteration of Belarusian geographical names with letters of Latin script; Romanization of Belarusian. ^ Constitution of the Tyva Republic, Article 138.2a

References[edit]

6 мая 2001 г. «Конституция Республики Тыва», в ред. Конституционного закона №1419 ВХ-2 от 10 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в статью 113 Конституции Республики Тыва». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тувинская правда", 15 мая 2001 г. (May 6, 2001 Constitution of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #1419 VKh-2 of July 10, 2009 On Amending Article 113 of the Constitution of the Tyva Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).

v t e

Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

v t e

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

English terms

Common English terms1

Area

Insular area Local government area Protected area Special
Special
area Statistical area

Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area

Urban area

Canton

Half-canton

Borough

County
County
borough Metropolitan borough

Capital

Federal capital Imperial capital

City

City
City
state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city

Community

Autonomous community Residential community

County

Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county

Non-metropolitan

Viscountcy

Country

Overseas country

Department

Overseas department

District

Capital district City
City
district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district

Non-metropolitan district

Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special
Special
district

Division

Census division Police division Subdivision

Municipality

City
City
municipality County
County
municipality

Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality

Direct-controlled municipality District
District
municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality

Prefecture

Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture

Province

Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province

Region

Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special
Special
administrative region Statistical region Subregion

Reserve

Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve

State

Federal state Free state Sovereign state

Territory

Capital territory

Federal capital territory

Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory

Town

Census town Market town

Township

Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township

Unit

Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit

Zone

Economic zone

Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special
Special
economic zone

Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone

Other English terms

Current

Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner

Autonomous

Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor

Royal

Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector

Autonomous

Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village

Administrative Summer

Ward

Historical

Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing

Non-English or loanwords

Current

Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun

Finland Sweden

Län Località Megye Muban Oblast

Autonomous

Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine

Historical

Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome

Egypt Greece

Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

First-level

Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

Second / third-level

Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak)

City / township-level

Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

v t e

French terms for country subdivisions

arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures

v t e

Greek terms for country subdivisions

Modern

apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§

Historical

archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

v t e

Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

Regional subdivisions

Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania

Local subdivisions

Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição

Settlements

Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar

Historical subdivisions in italics.

v t e

Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

v t e

Spanish terms for country subdivisions

National, Federal

Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región

Regional, Metropolitan

Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia

Ecuador Spain

Urban, Rural

Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento

Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes

Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad

Ciudad autónoma

Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village
Village
(Pueblito/Pueblo)

Historical subdivisions in italics.

v t e

Turkish terms for country subdivisions

Modern

il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

Historical

ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative division

.