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A RADIO STATION is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves . Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter , an antenna , and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world.

More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station , transmission facility or transmitting station. An example of this definition is Bethany Relay Station of the Voice of America which had seven broadcast transmitters and could broadcast up to seven independent programs (even produced by different broadcasters ) simultaneously, as well as several communications transmitters and receivers.

CONTENTS

* 1 ITU definition

* 2 Equipment for a radio station

* 2.1 Antennas * 2.2 Transceiver

* 3 Communication
Communication
technology * 4 Broadcasting
Broadcasting

* 5 Types of broadcasting stations

* 5.1 FM broadcasting * 5.2 AM broadcasting * 5.3 Internet
Internet
radio

* 6 References

ITU DEFINITION

The International Telecommunications Union , defines a RADIO (COMMUNICATION) STATION as - «_one or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radio communication service , or the radio astronomy service . Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily_».

EQUIPMENT FOR A RADIO STATION

* TRANSMITTER - Takes the electrical output of a microphone and then modulates a higher-frequency carrier signal and transmits it as radio waves . * RECEIVER - The broadcast message is received by the receiver and decodes the radio sine waves. * ANTENNA - An antenna is required for transmission; it is also required to receive radio waves. The main use of an antenna is to send radio signals. AERIAL FEEDER - system of feeding HF-Energy (power) in the antenna * TRANSMISSION LINES - Transmission lines are used to transfer the radio signals from one location to another. For example, a transmission line was used in Luftwaffe, Germany during WW II to send information from camps back to their base. * CONNECTORS INTERFACE PANEL REMOTE CONTROL – This is used to connect various different types of the equipment used in a radio station. To input broadcast data into a transmitter an interface panel will need to be used. * CABLE – A cable can be used to connect the various devices. * EQUIPMENT RACK – To hold all equipment in a secure and logical manner, an equipment rack will be used. * POWER PROTECTION EQUIPMENT – For holding equipment's in a stable, secure and logical manner. * UPS – For uninterrupted power supply .

These are the most used/important devices and items for most radio stations.

ANTENNAS

A microphone is used to capture the input of sound waves created by people speaking into the device. The sounds are then turned into electrical energy; this energy then flows along a metal antenna. As the electrons in the electric current move back and forth up the antenna, the current creates an invisible electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves. The waves travel at the speed of light, taking the radio program (voices recorded) with them.

TRANSCEIVER

A compound of both a transmitter and a receiver is called a transceiver, they are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between the transmit and receive functions, the device becomes a transmitter-receiver.

Technically transceivers must combine a significant amount of the transmitter and receiver handling the circuitry.

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Communication
Communication
technology is an umbrella term which includes any communication device or application containing:

* Radio * Television * Cellular phones * Computer and network hardware and software * Satellite systems

==Radio frequency list==http;89.34.24.40.9968;poarta_sarutului Possible Frequency allocations , allotments & assignments

* Broadcasting
Broadcasting
service (AM sound broadcasting) - 535 to 1606.5 kHz * Broadcasting
Broadcasting
service (HF sound broadcasting) - bands from 5.9 to 26.1 MHz
MHz
* Mobile service
Mobile service
(citizens band radio) - 26.96 to 27.41 MHz * Amateur Radio Service (Ham Radio ) - bands from 135.7 kHz "> Use of a sound broadcasting station

In line to ITU Radio Regulations (article1.61) each _broadcasting station_ shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

FM BROADCASTING

FM broadcasting stations operate in the frequency band allocated to the Broadcasting
Broadcasting
service in the range of 88 to 108 MHz
MHz
on primary basis. The particular broadcasting channels are in line to the regional or national frequency allotment plans and subject to frequency coordination. The interference criteria, established by the ITU Radio Regulations , are mandatory, so the highest quality reception might be achieved. Any frequency assignment is within the responsibility of the competent national Frequency assignment authority . Low power FM broadcasting

A _low power FM broadcasting station_ (also _low power FM radio_) is operated at a power of 500 mW to 100W and can cover a service radius of 3 to 10 miles (geographical). Normally it broadcasts educational content; and is not allowed to undertake any commercial operations.

AM BROADCASTING

The lower the transmission frequency of AM sound broadcasting stations (also: _AM radio_), the greater is the geographical area covered, and lower is the quality of AM reception. Typical AM radio stations broadcast at frequencies between 525 kHz and 1605 kHz.

AM radio reception faces high interference from other radiocommunication services , allocated to the particular frequency band, or local broadcasts at similar frequencies, usually originating from other countries. To set up an AM broadcasting transmitter needs a massive infrastructure investment, usually including the cost of hiring more than one cross-border frequency coordination to comply with each country's regulations.

INTERNET RADIO

_ Internet
Internet
(sound or television) broadcasting_ (short: Internet
Internet
radio ) is one of the least expensive methods to provide sound or television programmes to a worldwide audience. The only thing that is required is a computer with a large storage capacity. A high speed internet connection may also be needed and funds to purchase software.

REFERENCES

* ^ "What is ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies)? - Definition from WhatIs.com". _SearchCIO_. Retrieved 2015-11-04. * ^ "Radio Regulations, Articles, Edition of 2012" (PDF). _ITU_. * ^ "Equipment for a Radio Station Complete List Radio Broadcasting". _familypsalms.com_. Retrieved 2015-11-04. * ^ "How do antennas and transmitters work? - Explain that Stuff". _www.explainthatstuff.com_. Retrieved 2015-11-03. * ^ "Frequency Allocations". _www.arrl.org_. Retrieved 2017-07-09. * ^ "How the Radio Spectrum Works". _HowStuffWorks_. Retrieved 2015-11-04. * ^ ITU Radio Regulations, Section IV. Radio Stations and Systems – Article 1.38, definition: _broadcasting service / broadcasting radiocommunication service_ * ^ Neira, Bob. "Broadcasting". _modestoradiomuseum_. modestoradiomuseum.

* v * t * e

Radio stations and systems in accordance with ITU Radio Regulations

desig- nation Terrestrial station Earth station Space station Survival craft station Fixed station High altitude platform station Mobile station Mobile earth station Land station Land earth station Base station
Base station
Base earth station Land mobile station Land mobile earth station Coast station Coast earth station Ship station Ship earth station On-board communication station Port station Aeronautical station Aeronautical earth station Aircraft station Aircraft earth station Broadcasting station Radiodetermination station Radionavigation mobile station Radionavigation land station Radiolocation mobile station Radiolocation land station Radio direction-finding station
Radio direction-finding station
Radio beacon station Emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station Satellite emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station Standard frequency and time signal station Amateur station Radio astronomy station Experimental radio station Ship\'s emergency transmitter Radar
Radar
Primary radar Secondary radar Radar
Radar
beacon (racon) Instrument landing system (ILS) ILS localizer ILS glide path Marker beacon Radio altimeter Radiosonde
Radiosonde
Space system Satellite system Satellite network Satellite link Multi-satellite link Feeder link