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Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
(Arabic: راشد الغنوشي‎ Rāshid al-Ghannūshī; born 7 June 1941), also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and thinker,[1] co-founder of the Ennahdha Party
Ennahdha Party
and serving as its "intellectual leader".[2] He was born Rashad Khriji (راشد الخريجي).[3] Ghannouchi was named one of Time's 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2012[4] and Foreign Policy's Top 100 Global Thinkers[5] and was awarded the Chatham House Prize
Chatham House Prize
in 2012 (alongside Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki) by Prince Andrew, Duke of York, for "the successful compromises each achieved during Tunisia's democratic transition".[6][7] In 2016 he received the Jamnalal Bajaj Award for "promoting Gandhian values outside India".[8]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Islamic Tendency Movement 3 Tunisian Revolution and after

3.1 BBC
BBC
apology in 2013

4 Views and background 5 Awards 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early life[edit] Ghannouchi was born outside El Hamma, in the governorate of Gabès in southern Tunisia. His village had no electricity or paved roads. His father was a poor farmer with children including Rached. His family worked in the fields every day, and had meat to eat only a few times a year.[9] After the ground season had ended, the family wove baskets from palm leaves to supplement its income. Rached was able to attend a local branch of the traditional Arabic-language Zaytouna school thanks to financial help from an older brother.[9] He received his certificate of attainment degree, equivalent to the Baccalauréat, in 1962 from the University of Ez-Zitouna
University of Ez-Zitouna
(Zaytouna). He entered the school of agriculture at Cairo University
Cairo University
in 1964 but, following the expulsion of Tunisians from Egypt, he left for Syria. He studied philosophy at the University of Damascus, graduating in 1968. Ghannouchi also spent some time in his 20s traveling and working in Europe as a grape picker and dish washer.[10] Islamic Tendency Movement[edit] In April 1981 Ghannouchi founded the Islamic Tendency Movement (Arabic: حركة الاتجاه الإسلامي‎ Ḥarakat al-Ittijāh al-Islāmī). The Movement described itself as specifically rooted in non-violent Islam, and called for a "reconstruction of economic life on a more equitable basis, the end of single-party politics and the acceptance of political pluralism and democracy."[11] By the end of July, Ghannouchi and his followers were arrested, sentenced to eleven years in prison in Bizerte, and were tortured. Both the religious and secular community, including numerous secular political organizations, rallied in his support.[12] While in prison he translated a number of works and wrote on topics such as democracy, women's rights, and Palestine. He also wrote his most noted work, Al‐Hurriyat al‐’Ammah (Public Liberties).[13] He was released in 1984, but returned to prison in 1987 with a life sentence, then was again released in 1988. He moved to the United Kingdom as a political exile, where he lived for 22 years.[14][2] He attended The Islamic Committee for Palestine conference in Chicago in 1989.[15] Following the 1990 invasion of Kuwait, Al-Ghannushi denounced King Fahd of Saudi Arabia for the "colossal crime" of inviting the U.S. to deploy forces.[16] He also called for a Muslim boycott of American goods, planes and ships.[16] He has also been criticized for calling for jihad against Israel.[17][18][19]

Rachid Al-Ghannouchi speaking in an Islamist rally circa 1980.

Ghannouchi continued to criticise Tunisian politics and the regime of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.[20] Tunisian Revolution and after[edit] Following popular unrest in which Ben Ali was ousted, Ghannouchi returned to Tunisia
Tunisia
on 30 January 2011, after spending twenty two years exiled in London,[21] with thousands[22] of people welcoming him. His party won 37.04% of the vote (more than the next four biggest vote-getting parties combined)[23] in the 2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly election. Ghannouchi did not take a government position. Ennahdha's secretary-general Hamadi Jebali
Hamadi Jebali
became Prime Minister.[24] Ennahda formed a government which led Tunisia
Tunisia
through the challenging and tumultuous aftermath of the Jasmine revolution. The government during this period was characterized by greater transparency, lack of corruption, and consensus-building. In March 2012, Ennahda declared it would not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state. Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties. [25] The government was criticized for mediocre economic performance, not stimulating the tourism industry, and poor relations with Tunisia's biggest trading partner France. In particular it was criticized for tolerating efforts at aggressive Islamisation by radical Islamists who were demanding Sharia law and denouncing gender inequality and restrictions on polygamy,[26] some of whom were responsible for the September 2012 ransacking and burning of the American embassy and school following the online publication of the trailer for a controversial anti-Islamic film, and the assassination of two leftist politicians Chokri Belaid
Chokri Belaid
(in February 2013) and Mohamed Brahmi
Mohamed Brahmi
(in July 2013). During this 2013–14 Tunisian political crisis
2013–14 Tunisian political crisis
enraged secularists demanded the government step down or even a Sisi-style coup, while Ennahda militants defiantly opposed early elections, even booing Ghannouchi's calls for sacrifice for national unity.[27] Nonetheless Ghanouchi worked with secularist leader Beji Caid Essebsi to forge a compromise and on October 5 signed a "road map" whereby Ennahda would step down for a caretaker government after the new constitution was agreed upon and until new elections were held.[28] Both leaders were heavily criticized by their party rank and file and Ghannouchi received agreement from the Ennahda shura council only by threatening to resign.[29] In January 2014, after the new Tunisian Constitution was approved, Ennahdha peacefully quit government and handed power to a technocratic government led by Mehdi Jomaa. Ennahda placed second in the October 2014 parliamentary election with 27.79% of the popular vote and formed a coalition government with the larger secularist party Nidaa Tounes despite rank-and-file opposition.[30] Ennahda did not put forth a presidential candidate for the November 2014 election.[31] Ghanouchi "hinted broadly" that he personally supported Beji Caid Essebsi[32] (who won with over 55% of the vote). Ghannouchi argued for these accommodating measures against more purist party members on the grounds that the country was still too fragile, and the economy too much in need of reform, for Ennahda to be in opposition.[30] Ghannouchi also gave his support to a crackdown on jihadi indoctrination at radical mosques (over 60 civilians, mostly tourists, were killed in 2015 by jihadis, devastating Tunisia's tourist industry). Despite his Islamist background, he had always been "reviled" by jihadis, according to Robert Worth, and now appeared near "the top" of the jihadi "wanted list".[33] BBC
BBC
apology in 2013[edit] On 17 May 2013, the BBC
BBC
published an apology on their website for previously publishing inaccurate statements about Ghannouchi six months earlier on 21 November 2012.[34] The article had accused Ghannouchi of threatening to order troops on to the streets if the Ennahdha Party
Ennahdha Party
did not get the results he expected in the elections in 2011, and suggested he condoned the violent Salafist attack on the United States embassy and the burning of the American School in Tunis in September 2012.[34] Acknowledging that none of these accusations and suggestions were in fact true, the retraction concluded: "The BBC apologises to Mr Ghannouchi for these mistakes and for the distress they caused him."[34] Views and background[edit] Ghannouchi's willingness to compromise with secularists in Tunisia
Tunisia
and his country's unique success in maintaining a democratic system following the Arab Spring has been credited by at least one observer (Robert Worth) to his background. Unlike many Islamists, Ghannouchi "lived abroad for decades, reading widely in three languages", including Western thinkers Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and Jean-Paul Satre. He admired the courage of leftists who protested in the streets against the dictatorship, were arrested and tortured in prison, and became willing to work with them.[10] Watching the initial victory of the Algerian Islamists—while exiled in London—collapse into the slaughter, mayhem and defeat of the civil war, left a deep impact.[35] According to Azzam S. Tamimi, he was influenced by Malik Bennabi and his treatise “ Islam
Islam
and Democracy”, which laid "the foundations" for Ghannouchi's "masterpiece" Al‐Hurriyat al‐’Ammah (Public Liberties).[13] In 2002, an unsympathetic Western source (Martin Kramer) described him as differing "from other Islamists" in his insistence "that Islam accepts multi-party democracy."[1] In 2015, he told French journalist Olivier Ravanello that homosexuality should not be criminalized, though he opposed gay marriage.[36] He has been interviewed by Michael Moore
Michael Moore
in Where to Invade Next and stated that homosexuality is a "private affair." Awards[edit]

Chatham House
Chatham House
prize in 2012, Ghannushi and Marzouki.

One of the first in FP Top 100 Global Thinkers
FP Top 100 Global Thinkers
in 2011[37] The Chatham House Prize
Chatham House Prize
from Chatham House
Chatham House
for the year 2012 in London (with Moncef Marzouki)[38] The Ibn Rushd Prize for Freedom of Thought for the year 2014 in Berlin[39] Lifetime membership of Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University
Students' Union in 2015[40][41] International Crisis Group's Founder's Award for pioneers in peace-building, along with Tunisian President Béji Caïd Essebsi
Béji Caïd Essebsi
[42] The Jamnalal Bajaj Award for the year 2016 in Mumbai[43] Honorary Degree
Honorary Degree
from International Islamic University Malaysia
International Islamic University Malaysia
in 2017[44] One of the 100 Most Influential Arabs in the World in Global Influence list 2018[45]

References[edit]

^ a b Kramer, Martin (Fall 2002). "Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism". Middle East Quarterly. 1 (4). Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ a b Feldman, Noah (2011-10-30). "Islamists' Victory in Tunisia
Tunisia
a Win for Democracy: Noah Feldman". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-10-31.  ^ Turess Press. "إلى الأستاذ راشد الخريجي (حركة النهضة)". Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "TIME 100: The List". Time. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2013.  ^ Foreign Policy. "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers
FP Top 100 Global Thinkers
2011".  ^ Chatham House. " Chatham House Prize
Chatham House Prize
2012".  ^ Ghannouchi, Rached. "Transcript of speech at Chatham House
Chatham House
Prize 2012 awards ceremony, 26 November 2012" (PDF).  ^ "Jamnalal Bajaj Awards". Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation. Retrieved 2017-02-16.  ^ a b Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 203–4. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ a b Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 207–8. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ Kechichian, Joseph A. (September 16, 2011). "A genuine Islamist democrat". Gulf News. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Linda G. Jones, "Portrait of Rashid Al-Ghannoushi" Middle East Report, No. 153 (July–August 1988). ^ a b "Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat Within Islamism. The Question of Democracy, Azzam S. Tamimi". Oxford Scholarship Online. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ "The exile close to winning first Arab Spring election The Times". The Times. Retrieved 2017-03-08.  ^ "Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine" (PDF).  ^ a b "A U.S. Visa for Rachid Ghannouchi?".  ^ Merley, Steven (October 13, 2014). "Tunisian Muslim Brotherhood Leader Speaks In Washington; Rachid Ghannouchi Has Long History Of Extremism And Support For Terrorism". Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ "Rachid Ghannouchi". Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ "Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat Within Islamism. Ghannouchi's Detractors, Azzam S. Tamimi [summary]". Oxford Scholarship Online. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Fahim, Kareem (18 January 2011). "More Officials Quit in Tunisia
Tunisia
Amid Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ راشد الغنوشي زعيم حركة النهضة يعود إلى تونس اليوم بعد 20 عاما في المنفى (in Arabic). Asharq Al-Awsat. 30 January 2011.  ^ " Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
de retour à Tunis après 20 ans d'exil : un accueil exceptionnel". Leaders. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ Gerges, Fawaz (June 2012). "The Many Voices of Political Islam" (PDF). The Majalla. 1573: 14–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ Mzioudet, Houda (14 December 2011). "Ennahdha's Jebali Appointed as Tunisian Prime Minister". Tunisia
Tunisia
Live. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.  ^ "Tunisia's constitution will not be based on Sharia: Islamist party". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ Osman, Tarek (2016). Islamism: What it Means for the Middle East and the World. Yale University Press. p. 85. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 199–204. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 206. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 205, 207. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ a b Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 218. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "Tunisia's main Islamist party to stay out of presidential election". Reuters. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 219. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 220. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ a b c "Apology to Rached Ghannouchi". BBC.co.uk. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.  ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 209. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ Guizani, Emna (April 20, 2015). "News Rached Ghannouchi: Homosexuality Should Not Be Criminalized". tunisia-live.net. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ "'The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers'". 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2017-01-26.  ^ "' Chatham House Prize
Chatham House Prize
2012 - Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
and Moncef Marzouki'". 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2017-01-26.  ^ "' Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
lauréat du prix Ibn Rochd de la pensée libre pour l'année 2014'". 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2017-10-22.  ^ "Tunisia's Ghannushi is member of AMU students' union". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-05-12.  ^ "' Tunisia
Tunisia
proof that democracy can sustain in Arab world'". 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2017-05-12.  ^ Tunisia: Caïd Essebsi and Ghannouchi Receive International Crisis Group's Founder's Award, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tunisia-protests/tunisia-deploys-army-in-several-cities-as-violent-protests-intensify-idUSKBN1F00WJ?il=0, Allafrica.com, 2015-10-27 Retrieved 2018-01-11 ^ "'Rached Gannouchi, prix Gandhi pour la Paix'". 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2017-11-06.  ^ "' Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
sera fait « docteur honoris causa » de l'Université islamique de Malaisie'". 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2017-07-12.  ^ "Toplist Arabic 2018". 2018-01-17. 

Further reading[edit]

Tamimi, Azzam (2001). Rachid Ghannouchi: a democrat within Islamism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514000-1.  Saeed, Abdullah (1999). "Rethinking citizenship rights of non-Muslims in an Islamic State; Rashid al-Gannushi's contribution to the evolving debate". Islam
Islam
and Christian Muslim Relations. 10 (3): 307–323 [p. 311].  alhiwar.net 6 May 2007 Jones, Linda G. (1988). "Portrait of Rashid al-Ghannoushi". Islam
Islam
and the State. Middle East Report. 153. New York: Middle East Research and Information Project. pp. 19–22.  al-Ghannoushi, Rashid & Jones, Linda G. (1988). "Deficiencies in the Islamic Movement". Islam
Islam
and the State. Middle East Report. 153. New York: Middle East Research and Information Project. pp. 23–24. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rached Ghannouchi.

Official website Interview with Rachid Ghannouchi The Nahdha Party Al-Hiwar forums and news Works by or about Rashid Ghannushi in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Rachid al-Ghannouchi collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English Rashid Al-Ghannoushi: Ben Ali's regime aims to destroy Tunisian people's Islamic opposition, identity, Khaled Hamza, Ikhwanweb, 2 November 2006, interview Rashid al-Ghannushi, A Leader of Pure Islam, Rohama, 27 January 2011 Rachid Ghannouchi, the Islamist Who Believes in Inclusion and Compromise – Fanack Chronicle

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 72306574 LCCN: nr89012393 ISNI: 0000 0001 2139 1299 GND: 123645883 SUDOC: 076135969 BNF:

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