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Raetia
Raetia
(/ˈriːʃə/ or /ˈriːʃiə/, Latin: [rajtia], also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian ( Raeti
Raeti
or Rhaeti) people. It bordered on the west with the country of the Helvetii, on the east with Noricum, on the north with Vindelicia, on the west with Transalpine Gaul and on the south with Venetia et Histria. It thus comprised the districts occupied in modern times by eastern and central Switzerland
Switzerland
(containing the Upper Rhine and Lake Constance), southern Bavaria
Bavaria
and the Upper Swabia, Vorarlberg, the greater part of Tyrol, and part of Lombardy. Later Vindelicia
Vindelicia
(today south-eastern Wuerttemberg and south-western Bavaria) formed part of Raetia. The northern border of Raetia
Raetia
during the times of Augustus and Tiberius
Tiberius
was the River Danube. Later the Limes Germanicus
Limes Germanicus
marked the northern boundary, stretching for 166 km north of the Danube. Raetia
Raetia
linked to Italy
Italy
across the Alps
Alps
over the Reschen Pass, by the Via Claudia Augusta. The Romansh people living in Southeast Switzerland
Switzerland
are believed[by whom?] to be direct descendants of the Raetians. However, the exact lineage of the Romansh (or Romansch) people remains incomplete.

Contents

1 History 2 Economy 3 Geography

3.1 Important cities

4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] See also: Switzerland
Switzerland
in the Roman era Little is known of the origin or history of the Raetians, who appear in the records as one of the most powerful and warlike of the Alpine tribes. Livy
Livy
states distinctly[1] that they were of Etruscan origin (a belief that was favored by Niebuhr and Mommsen). A tradition reported by Justin[2] and Pliny the Elder[3] affirmed that they were a portion of that people who had settled in the plains of the Po and were driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, when they assumed the name of "Raetians" from an eponymous leader Raetus. Even if their Etruscan origin be accepted, at the time when the land became known to the Romans, Celtic tribes were already in possession of it and had amalgamated so completely with the original inhabitants that, generally speaking, the Raetians
Raetians
of later times may be regarded as a Celtic people, although non-Celtic tribes (es. Euganei) were settled among them. The Raetians
Raetians
are first mentioned (but only incidentally) by Polybius,[4] and little is heard of them till after the end of the Republic. There is little doubt, however, that they retained their independence until their subjugation in 15 BC by Tiberius
Tiberius
and Drusus.[5] At first Raetia
Raetia
formed a distinct province, but towards the end of the 1st century AD Vindelicia
Vindelicia
was added to it; hence Tacitus (Germania, 41) could speak of Augusta Vindelicorum
Augusta Vindelicorum
(Augsburg) as "a colony of the province of Raetia". The whole province (including Vindelicia) was at first under a military prefect, then under a procurator; it had no standing army quartered in it but relied on its own native troops and militia for protection until the 2nd century AD. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Raetia
Raetia
was governed by the commander of the Legio III Italica, which was based in Castra Regina (Regensburg) by 179 AD. Under Diocletian, Raetia
Raetia
formed part of the diocese of the vicarius Italiae, and was subdivided into Raetia
Raetia
prima, with a praeses at Curia Raetorum (Chur) and Raetia
Raetia
secunda, with a praeses at Augusta Vindelicorum
Augusta Vindelicorum
(Augsburg), the former corresponding to the old Raetia, the latter to Vindelicia. The boundary between them is not clearly defined, but may be stated generally as a line drawn eastwards from the lacus Brigantinus (Lake Constance) to the Oenus (River Inn). During the last years of the Western Roman Empire, the land was in a desolate condition, but its occupation by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in the time of Theodoric the Great, who placed it under a dux, to some extent revived its prosperity. Much of Raetia
Raetia
prima remained as a separate political unit, Raetia
Raetia
Curiensis, for several centuries, until it was attached to the Duchy of Swabia
Duchy of Swabia
in AD 917. Economy[edit] The land was very mountainous, and the inhabitants, when not engaged in predatory expeditions, chiefly supported themselves by breeding cattle and cutting timber, little attention being paid to agriculture. Some of the valleys, however, were rich and fertile, and produced wine, which was considered equal to any in Italia. Augustus Caesar preferred Raetian wine to any other. Considerable trade in pitch, honey, wax, and cheese occurred. Geography[edit] The chief towns of Raetia
Raetia
(excluding Vindelicia) were Tridentum (Trento) and Curia (Coire or Chur). It was traversed by two great lines of Roman roads — the Via Claudia Augusta
Via Claudia Augusta
leading from Verona and Tridentum across the Reschen Pass
Reschen Pass
to the Fern Pass
Fern Pass
and thence to Augusta Vindelicorum
Augusta Vindelicorum
(Augsburg),[6] the other from Brigantium (Bregenz) on Lake Constance
Lake Constance
by Chur
Chur
and Chiavenna
Chiavenna
to Como
Como
and Milan. The Rätikon
Rätikon
mountain range derives its name from Raetia. Important cities[edit]

Alae (Aalen) Arbor Felix (Arbon) Abodiacum (Epfach) Aquileia (Heidenheim an der Brenz) Augusta Vindelicorum
Augusta Vindelicorum
(Augsburg) Ausugum (Borgo Valsugana) Bauzanum or Pons Drusi (Bolzano) Belunum (Belluno) Bilitio (Bellinzona) Brigantium (Bregenz) Cambodunum (Kempten im Allgäu) Castra Batava (Passau) Castra Regina (Regensburg) Clavenna (Chiavenna) Clunia (probably Feldkirch or Balzers) Curia (Chur) Endidae (Neumarkt) Feltria (Feltre) Foetes (Füssen) Guntia (Günzburg) Gamundia Romana (Schwäbisch Gmünd) Oscela (Domodossola) Parthanum (Partenkirchen) Sebatum (San Lorenzo di Sebato/St. Lorenzen) Sorviodurum (Straubing) Sublavio (Ponte Gardena/Waidbruck) Tridentum (Trento) Veldidena ( Wilten
Wilten
district of Innsbruck) Vipitenum (Vipiteno/Sterzing)

See also[edit]

Alpine regiments of the Roman army

References[edit]

^ Ab Urbe Condita v. 33 ^ xx. 5 ^ Naturalis Historia, iii. 24, 133 ^ Histories xxxiv. 10, iS ^ compare Horace, Odes, iv. 4 and 14 ^ http://www.viaclaudia.org/en/introduction/

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Raetia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 812–813. 

Further reading[edit]

PC von Planta, Das alte Rätien (Berlin, 1872) T Mommsen in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, iii. p. 706 Joachim Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, 1. (2nd ed., 1881) p. 288 Ludwig Steub, Ueber die Urbewohner Rätiens und ihren Zusammenhang mit den Etruskern (Munich, 1843) Julius Jung, Römer und Romanen in den Donauländern (Innsbruck, 1877) Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1873) T Mommsen, The Roman Provinces (English translation, 1886), i. pp. 16, 161, 196 Mary B Peaks, The General Civil and Military Administration of Noricum and Raetia
Raetia
(Chicago, 1907).

External links[edit]

Bagnall, R., J. Drinkwater, A. Esmonde-Cleary, W. Harris, R. Knapp, S. Mitchell, S. Parker, C. Wells, J. Wilkes, R. Talbert, M. E. Downs, M. Joann McDaniel, B. Z. Lund, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 991348 (Raetia)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

Italy
Italy
was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese
Diocese
of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese
Diocese
of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese
Diocese
of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese
Diocese
of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese
Diocese
of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese
Diocese
of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese
Diocese
of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese
Diocese
of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese
Diocese
of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese
Diocese
of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese
Diocese
of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese
Diocese
of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese
Diocese
of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese
Diocese
of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese
Diocese
of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese
Diocese
of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 242083393 GND: 4048263-7 HDS: 47667

Coordinates: 47°21′36″N 8°33′36″E / 47.3600°N 8.5600°E

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