A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on
communication via radio waves. Generally, it is a receiver or
transmitter, an antenna, and some smaller additional equipment
necessary to operate them.
Radio stations play a vital role in
communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer
data and information across the world.
More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the
aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such
a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e.
several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building
but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a
field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is
more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station,
transmission facility or transmitting station. An example of this
definition is Bethany Relay Station of the Voice of America which had
seven broadcast transmitters and could broadcast up to seven
independent programs (even produced by different broadcasters)
simultaneously, as well as several communications transmitters and
1 ITU definition
2 Equipment for a radio station
4 Radio frequency list
6 Types of broadcasting stations
6.1 FM broadcasting
6.2 AM broadcasting
The International Telecommunications Union, defines a radio
(communication) station as - «one or more transmitters or receivers
or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the
accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radio
communication service, or the radio astronomy service. Each station
shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or
Equipment for a radio station
Transmitter - Takes the electrical output of a microphone and then
modulates a higher-frequency carrier signal and transmits it as radio
Receiver - The broadcast message is received by the receiver and
decodes the radio sine waves.
Antenna - An antenna is required for transmission; it is also required
to receive radio waves. The main use of an antenna is to send radio
signals. Aerial feeder - system of feeding HF-Energy (power) in the
Transmission lines - Transmission lines are used to transfer the radio
signals from one location to another. For example, a transmission line
was used in Luftwaffe, Germany during WW II to send information from
camps back to their base.
Connectors Interface panel remote control – This is used to connect
various different types of the equipment used in a radio station. To
input broadcast data into a transmitter an interface panel will need
to be used.
Cable – A cable can be used to connect the various devices.
Equipment Rack – To hold all equipment in a secure and logical
manner, an equipment rack will be used.
Power protection equipment – For holding equipment's in a stable,
secure and logical manner.
UPS – For uninterrupted power supply.
These are the most used/important devices and items for most radio
A microphone is used to capture the input of sound waves created by
people speaking into the device. The sounds are then turned into
electrical energy; this energy then flows along a metal antenna. As
the electrons in the electric current move back and forth up the
antenna, the current creates an invisible electromagnetic radiation in
the form of radio waves. The waves travel at the speed of light,
taking the radio program (voices recorded) with them.
A compound of both a transmitter and a receiver is called a
transceiver, they are combined and share common circuitry or a single
housing. When no circuitry is common between the transmit and receive
functions, the device becomes a transmitter-receiver.
Technically transceivers must combine a significant amount of the
transmitter and receiver handling the circuitry.
Communication technology is an umbrella term which includes any
communication device or application containing:
Computer and network hardware and software
Radio frequency list
Possible Frequency allocations, allotments & assignments
Broadcasting service (AM sound broadcasting) - 535 to 1606.5 kHz
Broadcasting service (HF sound broadcasting) - bands from 5.9 to 26.1
Mobile service (citizens band radio) - 26.96 to 27.41 MHz
Amateur Radio Service [Public Service & Emergency Radio Services]
(Ham Radio) - bands from 135.7 kHz & up
Broadcasting service (television, channels 2 through 6) - 54 to
Broadcasting service (FM sound broadcasting) - 88 to 108 MHz
Broadcasting service (television, channels 7 through 13) - 174 to
FIXED SERVICE, MOBILE SERVICE, (generic frequency allotment) garage
door opener - around 40 MHz
MOBILE SERVICE (generic frequency allotment) standard digital cordless
phones (DECT) - 40 to 50 MHz
MOBILE SERVICE baby monitors - 49 MHz
MOBILE SERVICE radio controlled airplanes - around 72 MHz
Mobile service cell phones - 824 to 849 MHz
Space research service
Space research service (deep space) - 2290
Broadcasting service (short:
Broadcasting (BS) also: broadcasting
radiocommunication service) is – according to Article 1.38 of the
International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations
(RR) – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the
transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public.
This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions
or other types of transmission (CS).» Definitions identical to those
contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the
International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union (Geneva, 1992) are marked "(CS)"
or "(CV)" respectively.
Broadcasting began with AM sound broadcasting, before this all form of
electronic communications, radio communication, telephone etc. were
"one-to-one" with the message intended for a single recipient.
The broadcasting station is usually associated with wireless
transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission (sound and
television) take place using both wires and radio waves. The point of
this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can
receive the broadcast.
Types of broadcasting stations
Use of a sound broadcasting station
In line to
ITU Radio Regulations (article1.61) each broadcasting
station shall be classified by the service in which it operates
permanently or temporarily.
FM broadcasting stations operate in the frequency band allocated to
Broadcasting service in the range of 88 to 108
MHz on primary
basis. The particular broadcasting channels are in line to the
regional or national frequency allotment plans and subject to
frequency coordination. The interference criteria, established by the
ITU Radio Regulations, are mandatory, so the highest quality reception
might be achieved. Any frequency assignment is within the
responsibility of the competent national Frequency assignment
Low power FM broadcasting
A low power
FM broadcasting station (also low power FM radio) is
operated at a power of 500 mW to 100W and can cover a service
radius of 3 to 10 miles (geographical). Normally it broadcasts
educational content; and is not allowed to undertake any commercial
The lower the transmission frequency of AM sound broadcasting stations
(also: AM radio), the greater is the geographical area covered, and
lower is the quality of AM reception. Typical AM radio stations
broadcast at frequencies between 525 kHz and 1605 kHz.
AM radio reception faces high interference from other
radiocommunication services, allocated to the particular frequency
band, or local broadcasts at similar frequencies, usually originating
from other countries. To set up an
AM broadcasting transmitter needs a
massive infrastructure investment, usually including the cost of
hiring more than one cross-border frequency coordination to comply
with each country's regulations.
Internet (sound or television) broadcasting (short:
Internet radio) is
one of the least expensive methods to provide sound
or television programmes to a worldwide audience. The only thing that
is required is a computer with a large storage capacity. A high speed
internet connection may also be needed and funds to purchase software.
^ "What is ICT (information and communications technology - or
technologies)? - Definition from WhatIs.com". SearchCIO. Retrieved
^ "Radio Regulations, Articles, Edition of 2012" (PDF). ITU.
^ "Equipment for a Radio Station Complete List Radio
Broadcasting". familypsalms.com. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
^ "How do antennas and transmitters work? - Explain that Stuff".
www.explainthatstuff.com. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
^ "Frequency Allocations". www.arrl.org. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
^ "How the Radio Spectrum Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved
^ ITU Radio Regulations, Section IV. Radio Stations and Systems –
Article 1.38, definition: broadcasting service / broadcasting
^ Neira, Bob. "Broadcasting". modestoradiomuseum.
Radio stations and systems in
accordance with ITU Radio Regulations
Terrestrial station Earth station Space station
Survival craft station Fixed station High altitude
platform station Mobile station Mobile earth
station Land station Land earth station Base
station Base earth station Land mobile station
Land mobile earth station Coast station Coast earth
station Ship station Ship earth station On-board
communication station Port station Aeronautical
station Aeronautical earth station Aircraft
station Aircraft earth station Broadcasting
station Radiodetermination station Radionavigation
mobile station Radionavigation land station
Radiolocation mobile station Radiolocation land station
Radio direction-finding station Radio beacon station
Emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station Satellite
emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station Standard
frequency and time signal station Amateur station Radio
astronomy station Experimental radio station Ship's
emergency transmitter Radar Primary radar
Radar beacon (racon) Instrument landing
system (ILS) ILS localizer ILS glide path Marker
beacon Radio altimeter Radiosonde Space
system Satellite system Satellite network
Satellite link Multi-satellite link Feeder link
Emergency locator beacon