RACIAL HYGIENE was a set of state-sanctioned policies in the early
twentieth century by which certain groups of individuals were allowed
to procreate and others not, with the expressed purpose of promoting
characteristics deemed desirable. The most extensive implementation of
such policies occurred in
The idea that some races were superior to others emerged in the 19th
century. The concept of racial purity was developed by Arthur de
Gobineau , who argued that race created culture and that race-mixing
leads to chaos.
Francis Galton began working in 1869 to find a statistical science of heredity which he believed could encourage voluntary care in selecting partners, and in 1883 he introduced the term "eugenics " for this subject, but in the early 20th century a eugenics movement adopted ideas of Mendelian genetics and promoted negative eugenics to prevent those thought to be unsuitable from having children, and eugenics was used to legitimise policies of racial hygiene.
* 1 Origins and history * 2 Francis Galton * 3 In Germany
* 4 Racial medicine beyond the Nazis
* 4.1 Tuskegee syphilis experiment
* 5 After
World War II
ORIGINS AND HISTORY
German social Darwinists felt the need for intervention in what they believed was the degeneration of humans. This desire for intervention was based on their belief that provision of health care to the lower social ranks and the rapid multiplication of the poor and weak members of society contributed to the corruption of the human race. However, this discussion was not restricted to Germany. British Social Darwinist voiced his opinions on the race problem by saying that diseases such as scrofula and tuberculosis were “our racial friends” because they rid society of the weak of constitution.
Though they have been less covered in scholarly data, eugenics
movements in Central and Southeast
Francis Galton was a polymath and statistician who coined the term ‘eugenics’, which is the basis of racial medicine. He defined eugenics as “the study of the Agencies under social control, that improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally.” His father initially forced him to pursue a path of medicine, which he later gave up. Galton was one of the founders of the eugenics movement and a strong proponent of the concept of ‘nature vs nurture’. One of his most lasting contributions to the study of heredity is his theory that race defines a person far more than the person’s environment.
The German eugenicist
In Nazi propaganda the term "race" was often interchangeably used to
describe and mean the "Aryan " or Germanic "Übermenschen" which was
said to represent an ideal and pure master race that was biologically
superior to all other races. In the 1930s, under eugenicist Ernst
Rüdin , National Socialist ideology embraced this latter use of
"racial hygiene", which demanded Aryan racial purity and condemned
miscegenation . This belief in the importance of German racial purity
often served as the theoretical backbone of Nazi policies of racial
superiority and later genocide . These policies began in 1935, when
the National Socialists enacted the
Nuremberg Laws , which legislated
racial purity by forbidding sexual relations and marriages between
Aryans and non-Aryans as
Racial hygienists played key roles in the
A key part of National Socialism was the concept of racial hygiene and during their rule the field was elevated to the primary philosophy of the German medical community, first by activist physicians within the medical profession, particularly amongst psychiatrists. This was later codified and institutionalized during and after the Nazis' rise to power in 1933, during the process of Gleichschaltung (literally, "coordination" or "unification") which streamlined the medical and mental hygiene (mental health) profession into a rigid hierarchy with National Socialist-sanctioned leadership at the top.
The blueprint for Nazism's attitude toward other races was written by
Erwin Baur ,
Fritz Lenz , and
RACIAL MEDICINE BEYOND THE NAZIS
Herero chained by the Germans during the 1904 rebellion in South-west Africa
There have been several examples of unethical medical experimentation
that has been performed on various groups in Africa, which acted as a
precursor to the holocaust. An example of this medical experimentation
on African prisoners of war was in concentration camps in Namibia
Herero and Namaqua
There has been a strong history of unethical American intervention into the medical communities of other countries. Dr. Richard Strong was the director of the Biological Laboratory of the Philippine Bureau of Science. His experiments with cholera on the prisoners of Bilibed, Manila led to the death of 13 people. The Governor of Philadelphia later granted permission to infect prisoners sentence to die with the plague. The test subjects were not asked for consent.
TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT
Originally known as the “Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro”, the Tuskegee study (1932-1972) was experiment conducted by the United States Public Health Service (PHS) on African American males who had been diagnosed with non-infectious Syphilis in Tuskegee, Alabama. The subjects were led to believe that they would receive treatment in the form of drugs and spinal taps, but were not given any form of medical intervention. The subjects believed that they suffered from an ambiguous condition called “bad blood”, and were not treated with penicillin even when it was scientifically proven to be the ideal treatment for syphilis. Today, Tuskegee is an example of deception, lack of informed consent, failure to grant autonomy, and racism and scientific hubris. It is believed that the African American community faith in public health efforts has been diminished since the unethical and racist details of the study were released.
AFTER WORLD WAR II
World War II
MODERN RACIAL MEDICINE
A prominent example of medications targeted to a specific race is the case of Bidil. A group of 1050 African Americans with congestive heart failure participated in a 3-year study called African American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT), in which they were treated with Bidil i.e. isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine. This was the first “racial drug” in medical practice. The control group was treated with their usual heart medications. The results showed that “BiDil users had a 43% better survival rate during the course of the study and were 39% less likely to need hospitalization for HF”.
Eugenics in Japan
Eugenics in the United States
Genetic pollution , a controversial term because of its similar
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* ^ A B Turda, Marius; Weindling, Paul (2007). Blood and Homeland":
Eugenics and Racial Nationalism In Central and Southeast Europe,
1900-1940. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 1.
* ^ "Francis Galton\'s definition of eugenics :: DNA Learning
Center". www.dnalc.org. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
* ^ Proceedings. 1875-01-01.
* ^ Comfort, Nathaniel (2012). The Science of Human Perfection: How
Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. Yale University Press.
* ^ Peter Longerich (15 April 2010). Holocaust: The Nazi
Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford University Press. p. 30.
ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5 .
* ^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz; Robert, Edward
(translator) (1961). Hitler\'s Plans for Eastern
* Glad, John. (2008). Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-First Century. Hermitage Publishers. * Joseph, J. (2004). The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research in Psychiatry and Psychology Under the Microscope. New York: Algora. (2003 United Kingdom Edition by PCCS Books) * Joseph, J. (2