The Info List - Raid On Gananoque

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United States
United States

Stores seized and government depot burned


United States  Upper Canada

Commanders and leaders

Benjamin Forsyth Joel Stone


110 regular infantry and militia About 100 militia

v t e

St. Lawrence/Lake Champlain frontier

1st Sacket's Harbor Gananoque 1st Lacolle Mills Lake Ontario Elizabethtown Ogdensburg York 2nd Sacket's Harbor Chateauguay Crysler's Farm 2nd Lacolle Mills Fort Oswego Big Sandy Creek Plattsburgh

The Raid on Gananoque
was an action conducted by the United States Army on September 21, 1812 against Gananoque, Upper Canada
Upper Canada
during the War of 1812. The Americans sought to plunder ammunition and stores to resupply their own forces. Gananoque
was a key point in the supply chain between Montreal
and Kingston, the main base of the Provincial Marine on the Great Lakes. Under the command of Captain Benjamin Forsyth, the Americans departed Ogdensburg, New York
Ogdensburg, New York
and sailed to Gananoque, where they encountered resistance from the 2nd Regiment of Leeds Militia. The British militia was forced to retreat and the Americans successfully destroyed the storehouse and returned to the United States
United States
with captured supplies. As a result of the raid, the British strengthened their defences along the St. Lawrence River.


1 Background 2 Attack 3 Aftermath 4 Historic plaque 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Background[edit] Gananoque
is located roughly 20 miles (32 km) from Kingston, the principal base of the British Provincial Marine
Provincial Marine
on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and a key transshipment point.[1] Gananoque
served as a depot for ammunition, stores, foodstuffs along the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
route between Kingston and Montreal.[2] Furthermore, it was the last convoy-staging point between Montreal
and Kingston and a key point for communications between the two cities.[3] The town had been settled in 1789 by Joel Stone, an American Loyalist who had arrived in Upper Canada following the American Revolutionary War.[2] On 9 August 1812, General Sir George Prévost, commander of British forces in Canada and Major General Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn
commander of the United States
United States
forces in the north agree to a cessation of hostilities.[4] President James Madison repudiated Dearborn's agreement on 15 August.[5] The American garrison at Sackets Harbor, New York
Sackets Harbor, New York
under the command of Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Jacob Brown
Jacob Brown
of the New York Militia
New York Militia
was suffering from lack of supply. Brown himself had purchased blankets for his men. The garrison was reinforced by a company of the US Regiment of Riflemen on September 14, but the reinforcements lacked ammunition. Finding no support from his superiors, Brown authorized a raid on Canadian territory to acquire supplies and ammunition following the termination of the armistice.[2][6] Based on the intelligence that Brown had, Gananoque
was lightly defended.[7] Attack[edit] Brown ordered the attack on Gananoque
to be led by Captain Benjamin Forsyth of the Regiment of Riflemen. He was to take his company of 90 men and 20 members of the New York Militia
New York Militia
under Captain Samuel McNitt and seize stores and ammunition.[2][8] The force departed from Ogdensburg, New York
Ogdensburg, New York
on September 18 in boats and sailed to Gananoque, arriving on September 21, 1813.[2][9] Forsyth landed his men 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Gananoque
at Sheriff's Point and moved towards the town.[7] The Americans surprised the 2nd Regiment of the Leeds Militia under the command of Colonel Joel Stone. The American force was spotted by two British dragoons approaching the town and upon their arrival were met by 100 Leeds Militia under the command of Lieutenant
Levi Soper which began firing.[7][10] Forsyth moved his force to within 100 yards (91 m) of the Leeds Militia, and opened fire. He then ordered a charge, which drove the British militia back over a bridge. Forsyth's troops entered Gananoque
and commandeered 3,000 ball cartridges and 41 muskets, while destroying 150 barrels of provisions, ransacking the storehouse and destroying the home of Colonel Stone.[2][10] The Americans had one killed and ten wounded, while the British suffered eight killed, eight taken as prisoners of war and others wounded, including Colonel Stone's wife.[2][7] Thirty minutes after landing, the Americans returned to their boats with their plunder and set off for Ogdensburg.[2] Aftermath[edit] A British party was sent to intercept Forsyth but failed to locate his force. The British party then landed at Burton's Point and burned a blockhouse and several boats before returning to Canada.[10] Forsyth's victory at Gananoque
was celebrated by the Americans after a series of defeats. Forsyth relocated his command to Ogdensburg and on February 7, 1813, raided again across the border, this time at Elizabethtown. The British replied with their own raid on Ogdensburg.[11] The British acknowledged the threat to their supply lines and began transporting their equipment and troops in escorted convoys.[7] Construction of a blockhouse began at Ganonoque in January 1813 and was finished later in the year.[12] Historic plaque[edit] To mark the site, a Ontario provincial plaque was installed on the grounds of the Gananoque
Power Company.[7]

On September 21, 1812, during the War of 1812, a United States
United States
force of some 200 regulars and militia under Captain Benjamin Forsyth attacked Gananoque, Ontario. The village was an important forwarding point for supplies moving up the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
from Montreal
to Kingston and was garrisoned by a detachment of the 2nd Leeds Militia under Colonel Joel Stone. After a spirited resistance, Colonel Stone withdrew his force comprising two subalterns and about forty soldiers, and the Americans seized the stores and burned the government depot. As a result of this raid, a blockhouse was begun in Gananoque
the following month and completed in 1813.[13] — Raid on Gananoque


^ Tucker 2012, pp. 389–390. ^ a b c d e f g h Tucker 2012, p. 293. ^ Stanley 1983, p. 87. ^ Berton 1980, pp. 156–158. ^ Taylor 2010, p. 182. ^ Stanley 1983, p. 86. ^ a b c d e f Collins 2006, p. 181. ^ Malcomson 2009, p. 203. ^ Elting 1990, p. 52. ^ a b c Malcomson 2009, p. 204. ^ Tucker 2012, p. 247. ^ Young 2006. ^ Ontario Historical Plaques.


Berton, Pierre (1980). The Invasion of Canada 1812–1813. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-1235-7.  Collins, Gilbert (2006) [1998]. Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812
War of 1812
(Second ed.). Toronto: The Dundurn Group. ISBN 1-55002-626-7.  Elting, John R. (1990). Amateurs to Arms! A Military History of the War of 1812
War of 1812
(1st ed.). Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. ISBN 0-945575-08-4.  Malcomson, Robert (2009). The A to Z of the War of 1812. Plymouth, United Kingdom: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6838-0.  "Ontario's Historical Plaques". ontarioplaques.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.  Stanley, George F. G. (1983). The War of 1812
War of 1812
Land Operations. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada in collaboration with the National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada. ISBN 0-7715-9859-9.  Taylor, Alan (2010). The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels & Indian Allies. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-77673-4.  Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2012). The Encyclopedia of the War of 1812: A Political, Social and Military History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-85109-956-6.  Young, Richard J. (15 September 2006). "Blockhouses in Canada, 1749–1841: A Comparative Report and Catalogue". Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 23. Parks Canada. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018. 

External links[edit]

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See also: American Indian Wars, Creek War, Napoleonic Wars, and Tecumseh's War

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