Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other
ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating
in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public
toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in
the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. Segregation is
defined by the European Commission against
Racism and Intolerance as
"the act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons
on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and
reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition
of discrimination. As a result, the voluntary act of separating
oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated
grounds does not constitute segregation". According to the UN Forum
on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and
schools providing education in minority languages should not be
considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such
classes and schools is of a voluntary nature".
Racial segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist de facto
through social norms, even when there is no strong individual
preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of
segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by
means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale
of housing to certain races to vigilante violence (such as lynchings).
Generally, a situation that arises when members of different races
mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own
race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation
of the races rather than segregation. In the United States,
segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with
anti-miscegenation laws (prohibitions against interracial
marriage). Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in
hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work
as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve
spatial separation of the races, and mandatory use of different
institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different
1.1 French Algeria
1.3 Imperial China
1.3.1 Tang dynasty
1.3.2 Qing dynasty
1.5 Jewish segregation
1.6 Latin America
1.9 South Africa
1.10 United States
2 Contemporary segregation
2.9 United Kingdom
2.10 United States
3 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been
racial segregation. Only areas with extensive miscegenation, or
mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification,
seem to be exempt.
Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled
Algeria in 1830, for well
over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory which
has been described as "quasi-apartheid". The colonial law of 1865
Arab and Berber Algerians to apply for French citizenship only
if they abandoned their Muslim identity; Azzedine Haddour argues that
this established "the formal structures of a political apartheid".
Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that, "[i]n contrast with the Moroccan
and Tunisian protectorates", this "colonial apartheid society" was
unique to Algeria.
This "internal system of apartheid" met with considerable resistance
from the Muslims affected by it, and is cited as one of the causes of
the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war.
See also: Nur für Deutsche
"Nur für deutsche Fahrgäste" ("Only for German passengers") on the
tram number 8 in German-occupied Kraków, Poland.
German warning in occupied
Poland 1939 – "No entrance for Poles!"
In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e.
Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds. According to
Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild
accepted a Wend."
German praise for America's institutional racism, previously found in
Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s, and
radical Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
Race based U.S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws directly
inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and
the Blood Law. The ban on interracial marriage
(anti-miscegenation) prohibited sexual relations and marriages between
people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan." Such relationships were
Rassenschande (race defilement). At first the laws were aimed
primarily at Jews but were later extended to "Gypsies, Negroes and
their bastard offspring". Aryans found guilty could face
incarceration in a concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the
death penalty. To preserve the so-called purity of the German
blood, after the war began, the Nazis extended the race defilement law
to include all foreigners (non-Germans).
Under the General Government of occupied
Poland in 1940, the Nazis
divided the population into different groups, each with different
rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public
transportation, etc. In an effort to split Polish identity they
attempted to establish ethnic divisions of
Kashubians and Gorals
(Goralenvolk), based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component."
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made
to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, and were, along with Romas
(Gypsies), discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors
were not allowed to treat Aryan patients nor were Jewish professors
permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to
use any public transportation, besides the ferry, and were able to
shop only from 3–5 pm in Jewish stores. After
Night of Broken Glass"), the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for
damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members.
Women behind the barbed wire fence of the
Lvov Ghetto in occupied
Poland. Spring 1942
Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" racial
groups in the Holocaust. The Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews
and sometimes Romas into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern
Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw
Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people. The
Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000.
Young Polish girl wearing Letter "P" patch.
Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were
transported to the Reich for forced labour (in all, about 12 million
forced laborers were employed in the German war economy inside Nazi
Nazi Germany also used forced laborers from
Western Europe, Poles, along with other Eastern Europeans viewed as
racially inferior, were subject to deeper discriminatory measures.
They were forced to wear a yellow with purple border and letter "P"
(for Polen/Polish) cloth identifying tag sewn to their clothing,
subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation.
While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied
depending on the individual employer, Polish laborers as a rule were
compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans
– in many cities, they were forced to live in segregated barracks
behind barbed wire. Social relations with
Germans outside work were
forbidden, and sexual relations (
Rassenschande or "racial defilement")
were punishable by death.
Several laws enforcing racial segregation of foreigners from Chinese
were passed by the
Han chinese during the Tang dynasty. In 779 the
Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uighurs to wear their ethnic
dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, and banned them
from pretending to be Chinese. Chinese disliked Uighurs because they
practiced usury. The magistrate who issued the orders may have wanted
to protect "purity" in Chinese custom. In 836, when Lu Chun was
appointed as governor of Canton, he was disgusted to find Chinese
living with foreigners and intermarriage between Chinese and
foreigners. Lu enforced separation, banning interracial marriages, and
made it illegal for foreigners to own property. Lu Chun believed his
principles were just and upright. The 836 law specifically banned
Chinese from forming relationships with "Dark peoples" or "People of
colour", which was used to describe foreigners, such as "Iranians,
Sogdians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, Sumatrans", among others.
Main article: Eight Banners
Qing Dynasty was founded not by the Han Chinese who form the
majority of the Chinese population, but the Manchus, who are today an
ethnic minority of China. The Manchus were keenly aware of their
minority status, however, it was only later in the dynasty that they
Han defectors played a massive role in the Qing conquest of China. Han
Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu were often given women
from the Imperial Aisin Gioro family in marriage while the ordinary
soldiers who defected were given non-royal Manchu women as wives. The
Nurhaci married one of his granddaughters to the Ming
General Li Yongfang after he surrendered
Liaoning to the
Manchu in 1618. Jurchen (Manchu) women married most the Han
Chinese defectors in Liaodong. Aisin Gioro women were married to
the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike (Sun Ssu-k'o), Geng
Jimao (Keng Chi-mao),
Shang Kexi (Shang K'o-hsi), and
Wu Sangui (Wu
A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women
numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto and
1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.
Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title of Prince
Jingnan, and his son Geng Jingmao managed to have both his sons Geng
Jingzhong and Geng Zhaozhong become court attendants under Shunzhi and
get married to Aisin Gioro women, with Haoge's (a son of Hong Taiji)
daughter marrying Geng Jingzhong and Prince Abatai's (Hong Taiji)
granddaughter marrying Geng Zhaozhong.
The Qing differentiated between Han Bannermen and ordinary Han
civilians. Han Bannermen were made out of Han Chinese who defected to
the Qing up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social
and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu
culture. So many Han defected to the Qing and swelled up the ranks of
Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the
Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at
75%. It was this multi-ethnic force in which Manchus were
only a minority, which conquered China for the Qing.
It was Han Chinese Bannermen who were responsible for the successful
Qing conquest of China, they made up the majority of governors in the
early Qing and were the ones who governed and administered China after
the conquest, stabilizing Qing rule. Han Bannermen dominated the
post of governor-general in the time of the Shunzhi and Kangxi
Emperors, and also the post of governors, largely excluding ordinary
Han civilians from the posts.
To promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from the Manchu Shunzhi
Emperor allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from
the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were
registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of
their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners, it
was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing
intermarriage were done away with.
The Qing implemented a policy of segregation between the Bannermen of
Eight Banners (Manchu Bannermen, Mongol Bannermen, Han Bannermen)
and Han Chinese civilians[when?]. This ethnic segregation had cultural
and economic reasons: intermarriage was forbidden to keep up the
Manchu heritage and minimize sinicization. Han Chinese civilians and
Mongol civilians were banned from settling in Manchuria. Han
civilians and Mongol civilians were banned from crossing into each
other's lands. Ordinary Mongol civilians in Inner Mongolia were banned
from even crossing into other Mongol Banners. (A banner in Inner
Mongolia was an administrative division and not related to the Mongol
Bannermen in the Eight Banners)
These restrictions did not apply Han Bannermen, who were settled in
Manchuria by the Qing. Han bannermen were differentiated from Han
civilians by the Qing and treated differently.
Qing Dynasty started colonizing Manchuria with Han Chinese later
on in the dynasty's rule, but the Manchu area was still separated from
modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the
Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate.
The policy of segregation applied directly to the banner garrisons,
most of which occupied a separate walled zone within the cities in
which they were stationed. Manchu Bannermen, Han Bannermen, and Mongol
Bannermen were separated from the Han civilian population. While the
Manchus followed the governmental structure of the preceding Ming
dynasty, their ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split
between Manchu noblemen and Han Chinese civilian officials who had
passed the highest levels of the state examinations, and because of
the small number of Manchus, this insured that a large fraction of
them would be government officials.
In 1938, the fascist regime led by Benito Mussolini, under pressure
from the Nazis, introduced a series of laws instituting an official
segregationist policy in the Italian Empire, especially aimed against
Jews. This policy enforced various segregationist norms, like the
prohibition for Jews to teach or study in ordinary schools and
universities, to own industries reputed of major national interest, to
work as journalists, to enter the military, and to wed non-Jews. Some
of the immediate consequences of the introduction of the
'provvedimenti per la difesa della razza' (norms for the defence of
the race) included many of the best Italian scientists leaving their
job, or even Italy. Amongst these, world-renowned physicists Emilio
Enrico Fermi (whose wife was Jewish), Bruno Pontecorvo, Bruno
Rossi, Tullio Levi-Civita, mathematicians
Federigo Enriques and Guido
Fubini and even the fascist propaganda director, art critic and
journalist Margherita Sarfatti, who was one of Mussolini's mistresses.
Rita Levi-Montalcini, who would successively win the Nobel Prize for
Medicine, was forbidden to work at the university. Albert Einstein,
upon approval of the racial law, resigned from honorary membership of
the Accademia dei Lincei.
After 1943, when Northern Italy was occupied by the Nazis, Italian
Jews were rounded up for the Holocaust.
Jews in Europe generally were forced, by decree or by informal
pressure, to live in highly segregated ghettos and shtetls. In
1204 the papacy required Jews to segregate themselves from Christians
and to wear distinctive clothing. Forced segregation of Jews
spread throughout Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries. In
the Russian Empire, Jews were restricted to the so-called Pale of
Settlement, the Western frontier of the
Russian Empire corresponding
roughly to the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus,
Moldova and Ukraine. By the early 20th century, the majority of
European Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement.
Jewish population were confined to mellahs in
Morocco beginning from
the 15th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a
fortified gateway. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages
inhabited solely by the Jews.
In the middle of the 19th century,
J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life
of Persian Jews:
…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they
are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their
being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should
they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the
boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are
prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash
dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a
Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the
greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat
him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is
forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch
the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask
for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the
Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner
make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the
danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in
the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is
sure to be murdered.
Spanish colonists created caste systems in
Latin American countries
based on classification by race and race mixture. An extensive
nomenclature developed, including the familiar terms "mulatto",
"mestizo", and "zambo" (the latter the origin of "sambo"). The Spanish
had practiced a form of caste system in
Hispania before their
expulsion of the Jews and Muslims. While many
Latin American countries
have long since rendered the system officially illegal through
legislation, usually at the time of independence, prejudice based on
degrees of perceived racial distance from European ancestry combined
with one's socioeconomic status remain, an echo of the colonial caste
On 16 May 1940 the
Administrasjonsrådet asked Rikskommisariatet why
radio receivers had been confiscated from Jews in Norway. That
Administrasjonsrådet thereafter "quietly" accepted racial
segregation between Norwegian citizens, has been claimed by Tor
Bomann-Larsen. Furthermore, he claimed that this segregation "created
a precedent. 2 years later (with NS-styret in the ministries of
Norway) Norwegian police arrested citizens at the addresses where
radios had previously been confiscated from Jews.
Following a dispute over the terms for the granting of full
independence, the British self-governing colony of Rhodesia, governed
by a predominantly white minority government, unilaterally declared
independence in 1965. Led by Prime Minister Ian Smith, it endured as
an unrecognized state under white rule for the next 14 years, with
majority rule coming in 1979 with the
Internal Settlement between
Smith's government and moderate black nationalists, the associated
multiracial elections and the reconstitution of the country as
Zimbabwe Rhodesia, with Bishop
Abel Muzorewa at the helm of a
coalition cabinet comprising 12 blacks and five whites. This new order
also failed to win legitimacy in the eyes of the world, and British
control returned to the country in December 1979, following the
Lancaster House Agreement. New elections were held in 1980, and
Zimbabwe gained recognized independence in April 1980, with Robert
Mugabe as prime minister.
Laws enforcing segregation had been around before 1965, although many
institutions simply ignored them. One highly publicized legal battle
occurred in 1960 involving the opening of a new theatre that was to be
open to all races; the proposed unsegregated public toilets at the
Reps Theatre in 1959 caused an argument called "The Battle
of the Toilets".
Main article: Apartheid
"Apartheid": sign on Durban beach in English,
Afrikaans and Zulu
The apartheid system carried out by
Afrikaner minority rule enacted a
nationwide social policy "separate development" with the National
Party victory in 1948, following the "colour bar"-discriminatory
legislation dating back to the beginning of the Union of South Africa
and the Boer republics before which, while repressive to black South
Africans along with other minorities, had not gone nearly so far.
Apartheid laws can be generally divided into following acts. Firstly,
the Population Registration Act in 1950 classified residents in South
Africa into four racial groups: "black", "white", "Coloured", and
"Indian" and noted their racial identities on their identifications.
Group Areas Act
Group Areas Act in 1950 assigned different regions
according to different races. People were forced to live in their
corresponding regions and the action of passing the boundaries without
a permit was made illegal, extending pass laws that had already
curtailed black movement. Thirdly, under the Reservation of Separate
Amenities Act in 1953, amenities in public areas, like hospitals,
universities and parks, were labeled separately according to
particular races. In addition, the Bantu Education Act in 1953
segregated national education in
South Africa as well. Additionally,
the government of the time enforced the pass laws, which deprived
black South Africans of their right to travel freely within their own
country. Under this system black people were severely restricted from
urban areas, requiring authorisation from a white employer to enter.
Uprisings and protests against apartheid appeared immediately when
apartheid arose. As early as 1949, the youth wing of the African
National Congress (ANC) advocated the ending of apartheid and
suggested fighting against racial segregation by various methods.
During the following decades, hundreds of anti-apartheid actions
occurred, including those of the Black Consciousness Movement,
students' protests, labor strikes, and church group activism etc. In
1991, the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act was passed,
repealing laws enforcing racial segregation, including the Group Areas
Act. In 1994, Nelson Mandela won in the first multiracial
democratic election in South Africa. His success fulfilled the ending
of apartheid in South African history.
Racial segregation in the United States
An African-American youth at a segregated drinking fountain in
Halifax, North Carolina, in 1938.
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were passed that segregated
African Americans and
Whites, the lives of those who were negatively affected saw no
progress in their quest for equality.
Racial segregation was not a new
phenomenon, as almost four million blacks had been slaves before the
Civil War. The laws passed segregated
African Americans from
Whites. Signs were used to show non whites where they could legally
walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. For those places that were
racially mixed, blacks had to wait until all White customers were
dealt with. Rules were also enforced that restricted African
Americans from entering white stores. Segregated facilities
extended from white only schools to white only graveyards.
After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in America, racial
discrimination became regulated by the so-called
Jim Crow laws, which
mandated strict segregation of the races. Though many such laws were
instituted shortly after fighting ended, they only became formalized
after the 1877 end of the Reconstruction period. The period that
followed is known as the nadir of American race relations. The
legislation (or in some states, such as Florida, the state
constitutions) that mandated segregation lasted at least until Brown
v. Board of Education (1954).
An African-American man goes into the "colored" entrance of a movie
theater in Belzoni, Mississippi, 1939.
While the U.S. Supreme Court majority in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
case explicitly permitted "separate but equal" facilities
(specifically, transportation facilities), Justice John Marshall
Harlan, in his dissent, protested that the decision was an expression
of white supremacy; he predicted that segregation would "stimulate
aggressions … upon the admitted rights of colored citizens," "arouse
race hate," and "perpetuate a feeling of distrust between [the] races.
Feelings between whites and blacks were so tense, even the jails were
Colored Sailors room in World War I
Elected in 1912, President
Woodrow Wilson ordered segregration
throughout the federal government. In World War I, blacks served
United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces in segregated units. Black soldiers
were often poorly trained and equipped, and were often put on the
frontlines in suicide missions. The U.S. military was still heavily
segregated in World War II. The air force and the marines had no
blacks enlisted in their ranks. There were blacks in the Navy Seabees.
The army had only five African-American officers. In addition, no
African-American would receive the
Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor during the war, and
their tasks in the war were largely reserved to noncombat units. Black
soldiers had to sometimes give up their seats in trains to the Nazi
prisoners of war.
"We Cater to White Trade Only" sign on a restaurant window in
Lancaster, Ohio, in 1938. In 1964
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested
and spent a night in jail for attempting to eat at a white-only
restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida
American sports were racially segregated until the mid-twentieth
century. In baseball, the "
Negro leagues" were established by Rube
Foster for non-white players, such as
Negro league baseball, which ran
through the early 1950s. In basketball, the
Black Fives (all-black
teams) were established in 1904, and emerged in New York City,
Washington, D.C., Chicago, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and other cities.
Racial segregation in basketball lasted until 1950, when the NBA
became racially integrated. On September 11, 1964, John Lennon
The Beatles would not play to a segregated audience in
Jacksonville, Florida. City officials relented following this
announcement. A contract for a 1965 Beatles concert at the Cow
Palace in California specifies that the band "not be required to
perform in front of a segregated audience".
White tenants seeking to prevent blacks from moving into the housing
project erected this sign. Detroit, 1942
In the reception to honor his Olympic success
Jesse Owens was not
permitted to enter through the main doors of the Waldorf Astoria New
York and instead forced to travel up to the event in a freight
elevator. The first black Oscar recipient
Hattie McDaniel was not
permitted to attend the premiere of Gone with the Wind with Georgia
being racially segregated, and at the Oscars ceremony in Los Angeles
she was required to sit at a segregated table at the far wall of the
room; the hotel had a no-blacks policy, but allowed McDaniel in as a
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted by Deputy Sheriff D.H. Lackey after
being arrested for not giving up her seat on the bus to a white person
Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage. While opposed to slavery
in the U.S, in a speech in Charleston, Illinois in 1858, Abraham
Lincoln stated, "I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing
about in any way the social and political equality of the white and
black races, that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of making
voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office,
nor to intermarry with white people. I as much as any man am in favor
of the superior position assigned to the white race". In 1967,
Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were
sentenced to a year in prison in
Virginia for marrying each other.
Their marriage violated the state's anti-miscegenation statute, the
Racial Integrity Act
Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between people
classified as white and people classified as "colored" (persons of
non-white ancestry). In the Loving v.
Virginia case in 1967, the
Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage in the
Institutionalized racial segregation was ended as an official practice
during the civil rights movement by the efforts of such civil rights
activists as Clarence M. Mitchell Jr., Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther
King Jr., working for social and political freedom during the period
from the end of World War II through the passage of the Civil Rights
Act in 1964 and the
Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act in 1965 supported by President
Lyndon B. Johnson. Many of their efforts were acts of non-violent
civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial
segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the
black part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding
sit-ins at all-white diners.
By 1968 all forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by
the Supreme Court, and by 1970 support for formal legal segregation
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
Kansas in 1954
outlawed segregation in public schools. The
Fair Housing Act of 1968,
administered and enforced by the Office of Fair Housing and Equal
Opportunity, prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental of
housing on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex,
familial status, and disability. Formal racial discrimination became
illegal in school systems, businesses, the American military, other
civil services and the government.
Human rights in Bahrain and Bandargate scandal
On 28 April 2007, the lower house of Bahraini Parliament passed a law
banning unmarried migrant workers from living in residential areas. To
justify the law MP Nasser Fadhala, a close ally of the government said
"bachelors also use these houses to make alcohol, run prostitute rings
or to rape children and housemaids".
Sadiq Rahma, technical committee head, who is a member of Al Wefaq
said: "The rules we are drawing up are designed to protect the rights
of both the families and the Asian bachelors (..) these labourers
often have habits which are difficult for families living nearby to
tolerate (..) they come out of their homes half dressed, brew alcohol
illegally in their homes, use prostitutes and make the neighbourhood
dirty (..) these are poor people who often live in groups of 50 or
more, crammed into one house or apartment," said Mr Rahma. "The rules
also state that there must be at least one bathroom for every five
people (..) there have also been cases in which young children have
been sexually molested."
Bahrain Centre for Human Rights
Bahrain Centre for Human Rights issued a press release condemning this
decision as discriminatory and promoting negative racist attitudes
towards migrant workers. Nabeel Rajab, then BCHR vice
president, said: "It is appalling that Bahrain is willing to rest on
the benefits of these people's hard work, and often their suffering,
but that they refuse to live with them in equality and dignity. The
solution is not to force migrant workers into ghettos, but to urge
companies to improve living conditions for workers – and not to
accommodate large numbers of workers in inadequate space, and to
improve the standard of living for them."
Since the 1970s, there has been a concern expressed by some academics
that major Canadian cities are becoming more segregated on income and
ethnic lines. Reports have indicated that the inner suburbs of
post-merger Toronto and the southern bedroom communities of
Greater Vancouver have become steadily more immigrant and visible
minority dominated communities and have lagged behind other
neighbourhoods in average income. A CBC panel in Vancouver in 2012
discussed the growing public fear that the proliferation of ethnic
enclaves in Greater Vancouver (such as Han Chinese in Richmond and
Punjabis in Surrey) amounted to a type of self-segregation. In
response to these fears, many minority activists have pointed out that
most Canadian neighbourhoods remain predominately White, and yet
Whites are never accused of "self-segregation".
The Mohawk tribe of
Kahnawake has been criticized for evicting
non-Mohawks from the Mohawk reserve. Mohawks who marry outside of
their race lose their right to live in their homelands. The
Mohawk government claims that its policy of racially exclusive
membership is for the preservation of its identity, but there is
no exemption for those who adopt Mohawk language or culture. The
policy is based on a 1981 moratorium which was made law in 1984.
All interracial couples are sent eviction notices regardless of how
long they have lived on the reserve. The only exemption is for
interracial couples married before the 1981 moratorium.
Although some concerned Mohawk citizens contested the racially
exclusive membership policy, the
Canadian Human Rights Tribunal ruled
that the Mohawk government may adopt policies it deems necessary to
ensure the survival of its people.
A long-standing practice of segregation has also been imposed upon the
commercial salmon fishery in British Columbia since 1992 when separate
commercial fisheries were created for select aboriginal groups on
three B.C. river systems. Canadians of other races who fish in the
separate fisheries have been arrested, jailed and prosecuted. Although
the fishermen who were prosecuted were successful at trial (see the
decision in R. v. Kapp), the decision was overturned on
appeal. On final appeal, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in
favour of the program on the grounds that segregation of this
workplace is a step towards equality in Canada.
Affirmative action programs in Canada are protected from equality
rights challenges by s. 15(2) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms. Segregation continues today, but more than 35%of the
fishermen in the BC commercial fishery are of aboriginal ancestry, yet
Canadians of aboriginal ancestry comprise less than 4% of BC's
Two military coups in Fiji in 1987 removed a democratically elected
government led by an Indo Fijian. The coup was supported
principally by the ethnic Fijian population. A new constitution was
promulgated in 1990, establishing Fiji as a republic, with the offices
of President, Prime Minister, two-thirds of the Senate, and a clear
majority of the House of Representatives reserved for ethnic Fijians;
ethnic Fijian ownership of the land was also entrenched in the
constitution. Most of these provisions were ended with the
promulgation of the 1997 Constitution, although the President, and 14
of the 32 Senators were still selected by the all-indigenous Great
Council of Chiefs. The last of these distinctions were removed by the
Fiji's case is a situation of de facto ethnic segregation. Fiji
has a long complex history with more than 3500 years as a divided
tribal nation. Unification under the British rule as a colony for 96
years brought other racial groups, particularly immigrants from the
Racism in Israel
A barrier gate at Bil'in, West Bank, 2006
Israeli Declaration of Independence
Israeli Declaration of Independence proclaims equal rights to all
citizens regardless of ethnicity, denomination or race. Israel has a
substantial list of laws that demand racial equality (such as
prohibition of discrimination, equality in Employment, libel based on
race or ethnicity.). There is however, in practice, significant
institutional, legal, and societal discrimination against the
In 2010, the Israeli supreme court sent a message against racial
segregation in a case involving the Slonim Hassidic sect of the
Ashkenazi Jews, ruling that segregation between Ashkenazi and Sephardi
students in a school is illegal. They argue that they seek "to
maintain an equal level of religiosity, not from racism."
Responding to the charges, the Slonim
Haredim invited Sephardi girls
to school, and added in a statement: "All along, we said it's not
about race, but the High Court went out against our rabbis, and
therefore we went to prison."
Due to many cultural differences, and animosity towards a minority
perceived to wish to annihilate Israel, a system of passively
co-existing communities, segregated along ethnic lines has emerged in
Israel, with Arab-Israeli minority communities being left "marooned
outside the mainstream". This de facto segregation also exists between
different Jewish ethnic groups ("edot") such as Sepharadim, Ashkenazim
Beta Israel (Jews of Ethiopian descent), which leads to de
facto segregated schools, housing and public policy. The government
has embarked on a program to shut down such schools, in order to force
integration, but some in the Ethiopian community complained that not
all such schools have been closed. In a 2007 poll commissioned by
the Center Against
Racism and conducted by the GeoCartographia
Institute, 75% of Israeli Jews would not agree to live in a building
Arab residents, 60% would not accept any
Arab visitors at their
homes, 40% believed that Arabs should be stripped of their right to
vote, and 59% believe that the culture of Arabs is primitive. In
2012, a public opinion poll showed that 53% of the polled Israeli Jews
said they would not object to an
Arab living in their building, while
42% said they would. Asked whether they would object to
being in their child's class in school, 49% said they would not, 42%
said they would. The secular Israeli public was found to be
the most tolerant, while the religious and
Haredi respondents were the
The end of British colonial rule in Kenya in 1964 led to an
inadvertent increase in ethnic segregation. Through private purchases
and government schemes, farm land previously held by European farmers
was transferred to African owners. These farms were further
sub-divided into smaller localities, and, due to joint migration, many
adjacent localities were occupied by members of different ethnic
groups.[pages needed] This separation along these boundaries
persists today. Kimuli Kasara, in a study of recent ethnic violence in
the wake of the disputed 2007/2008 Kenyan elections, used these
post-colonial boundaries as an instrument for the degree of ethnic
segregation.[unreliable source?] Through a 2 Stage Least Squares
Regression analysis, Kasara showed that increased ethnic segregation
in Kenya's Rift Valley Province is associated with an increase in
ethnic violence.[unreliable source?]
Liberian Constitution limits Liberian nationality to
(see also Liberian nationality law).
For example, Lebanese and Indian nationals are active in trading, as
well as in the retail and service sectors. Europeans and Americans
work in the mining and agricultural sectors. These minority groups
have long tenured residence in the Republic, but many are precluded
from becoming citizens as a result of their race.
Bumiputra and Ketuanan Melayu
Malaysia has an article in its constitution which distinguishes the
ethnic Malays and indigenous peoples of Malaysia—i.e.
bumiputra—from the non-
Bumiputra such as ethnic Chinese and Indians
under the social contract, of which by law would guarantee the former
certain special rights and privileges. To question these rights and
privileges however is strictly prohibited under the Internal Security
Act, legalised by the 10th Article(IV) of the Constitution of
Malaysia. The privileges mentioned herein covers—few of
which—the economical and education aspects of Malaysians, e.g. the
Malaysian New Economic Policy; an economic policy recently criticised
by Thierry Rommel—who headed a European Commission's delegation to
Malaysia—as an excuse for "significant protectionism" and a
quota maintaining higher access of Malays into public universities.
While legal racial segregation in daily life is not practiced,
self-segregation does exist.
Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007. It
was already abolished in 1980 though it was still affecting the black
Africans. The number of slaves in the country was not known exactly,
but it was estimated to be up to 600,000 men, women and children, or
20% of the population.
For centuries, the so-called
Haratin lower class, mostly poor black
Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by
white Moors of Arab/Berber ancestry. Many descendants of the
Berber tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their
ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and
even enslavement of other groups in the region of
Sudan and Western
The United Kingdom has no legally sanctioned system of racial
segregation and has a substantial list of laws that demand racial
equality. However, due to many cultural differences between the
pre-existing system of passively co-existing communities, segregation
along racial lines has emerged in parts of the United Kingdom, with
minority communities being left "marooned outside the
The affected and 'ghettoised' communities are often largely
representative of Pakistanis, Indians and other Sub-Continentals, and
has been thought to be the basis of ethnic tensions, and a
deterioration of the standard of living and levels of education and
employment among ethnic minorities in poorer areas. These factors are
considered by some to have been a cause of the 2001 race riots in
Bradford, Oldham and Burnley in the north of England which have large
Asian communities. Most British commentators claim it is
false that the riots were due to a breakdown of multiculturalism
alone, and instead claim that it is more likely to have been caused by
other factors such as disillusioned youth, high unemployment by a
sizeable proportion of the youth, across all ethnicities, of the
United Kingdom.
There may be some indication that such segregation, particularly in
residential terms, seems to be the result of the unilateral 'steering'
of ethnic groups into particular areas as well as a culture of vendor
discrimination and distrust of ethnic minority clients by some estate
agents and other property professionals. This may be indicative
of a market preference amongst the more wealthy to reside in areas of
less ethnic mixture; less ethnic mixture being perceived as increasing
the value and desirability of a residential area. This is likely as
other theories such as "ethnic self segregation" have sometimes been
shown to be baseless, and a majority of ethnic respondents to a few
surveys on the matter have been in favour of wider social and
De facto segregation in the United States has increased since the
civil rights movement. The Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v.
Bradley (1974) that de facto racial segregation was acceptable, as
long as schools were not actively making policies for racial
exclusion; since then, schools have been segregated due to myriad
Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of
services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs, access to
health care, or even supermarkets to residents in certain,
often racially determined, areas. The most devastating form of
redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage
discrimination. Over the next twenty years, a succession of further
court decisions and federal laws, including the Home Mortgage
Disclosure Act and measure to end mortgage discrimination in 1975,
would completely invalidate de jure racial segregation and
discrimination in the U.S., although de facto segregation and
discrimination have proven more resilient. According to the Civil
Rights Project at Harvard University, the actual de facto
desegregation of U.S. public schools peaked in the late 1980s; since
that time, the schools have, in fact, become more segregated mainly
due to the ethnic segregation of the nation with whites dominating the
suburbs and minorities the urban centers. According to Rajiv Sethi, an
economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing
is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial
segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political
tensions. Thirty years (the year 2000) after the civil rights
era, the United States remained in many areas a residentially
segregated society, in which blacks, whites and Hispanics inhabit
different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.
Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black
neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for
businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood
income, and the credit quality of local businesses. Gregory D.
Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and
continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance
industry. Workers living in American inner cities have a harder
time finding jobs than suburban workers.
The desire of many whites to avoid having their children attend
integrated schools has been a factor in white flight to the
suburbs. A 2007 study in San Francisco showed that groups of
homeowners of all races tended to self-segregate in order to be with
people of the same education level and race. By 1990, the legal
barriers enforcing segregation had been mostly replaced by
decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in
predominantly white areas. Today, many whites are willing to pay
a premium to live in a predominantly white neighborhood. Equivalent
housing in white areas commands a higher rent. These higher rents
are largely attributable to exclusionary zoning policies that restrict
the supply of housing. Regulations ensure that all housing units are
expensive enough to prevent access by undesirable groups. By bidding
up the price of housing, many white neighborhoods effectively shut out
blacks, because blacks are unwilling, or unable, to pay the premium to
buy entry into these expensive neighborhoods. Conversely, equivalent
housing in black neighborhoods is far more affordable to those who are
unable or unwilling to pay a premium to live in white neighborhoods.
Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and
has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American
In February 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v.
California 543 U.S. 499 (2005) that the California Department of
Corrections' unwritten practice of racially segregating prisoners in
its prison reception centers—which California claimed was for inmate
safety (gangs in California, as throughout the U.S., usually organize
on racial lines)—is to be subject to strict scrutiny, the highest
level of constitutional review.
See also Castes in Yemen
In Yemen, the
Arab elite practices a form of discrimination against
the lower class
Akhdam people based on their racial system.
^ Principles to Guide Housing Policy at the Beginning of the
Millennium, Michael Schill & Susan Wachter, Cityscape
^ ECRI General Policy Recommendation N°7: National legislation to
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^ Thomas C. Schelling (1969) "Models of segregation", American
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Virginia Racial Integrity Act,
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A site dedicated to the life of MLK
Encyclopædia Britannica: Article on Racial Segregation
A study of segregation
Constitutional Law and Race-Conscious Policies in K–12 Education
US racial segregation of proms continue
South Africa's District Six Museum which examines forced segregation
Types of racism
Among White people
Among LGBT people
Among US minorities
in the media
in Charles Dickens' works
in early US films
in horror films
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in US politics
Racism by region
List of racism-related articles
List of anti-ethnic terms
Segregation in countries by type
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Partition of India
Greece and Turkey
Partition of Bengal
Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States
Islam (in Iran)
Residential segregation in the United States
Jim Crow laws
Reservation in India
Separate but equal
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See also: Desegregation
Race / Ethnicity / Nationality
Disability hate crime
Enemy of the people
LGBT hate crime
Violence against women
White power music
Age of candidacy
Cleanliness of blood
Crime of apartheid
Gender pay gap
Jim Crow laws
Law for Protection of the Nation
MSM blood donor controversy
Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota)
Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting)
Racial bias in criminal news
Racism by country
Second-generation gender bias