Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on
the basis of their race. Policies of racial segregation may formalize
it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized.
1.2 The Netherlands
1.4 United States
2 Effects on health
3 Reverse discrimination
3.1 United States
5 See also
6 Further reading
World Values Survey data, as analyzed by The Washington
Post, the least tolerant country worldwide is Jordan.. According to
this study, racial tolerance is also low in ethnically diverse Asian
countries, while Western and
Central Europe and the
United States are
relatively racially tolerant.
More than 30 years of field experiment studies have found significant
levels of discrimination against non-whites in labor, housing, and
product markets in 10 different countries.
Racism in India
According to the World Values Survey, the second most racist country
is India, where people from other countries are treated differently by
some Indian people, based both on skin color and country of origin.
African people are especially affected by racism in India, denied
living accommodations and even attacked and killed.
A study conducted in the
Netherlands and published in 2013 found
significant levels of discrimination against job applicants with
Zanzibar Revolution and
Racism in Africa
Main article: Liberian constitutional referendum, 2011
The constitution of Liberia renders non-Blacks ineligible for
With regard to employment, multiple audit studies have found strong
evidence of racial discrimination in the United States' labor market,
with magnitudes of employers' preferences of white applicants found in
these studies ranging from 50% to 240%. Other such studies have found
significant evidence of discrimination in car sales, home insurance
applications, provision of medical care, and hailing taxis. There
is some debate regarding the method used to signal race in these
Racial discrimination in the workplace falls into two basic
Disparate Treatment: An employer's policies discriminate based upon
any immutable racial characteristic, such as skin, eye or hair color,
and certain facial features;
Disparate Impact: Although an employer may not intend to discriminate
based on racial characteristics, its policies nonetheless have an
adverse effect based upon race.
Discrimination may occur at any point in the employment process,
including pre-employment inquiries, hiring practices, compensation,
work assignments and conditions, privileges granted to employees,
promotion, employee discipline and termination.
Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the
University of Chicago
University of Chicago and
MIT found in a 2004 study, that there was
widespread racial discrimination in the workplace. In their study,
candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" were 50% more
likely than those whose names were merely perceived as "sounding
black" to receive callbacks for interviews. The researchers view these
results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United
States' long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)
Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs
of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City,
finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half
the rate of equally qualified whites. Another recent audit by
UCLA sociologist S. Michael Gaddis examines the job prospects of black
and white college graduates from elite private and high quality state
higher education institutions. This research finds that blacks who
graduate from an elite school such as Harvard have about the same
prospect of getting an interview as whites who graduate from a state
school such as UMass Amherst.
A 2001 study of workplace evaluation in a large U.S. company showed
that black supervisors rate white subordinates lower than average and
Housing discrimination (United States)
Multiple experimental audit studies conducted in the United States
have found that blacks and Hispanics experience discrimination in
about one in five and one in four housing searches, respectively.
A 2014 study also found evidence of racial discrimination in an
American rental apartment market.
Effects on health
Main article: Race and health
Studies have shown an association between reported racial
discrimination and adverse physical and mental health outcomes.
This evidence has come from multiple countries, including the United
States, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand.
See also: Reverse discrimination
Reverse discrimination is a term for allegations that the member of a
dominant or majority group has suffered discrimination for the benefit
of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.
In the United States, courts have upheld race-conscious policies when
they are used to promote a diverse work or educational
environment. Some critics have described those policies as
discriminating against white people. In response to arguments that
such policies (e.g. affirmative action) constitute discrimination
against whites, sociologists note that the purpose of these policies
is to level the playing field to counteract discrimination.
A 2016 poll found that 38% of US citizens thought that Whites faced a
lot of discrimination. Among Democrats, 29% thought there was some
discrimination against Whites in the United States, while 49% of
Republicans thought the same. Similarly, another poll conducted
earlier in the year found that 41% of US citizens believed there was
"widespread" discrimination against whites. There is evidence that
some people are motivated to believe they are the victims of reverse
discrimination because the belief bolsters their self-esteem.
In the United States, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibits all racial discrimination based on race. Although some
courts have taken the position that a white person must meet a
heightened standard of proof to prove a reverse-discrimination claim,
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) applies the
same standard to all claims of racial discrimination without regard to
the victim's race.
^ a b c "A fascinating map of the world's most and least racially
tolerant countries". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
^ Riach, P. A.; Rich, J. (November 2002). "Field Experiments of
Discrimination in the Market Place". The Economic Journal. 112 (483):
F480–F518. doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00080. Controlled experiments,
using matched pairs of bogus transactors, to test for discrimination
in the marketplace have been conducted for over 30 years, and have
extended across 10 countries. Significant, persistent and pervasive
levels of discrimination have been found against non-whites and women
in labour, housing and product markets.
^ CNN, Huizhong Wu. "African students hospitalized in roving mob
attacks in India". CNN. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
India Is Racist, And Happy About It". Outlook. India. 29 June
^ Elizabeth Soumya. "Africans decry 'discrimination' in India".
Retrieved 6 May 2015.
^ Blommaert, L.; Coenders, M.; van Tubergen, F. (19 December 2013).
Discrimination of Arabic-Named Applicants in the Netherlands: An
Internet-Based Field Experiment Examining Different Phases in Online
Recruitment Procedures". Social Forces. 92 (3): 957–82.
^ Ludwig, Bernadette (2016-01-15). "A Black Republic: Citizenship and
naturalisation requirements in Liberia". Migration Letters. 13 (1):
84–99. ISSN 1741-8992.
^ a b Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana (August 2008). "The Sociology of
Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit,
and Consumer Markets". Annual Review of Sociology. 34 (1): 181–209.
doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740. PMC 2915460 .
^ Gaddis, S. Michael (2017). "How Black Are Lakisha and Jamal? Racial
Perceptions from Names Used in Correspondence Audit Studies".
Sociological Science. 4: 469–489. doi:10.15195/v4.a19.
^ Gaddis, S. Michael (2017). "Racial/Ethnic Perceptions from Hispanic
Names: Selecting Names to Test for Discrimination". Socius:
Sociological Research for a Dynamic World. 3: 1–11.
^ Larson, Aaron (10 January 2017). "Racial
ExpertLaw. ExpertLaw.com. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
^ "Facts About Race/Color Discrimination". U.S. Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 16 August
^ Bertrand, M.; Mullainathan, S. (2004). "Are Emily and Greg More
Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market
Discrimination". American Economic Review. 94 (4): 991–1013.
Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment,"
2009, American Sociological Review, by Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and
^ "The Mark of a Criminal Record," 2003, American Journal of
Sociology, by Devah Pager
^ Gaddis, S. M. (June 2015). "
Discrimination in the Credential
Society: An Audit Study of Race and College Selectivity in the Labor
Market". Social Forces. 93 (4): 1451–1479.
^ Elvira, Marta; Town, Robert (2001-10-01). "The Effects of Race and
Worker Productivity on Performance Evaluations". Industrial Relations:
A Journal of Economy and Society. 40 (4): 571–590.
doi:10.1111/0019-8676.00226. ISSN 1468-232X.
^ Ewens, Michael; Tomlin, Bryan; Wang, Liang Choon (March 2014).
Discrimination or Prejudice? A Large Sample Field
Experiment". Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (1): 119–34.
^ Pascoe, EA; Smart Richman, L (July 2009). "Perceived discrimination
and health: a meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 135 (4):
531–54. doi:10.1037/a0016059. PMC 2747726 .
^ Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A. (22 November 2008).
Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed
research". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 32 (1): 20–47.
^ Landrine, H.; Klonoff, E. A. (1 May 1996). "The Schedule of Racist
Events: A Measure of Racial
Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative
Physical and Mental Health Consequences". Journal of Black Psychology.
22 (2): 144–168. doi:10.1177/00957984960222002.
^ Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.;
Lewis, R. L'Heureux (June 2006). "Racial Identity Matters: The
Relationship between Racial
Discrimination and Psychological
Functioning in African American Adolescents". Journal of Research on
Adolescence. 16 (2): 187–216.
^ Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.
(February 2003). "Racial/Ethnic
Discrimination and Health: Findings
From Community Studies". American Journal of Public Health. 93 (2):
^ Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; B?cares, Laia (July 2016).
"Cumulative Effect of Racial
Discrimination on the Mental Health of
Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom". American Journal of Public
Health. 106 (7): 1294–1300. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303121.
^ Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri;
Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James (June 2006). "Effects of self-reported
racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and
inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study". The Lancet. 367
(9527): 2005–2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68890-9.
^ Biskupic, Joan (April 22, 2009). "Court tackles racial bias in work
promotions". USA Today. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
^ "The Struggle for Access in Law School Admissions".
Academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
^ "Ten Myths About Affirmative Action". Understandingprejudice.org.
Retrieved 13 June 2017.
^ Pincus, F. L. (1 November 1996). "
Discrimination Comes in Many
Forms: Individual, Institutional, and Structural" (PDF). American
Behavioral Scientist. 40 (2): 186–194.
Discrimination and conflicts in U.S. society". U.S. Politics &
Policy. Pew Research Center. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 3 July
^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (17 August 2016). "Six in 10 Americans Say Racism
Against Blacks Is Widespread". Gallup. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
^ Wilkins, Clara L.; Hirsch, Alexander A.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Inkles,
Michael P. (23 February 2016). "The threat of racial progress and the
self-protective nature of perceiving anti-White bias". Group Processes
& Intergroup Relations. 20 (6): 801–812.
doi:10.1177/1368430216631030. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
^ a b "Section 15: Race & Color Discrimination". EEOC Compliance
Manual. 19 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Arrow, Kenneth J. (Spring 1998). "What Has Economics to Say about
Racial Discrimination?". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 12 (2):