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The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. They called themselves "Radicals" with a sense of a complete permanent eradication of slavery and secessionism, without compromise. They were opposed during the War by the moderate Republicans (led by President Abraham Lincoln), by the conservative Republicans, and by the anti-abolitionist and anti-Reconstruction Democratic Party as well as by conservatives in the South and liberals in the North during Reconstruction.[1] Radicals led efforts after the war to establish civil rights for former slaves and fully implement emancipation. After weaker measures resulted in 1866 violence against former slaves in the rebel states, Radicals pushed the 14th Amendment and statutory protections through Congress. They disfavored allowing ex Confederates officers to retake political power in the south, and emphasized equality, civil rights and voting rights for the "freedmen" (recently freed slaves).[2] During the war, Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln's initial selection of General George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
for top command of the major eastern Army of the Potomac
Army of the Potomac
and his efforts to bring seceded Southern states back into the Union as quickly and easily as possible. Lincoln later recognized McClellan's weakness and relieved him of command. The Radicals passed their own reconstruction plan through the Congress in 1864, but Lincoln vetoed it and was putting his own presidential policies in effect by virtue as military commander-in-chief when he was assassinated in April 1865.[3] Radicals pushed for the uncompensated abolition of slavery, while Lincoln wanted to pay slave owners who were loyal to the Union. After the war, the Radicals demanded civil rights for freedmen, such as measures ensuring suffrage. They initiated the various Reconstruction Acts as well as the Fourteenth Amendment and limited political and voting rights for ex Confederate civil officials and military officers. They keenly fought President Andrew Johnson, a former slave owner from Tennessee who favored allowing southern states to decide the rights and status of former slaves. After he vetoed various Congressional acts favoring civil rights for former slaves, they attempted to remove him from office through impeachment, which failed by one vote in 1868.

Contents

1 The Radical coalition 2 Wartime 3 Reconstruction policy

3.1 Opposing Lincoln 3.2 Opposing Johnson 3.3 Control of Congress 3.4 Impeachment 3.5 Supporting Grant

4 Reconstruction of the South 5 Historiography

5.1 Leading Radical Republicans

6 Notes 7 References and further reading

7.1 Secondary sources 7.2 Primary sources 7.3 Yearbooks

The Radical coalition[edit] The term "radical" was in common use in the anti-slavery movement before the Civil War, referring not to abolitionists, but to Northern politicians strongly opposed to Slave Power.[4] Many and perhaps a majority had been Whigs, such as William Seward, a leading presidential contender in 1860 and Lincoln's Secretary of State, Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
of Pennsylvania, as well as Horace Greeley, editor of the New-York Tribune, the leading Radical newspaper. There was movement in both directions: some of the pre-war Radicals (such as Seward) became more conservative during the war, while some prewar moderates became Radicals. Some wartime Radicals had been conservative Democrats before the war, often taking proslavery positions. They included John A. Logan
John A. Logan
of Illinois, Edwin Stanton
Edwin Stanton
of Ohio, Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts, Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
of Illinois and Vice President Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(Johnson broke with the Radicals after he became President). The Radicals came to majority power in the Congress in the elections of 1866 after several episodes of violence led many to conclude that President Johnson's weaker reconstruction policies were insufficient. These episodes included the New Orleans riot
New Orleans riot
and the Memphis riots of 1866. In a pamphlet directed to black voters in 1867, the Union Republican Congressional Committee stated:

[T]he word Radical as applied to political parties and politicians ... means one who is in favor of going to the root of things; who is thoroughly in earnest; who desires that slavery should be abolished, that every disability connected therewith should be obliterated.[5]

The Radicals were never formally organized and there was movement in and out of the group. Their most successful and systematic leader was Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Congressman Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
in the House of Representatives. The Democrats were strongly opposed to the Radicals, but they were generally a weak minority in politics until they took control of the House in the 1874 congressional elections. The moderate and conservative Republican factions usually opposed the Radicals, but they were not well organized. Lincoln tried to build a multi-faction coalition, including radicals, conservatives, moderates and War Democrats as while he was often opposed by the Radicals, he never ostracized them. Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
was thought to be a Radical when he became President in 1865, but he soon became their leading opponent. However, Johnson was so inept as a politician he was unable to form a cohesive support network. Finally in 1872, the Liberal Republicans, most of them ex Radicals, ran a presidential campaign and won the support of the Democratic Party for their ticket. They argued that Grant and the Radicals were corrupt and had imposed Reconstruction far too long on the South. They were overwhelmingly defeated and collapsed as a movement. On issues not concerned with the Slave Power, the destruction of the Confederacy, the eradication of slavery and the rights of the Freedmen, Radicals took positions all over the political map. For example, Radicals who had once been Whigs generally supported high tariffs and ex Democrats generally opposed them. Some men were for hard money and no inflation while others were for soft money and inflation. The argument, common in the 1930s, that the Radicals were primarily motivated by a desire to selfishly promote Northeastern business interests, has seldom been argued by historians for a half-century.[6] On foreign policy issues, the Radicals and moderates generally did not take distinctive positions.[7] Wartime[edit]

Henry Jarvis Raymond

After the 1860 elections, moderate Republicans dominated the Congress. Radical Republicans were often critical of Lincoln, who they believed was too slow in freeing slaves and supporting their legal equality. Lincoln put all factions in his cabinet, including Radicals like Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
(Secretary of the Treasury), whom he later appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, James Speed
James Speed
(Attorney General) and Edwin M. Stanton
Edwin M. Stanton
(Secretary of War). Lincoln appointed many Radical Republicans, such as journalist James Shepherd Pike, to key diplomatic positions. Angry with Lincoln, in 1864 some Radicals briefly formed a political party called the Radical Democracy Party,[8] with John C. Frémont as their candidate for president, until Frémont withdrew. An important Republican opponent of the Radical Republicans was Henry Jarvis Raymond. Raymond was both editor of The New York Times
The New York Times
and also a chairman of the Republican National Committee. In Congress, the most influential Radical Republicans were U.S. Senator Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
and U.S. Representative Thaddeus Stevens. They led the call for a war that would end slavery.[9] Reconstruction policy[edit]

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Opposing Lincoln[edit] The Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln's terms for reuniting the United States during Reconstruction (1863), which they viewed as too lenient. They proposed an "ironclad oath" that would prevent anyone who supported the Confederacy from voting in Southern elections, but Lincoln blocked it and once Radicals passed the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864, Lincoln vetoed it. The Radicals demanded a more aggressive prosecution of the war, a faster end to slavery and total destruction of the Confederacy. After the war, the Radicals controlled the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Opposing Johnson[edit] After the assassination of Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson became President. Although he appeared at first to be a Radical,[10] he broke with them and the Radicals and Johnson became embroiled in a bitter struggle. Johnson proved a poor politician and his allies lost heavily in the 1866 elections in the North. The Radicals now had full control of Congress and could override Johnson's vetoes. Control of Congress[edit] After the 1866 elections, the Radicals generally controlled Congress. Johnson vetoed 21 bills passed by Congress during his term, but the Radicals overrode 15 of them, including the Reconstruction Acts and Enforcement Acts, which rewrote the election laws for the South and allowed blacks to vote while prohibiting former Confederate Army officers from holding office. As a result of the 1867–1868 elections, the newly empowered freedmen, in coalition with carpetbaggers (Northerners who had recently moved south) and Scalawags (white Southerners who supported Reconstruction), set up Republican governments in 10 Southern states (all but Virginia). Impeachment[edit] The Radical plan was to remove Johnson from office, but the first effort at impeachment went nowhere. After Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act by dismissing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, the House of Representatives voted to impeach him, but he escaped removal from office by the Senate by a single vote in 1868, though he had lost most of his power.[11] Supporting Grant[edit] General Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
in 1865–1868 was in charge of the Army under President Johnson, but Grant generally enforced the Radical agenda. The leading Radicals in Congress were Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
in the House and Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
in the Senate. Grant was elected as a Republican in 1868 and after the election he generally sided with the Radicals on Reconstruction policies and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1871 into law.[12] The Republicans split in 1872 over Grant's reelection, with the Liberal Republicans, including Sumner, opposing Grant with a new third party. The Liberals lost badly, but the economy then went into a depression in 1873 and in 1874 the Democrats swept back into power and ended the reign of the Radicals.[1] The Radicals tried to protect the new coalition, but one by one the Southern states voted the Republicans out of power until in 1876 only three were left (Louisiana, Florida and South Carolina), where the Army still protected them. The 1876 presidential election was so close that it was decided in those three states despite massive fraud and illegalities on both sides. The Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
called for the election of a Republican as President and his withdrawal of the troops. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
withdrew the troops and the Republican state regimes immediately collapsed.[13] Reconstruction of the South[edit]

U.S. Rep. Thaddeus Stevens

U.S. Senator Charles Sumner

During Reconstruction, Radical Republicans increasingly took control, led by Sumner and Stevens. They demanded harsher measures in the South, more protection for the Freedmen
Freedmen
and more guarantees that the Confederate nationalism was totally eliminated. Following Lincoln's assassination in 1865, Andrew Johnson, a former War Democrat, became President. The Radicals at first admired Johnson's hard-line talk. When they discovered his ambivalence on key issues by his veto of Civil Rights Act of 1866, they overrode his veto. This was the first time that Congress had overridden a President on an important bill. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made African Americans
African Americans
United States citizens, forbade discrimination against them and it was to be enforced in Federal courts. The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution of 1868 (with its Equal Protection Clause) was the work of a coalition formed of both moderate and Radical Republicans.[9] By 1866, the Radical Republicans supported federal civil rights for Freedmen, which Johnson opposed. By 1867, they defined terms for suffrage for freed slaves and limited early suffrage for many ex Confederates. While Johnson opposed the Radical Republicans on some issues, the decisive Congressional elections of 1866 gave the Radicals enough votes to enact their legislation over Johnson's vetoes. Through elections in the South, ex Confederate officeholders were gradually replaced with a coalition of freedmen, Southern whites (called scalawags) and Northerners who had resettled in the South (called carpetbaggers). The Radical Republicans impeached Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
in the House, but failed by one vote in the Senate to remove him from office.[9] The Radicals were opposed by former slaveowners and white supremacists in the rebel states. Radicals were targeted by the Ku Klux Klan, who shot to death one Radical Congressman from Arkansas, James M. Hinds.

Grant's last outrage in Louisiana in Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, as with nation tired of Reconstruction heremained the lone President protecting African American
African American
civil rights, January 23, 1875

The Radical Republicans led the Reconstruction of the South. All Republican factions supported Ulysses Grant for President in 1868. Once in office, Grant forced Sumner out of the party and used Federal power to try to break up the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
organization. However, insurgents and community riots continued harassment and violence against African Americans
African Americans
and their allies into the early 20th century. By the 1872 presidential election, the Liberal Republicans thought that Reconstruction had succeeded and should end. Many moderates joined their cause as well as Radical Republican
Radical Republican
leader Charles Sumner. They nominated New-York Tribune editor Horace Greeley, who was also nominated by the Democrats. Grant was easily reelected.[14] In state after state in the South, the Redeemers
Redeemers
movement seized control from the Republicans until only three Republican states were left in 1876: South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Republican presidential candidate Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
announced that he favored restoring "home rule" in these states, provided they promised to respect the rights of the freedmen. When Hayes became President in 1877, he ordered the removal of federal troops and Redeemers
Redeemers
took over in these states as well. As white Democratic-dominated state legislatures regained power and Congressional efforts to reconstruct the south faded, in the late 19th century after the Reconstruction period Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
were enacted to limit the civil rights of former slaves. Liberal Republicans (in 1872) and Democrats argued the Radical Republicans were corrupt by the acts of accepting bribes (notably during the Grant administration). These opponents of the Radicals demanded amnesty for all ex Confederates, restoring their right to vote and hold public office. Foner's history of Reconstruction pointed out that sometimes the financial chicanery was as much a question of extortion as bribes. By 1872, the Radicals were increasingly splintered and in the Congressional elections of 1874 the anti-Radical Democrats took control of Congress. Many former Radicals joined the "Stalwart" faction of the Republican Party while many opponents joined the "Half-Breeds", but they differed primarily on patronage rather than policy.[15] Historiography[edit] In the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction, new battles took place over the construction of memory and the meaning of historical events. The earliest historians to study Reconstruction and the Radical Republican
Radical Republican
participation in it were members of the Dunning School led by William Archibald Dunning and John W. Burgess.[16] The Dunning School, based at Columbia University
Columbia University
in the early 20th century, saw the Radicals as motivated by a lust for power at the expense of national reconciliation and an irrational hatred of the Confederacy.[16] According to Dunning School historians, the Radical Republicans reversed the gains Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
and Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
had made in reintegrating the South, established corrupt shadow governments made up of Northern carpetbaggers and Southern scalawags in the former Confederate states and to increase their support base foisted political rights on the freed slaves that they were unprepared or incapable of utilizing.[17] For the Dunning School, the Radical Republicans made Reconstruction a dark age that only ended when Southern whites rose up and reestablished a "home rule" free of Northern, Republican and black influence.[18] In the 1930s, the Dunning-oriented approaches were rejected by self-styled "revisionist" historians led by Howard K. Beale along with William B. Hesseltine, C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
and T. Harry Williams.[19] They downplayed corruption and stressed that Northern Democrats were also corrupt. Beale and Woodward were leaders in promoting racial equality and they reevaluated the era in terms of regional economic conflict.[20] They were also hostile towards the Radicals, casting them as economic opportunists. They argued that apart from a few idealists, most Radicals were scarcely interested in the fate of the blacks or the South as a whole. Rather, the main goal of the Radicals was to protect and promote Northern capitalism which was threatened in Congress by the West as if the Democrats took control of the South and joined the West, the Northeastern business interests would suffer. They did not trust anyone from the South except men beholden to them by bribes and railroad deals. For example, Beale argued that the Radicals in Congress put Southern states under Republican control to get their votes in Congress for high protective tariffs.[21][22] The role of Radical Republicans in creating public school systems, charitable institutions and other social infrastructure in the South was downplayed by the Dunning School of historians. Since the 1950s, the impact of the moral crusade of the civil rights movement as well as the "Black Power" movement led historians to reevaluate the role of Radical Republicans during Reconstruction and their reputation improved.[23] These historians, sometimes referred to as neoabolitionist because they reflected and admired the values of the abolitionists of the 19th century, argued that the Radical Republicans' advancement of civil rights and suffrage for African Americans following emancipation was more significant than the financial corruption which took place. They also pointed to the African Americans' central, active roles in reaching toward education (both individually and by creating public school systems) and their desire to acquire land as a means of self-support.[24] Historians have long puzzled over why most Republicans—even extreme abolitionists—gradually lost interest in the fate of the freedmen after 1868. In 2004, Richardson argued that Northern Republicans came to see most blacks as potentially dangerous to the economy because they might prove to be labor radicals in the tradition of the 1871 Paris Commune
Paris Commune
or Great railroad strike of 1877
Great railroad strike of 1877
and other violent American strikes of the 1870s. Meanwhile, it became clear to Northerners that the white South was not bent on revenge or the restoration of the Confederacy. Most of the Republicans who felt this way became opponents of Grant and entered the Liberal Republican camp in 1872.[25] Leading Radical Republicans[edit]

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John C. Frémont: the 1856 presidential candidate of the Radical Republicans John Armor Bingham: Representative from Ohio
Ohio
and principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Edwin McMasters Stanton: Secretary of War under the Lincoln and Johnson administrations John Parker Hale: Senator from New Hampshire and one of the first to make a stand against slavery James M. Hinds: Congressman from Arkansas, murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in 1868 Samuel J. Kirkwood: Senator from Iowa Timothy Otis Howe: Senator from Wisconsin Lot Myrick Morrill: Senator from Maine and Secretary of the Treasury under the Grant Administration. George Henry Williams: Senator from Oregon (1865–1871) and Attorney General under President Grant Oliver P. Morton: Governor of Indiana (1861–1867) and Senator Rufus Paine Spalding: Representative from Ohio
Ohio
who took a leading role in the Congressional debates over Reconstruction William Gannaway Brownlow: publisher of the Knoxville Whig, Tennessee Governor and Senator Edmund J. Davis: Governor of Texas in 1870–1874 Rufus Bullock: Governor of Georgia 1868–1871 Harrison Reed: Governor of Florida in 1868–1873 William Woods Holden: Governor of North Carolina in 1868–1871 Charles Daniel Drake: Senator from Missouri Henry Clay Warmoth: Governor of Louisiana in 1868–1872 Adelbert Ames: Governor of Mississippi in 1868–1870 and 1874–1876 George Washington Julian: Representative from Indiana and principal framer of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Reuben Fenton: Governor of New York in 1865–1868 Franklin J. Moses, Jr.: Governor of South Carolina in 1872–1874. Benjamin Butler: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
politician-soldier who was hated by rebels for restoring control in New Orleans George Sewall Boutwell: Representative from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Treasury Secretary under President Grant from 1869 to 1873 Zachariah Chandler: Senator from Michigan and Secretary of the Interior under President Grant Jacob M. Howard: Senator from Michigan Austin Blair: Governor of Michigan in 1861–1865 John Conness: Senator from California Salmon P. Chase: Treasury Secretary under President Lincoln and Supreme Court chief justice who sought the 1868 Democratic nomination as a moderate Amos Tappan Akerman: Attorney General under the Grant administration who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in the South under the Enforcement Acts Henry Winter Davis: Representative from Maryland Friedrich Hecker: leader of the German-American Forty-Eighters Richard Yates: Governor of Illinois in 1861–1865 and Senator John Alexander Logan: Senator from Illinois James A. Garfield: House of Representatives leader, less radical than others and President in 1881 Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Representative from Illinois Hannibal Hamlin: Maine politician and Vice President during Lincoln's first term William Darrah Kelley: Representative from Pennsylvania James Mitchell Ashley: Representative from Ohio Thomas Clement Fletcher: Governor of Missouri in 1865–1869 Samuel Shellabarger: Representative from Ohio
Ohio
and principle drafter of the Civil Rights Act of 1871 Joshua Reed Giddings: Representative from Ohio
Ohio
and an early leading founder of the Ohio
Ohio
Republican Party James H. Lane: Senator from Kansas and leader of the Jayhawkers abolitionist movement Schuyler Colfax: Speaker of the House (1863–1869) and the 17th Vice President of the United States (1869–1873). Samuel Pomeroy: Senator from Kansas Daniel Phillips Upham: Arkansas politician-soldier who was ruthless in campaign that would temporarily rid the South of the Ku Klux Klan Thaddeus Stevens: Radical leader in the House from Pennsylvania. James F. Wilson: Representative from Iowa, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee during the impeachment of Presiident Johnson and Senator from Iowa Charles Sumner: Senator from Massachusetts, dominant Radical leader in Senate and specialist in foreign affairs who broke with Grant in 1872 Benjamin Franklin Wade: Senator from Ohio, he was next in line to become President if Johnson was removed Henry Wilson: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
leader and Vice President under Grant Ulysses S. Grant: President who signed Enforcement Acts and Civil Rights Act of 1875 while as General of the Army of the United States he supported Radical Reconstruction and civil rights for African Americans John Creswell: elected Baltimore
Baltimore
Representative to the House in 1863 during the Civil War, Creswell worked closely under Radical Republican Baltimore
Baltimore
Representative Henry Winter Davis
Henry Winter Davis
and was appointed Postmaster-General by President Grant in 1869, having vast patronage powers appointed many African Americans
African Americans
to federal postal positions in every state of the United States

Notes[edit]

^ a b Trefousse (1969) ^ Trefousse, Hans (1991). Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction. pp. 175–76.  ^ William C. Harris, With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997), pp. 123–70. ^ Hans L. Trefousse, The Radical Republicans (1969) p. 20 ^ Pamphlet bound into Shelby Moore Cullom (1867). Speech of Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, on Reconstruction: Delivered in the House of Representatives, January 28, 1867. pp. 1–2.  ^ Stanley Coben, "Northeastern Business and Radical Reconstruction: A Re-examination," Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jun., 1959), pp. 67–90 in JSTOR ^ Trefousse, The Radical Republicans pp. 21–32 ^ "HarpWeek: Explore History". Retrieved 2010-05-31.  chapter= ignored (help) ^ a b c Trefousse, Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (2001) ^ Senator Chandler, a Radical leader, said the new president was "as radical as I am"; Blackburn (1969), p. 113; also McKitrick, Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1961) p. 60. ^ Michael Les Benedict, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999) ^ Brooks D. Simpson, The Reconstruction Presidents ch. 5, 6 (2009) ^ Scroggs (1958) ^ Hesseltine, Ulysses S. Grant: Politician (1935) ^ John G. Sproat, "'Old Ideals' and 'New Realities' in the Gilded Age," Reviews in American History, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Dec., 1973), pp. 565–70 ^ a b Foner, p. xi. ^ Foner, pp. xi–xii. ^ Foner, p. xii. ^ Howard K. Beale, "On Rewriting Reconstruction History." American Historical Review (1940) 35#4 pp. 807–27. in JSTOR ^ T. Harry Williams, "An Analysis of Some Reconstruction Attitudes," Journal of Southern History (1946) 12#4 pp. 469–86 in JSTOR ^ Howard K. Beale, "The Tariff and Reconstruction." The American Historical Review (1930) 35#2 pp. 276–94. in JSTOR ^ LaWanda Cox, "From Emancipation to Segregation" in John B. Boles and Evelyn Thomas Nolan, eds. Interpreting Southern History (1987), pp. 199–253 ^ Cox, "From Emancipation to Segregation" (1987), p. 199 ^ Hugh Tulloch, The Debate on the American Civil War
American Civil War
Era. (1999); Thomas C. Holt, "Reconstruction in United States History Textbooks." Journal of American History
Journal of American History
1995 81(4): 1641–51. ^ Heather Cox Richardson, The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865–1901 (2004)

References and further reading[edit] Secondary sources[edit]

Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era Fordham University Press, 1998 online edition Belz, Herman. Emancipation and Equal Rights: Politics and Constitutionalism in the Civil War Era (1978) online edition Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedman's Rights, 1861–1866 (2000) Benedict, Michael Les. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999) Blackburn, George M. " Radical Republican
Radical Republican
Motivation: A Case History," The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr., 1969), pp. 109–26 in JSTOR, re: Michigan Senator Zachariah Chandler Bogue, Allan G. "Historians and Radical Republicans: A Meaning for Today," Journal of American History
Journal of American History
Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jun., 1983), pp. 7–34 in JSTOR Bowers, Claude G. "The Tragic Era: The Revolution after Lincoln", (1929) 567 pages, intense anti-Radical narrative by prominent Democrat Castel, Albert E. The Presidency of Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1979) Donald, David. Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
and the Rights of Man (1970) Major critical analysis. Donald, David. Lincoln (1996), a major scholarly biography Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005). Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (2002), major synthesis; many prizes Foner, Eric. A Short History of Reconstruction (1990). ISBN 0-06-096431-6. abridged version Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997) Lincoln as moderate and opponent of Radicals. Hesseltine; William B. Ulysses S. Grant: Politician (1935), postwar years. online edition McFeeley, William S. Grant: A Biography (1981). Pulitzer Prize. McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
and Reconstruction (1961). Milton, George Fort; The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
and the Radicals (1930); hostile Nevins, Allan. Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration (1936) Pulitzer Prize. Randall, James G. Lincoln the President: Last Full Measure (1955), a major biography Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume 6 and 7 (1920) highhy detailed political narrative. Richardson, Heather Cox. West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War (2007) excerpt and text search Richardson, Heather Cox. The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865–1901 (2004) excerpt and text search Riddleberger, Patrick W. "The Break in the Radical Ranks: Liberals vs Stalwarts in the Election of 1872," The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1959), pp. 136–57 in JSTOR Ross, Earle Dudley. The Liberal Republican Movement (1910) full text online, scholarly history Scroggs, Jack B. "Southern Reconstruction: A Radical View," The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Nov., 1958), [pp. 407–29 in JSTOR Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 (1967). Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861–1868 (1991). Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents (1998). Summers, Mark Wahlgren.The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865–1878 (1994) Trefousse, Hans. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction (1991) excerpt and text search Trefousse, Hans. The Radical Republicans (1969), favorable to Radicals Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (2001)], favorable biography Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and the Radicals (1941), hostile to Radicals Roger D. Launius, "Williams and the Radicals: An Historiographical Essay", Louisiana History (1987) 28#2 pp. 141–64 in JSTOR Zuczek, Richard. Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
(2 vol 2006)

Primary sources[edit]

Harper's Weekly news magazine Barnes, William H., ed. History of the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United States. (1868) useful summary of Congressional activity. Blaine, James.Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. With a review of the events which led to the political revolution of 1860 (1886). By Republican Congressional leader full text online Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational, and Industrial 2 vol (1906). Uses broad collection of primary sources; vol 1 on national politics; vol 2 on states full text of vol. 2 Hyman, Harold M., ed. The Radical Republicans and Reconstruction, 1861–1870. (1967), collection of long political speeches and pamphlets. Edward McPherson, The Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction (1875), large collection of speeches and primary documents, 1865–1870, complete text online. [The copyright has expired.] Palmer, Beverly Wilson and Holly Byers Ochoa, eds. The Selected Papers of Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
2 vol (1998), 900 pp; his speeches plus and letters to and from Stevens Palmer, Beverly Wilson, ed/ The Selected Letters of Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
2 vol (1990); vol 2 covers 1859–1874 Charles Sumner, "Our Domestic Relations: or, How to Treat the Rebel States" Atlantic Monthly September 1863, early Radical manifesto

Yearbooks[edit]

American Annual Cyclopedia...1868 (1869), online, highly detailed compendium of facts and primary sources; details on every state American Annual Cyclopedia...for 1869 (1870) online edition Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...for 1870 (1871) American Annual Cyclopedia...for 1872 (1873) Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...for 1873 (1879) online edition Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...for 1875 (1877) Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia ...for 1876 (1885) online edition Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...for 1877 (1878)

v t e

American Civil War

Origins

Origins Issues

Timeline leading to the War Antebellum era Bleeding Kansas Border states Compromise of 1850 Dred Scott v. Sandford Lincoln-Douglas debates Missouri Compromise Popular sovereignty Secession States' rights President Lincoln's 75,000 volunteers

Slavery

African Americans Cornerstone Speech Emancipation Proclamation Fugitive slave laws Plantations in the American South Slave Power Slavery in the United States Treatment of slaves in the United States Uncle Tom's Cabin

Abolitionism

Susan B. Anthony John Brown Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison Elijah Parish Lovejoy J. Sella Martin Lysander Spooner George Luther Stearns Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad

Combatants Theaters Campaigns Battles States

Combatants

Union (USA)

Army Navy Marine Corps Revenue Cutter Service

Confederacy (CSA)

Army Navy Marine Corps

Theaters

Eastern Western Lower Seaboard Trans-Mississippi Pacific Coast Union naval blockade

Major Campaigns

Anaconda Plan Blockade runners New Mexico Jackson's Valley Peninsula Northern Virginia Maryland Stones River Vicksburg Tullahoma Gettysburg Morgan's Raid Bristoe Knoxville Red River Overland Atlanta Valley 1864 Bermuda Hundred Richmond-Petersburg Franklin–Nashville Price's Raid Sherman's March Carolinas Appomattox

Major battles

Fort Sumter 1st Bull Run Wilson's Creek Fort Donelson Pea Ridge Hampton Roads Shiloh New Orleans Corinth Seven Pines Seven Days 2nd Bull Run Antietam Perryville Fredericksburg Stones River Chancellorsville Gettysburg Vicksburg Chickamauga Chattanooga Wilderness Spotsylvania Cold Harbor Atlanta Mobile Bay Franklin Nashville Five Forks

Involvement (by  state or territory)

AL AK AR AZ CA CO CT DC DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

Leaders

Confederate

Military

R. H. Anderson Beauregard Bragg Buchanan Cooper Early Ewell Forrest Gorgas Hill Hood Jackson A. S. Johnston J. E. Johnston Lee Longstreet Morgan Mosby Price Semmes E. K. Smith Stuart Taylor Wheeler

Civilian

Benjamin Bocock Breckinridge Davis Hunter Mallory Memminger Seddon Stephens

Union

Military

Anderson Buell Burnside Butler Du Pont Farragut Foote Frémont Grant Halleck Hooker Hunt McClellan McDowell Meade Meigs Ord Pope D. D. Porter Rosecrans Scott Sheridan Sherman Thomas

Civilian

Adams Chase Ericsson Hamlin Lincoln Pinkerton Seward Stanton Stevens Wade Welles

Aftermath

U.S. Constitution

Reconstruction amendments

13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment

Reconstruction

Alabama Claims Brooks–Baxter War Carpetbaggers Colfax Riot of 1873 Eufaula Riot of 1874 Freedmen's Bureau Freedman's Savings Bank Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Kirk-Holden War Knights of the White Camelia Ku Klux Klan Memphis Riot of 1866 Meridian Riot of 1871 New Orleans
New Orleans
Riot of 1866 Pulaski (Tennessee) Riot of 1867 Reconstruction acts

Habeas Corpus Act 1867 Enforcement Act of 1870 Enforcement Act of February 1871 Enforcement Act of April 1871

Reconstruction treaties

Indian Council at Fort Smith

Red Shirts Redeemers Confederate refugees

Confederados

Scalawags South Carolina riots of 1876 Southern Claims Commission Homestead acts

Southern Homestead Act of 1866 Timber Culture Act
Timber Culture Act
of 1873

White League

post-Reconstruction

Commemoration

Centennial Civil War Discovery Trail Civil War Roundtables Civil War Trails Program Civil War Trust Confederate History Month Confederate monuments and memorials Historical reenactment Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Day

Disenfranchisement

Black Codes Jim Crow

Lost Cause mythology Modern display of the Confederate flag Sons of Confederate Veterans Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War Southern Historical Society United Daughters of the Confederacy

Monuments and memorials

Union

List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic Memorials to Abraham Lincoln

Confederate

List of Confederate monuments and memorials Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials List of memorials to Robert E. Lee List of memorials to Jefferson Davis Annapolis

Roger B. Taney Monument

Baltimore

Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument Confederate Women's Monument Roger B. Taney Monument Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
and Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson
Monument

Durham, North Carolina

Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Monument

New Orleans

Battle of Liberty Place Monument Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Monument General Beauregard Equestrian Statue Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Monument

Cemeteries

Confederate Memorial Day Ladies' memorial associations U.S. Memorial Day U.S. national cemeteries

Veterans

1913 Gettysburg Reunion Confederate Veteran Grand Army of the Republic Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Old soldiers' homes Southern Cross of Honor United Confederate Veterans

Related topics

Related topics

Military

Arms Campaign Medal Cavalry Confederate Home Guard Confederate railroads Confederate Revolving Cannon Field artillery Medal of Honor recipients Medicine Leadership Naval battles Official Records Partisan rangers POW camps Rations Signal Corps Turning point Union corps badges U.S. Balloon Corps U.S. Home Guard U.S. Military Railroad

Political

Committee on the Conduct of the War Confederate States Presidential Election of 1861 Confiscation Act of 1861 Confiscation Act of 1862 Copperheads Emancipation Proclamation Habeas Corpus Act of 1863 Hampton Roads Conference National Union Party Radical Republicans Trent Affair Union leagues U.S. Presidential Election of 1864 War Democrats

Other topics

Bibliography Confederate war finance

Confederate States dollar

Espionage

Confederate Secret Service

Great Revival of 1863 Music Naming the war Native Americans

Cherokee Choctaw

New York City Gold Hoax of 1864 New York City Riot of 1863 Photographers Richmond Riot of 1863 Sexuality Supreme Court cases Tokens U.S. Sanitar

.