Rabindranath Tagore[a] FRAS (/rəˈbɪndrənɑːt
tæˈɡɔːr/ ( listen); Bengali: [robind̪ronat̪ʰ
ʈʰakur]), also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May
1861 – 7 August 1941),[b] sobriquet Gurudev,[c] was a Bengali
polymath who reshaped
Bengali literature and music, as well as
Indian art with
Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. Author of
Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh
and beautiful verse", he became in 1913 the first non-European to
Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were
viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and
magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. He is
sometimes referred to as "the
Bard of Bengal".
Pirali Brahmin from
Calcutta with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore,
Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At the age of sixteen,
he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym
Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary
authorities as long-lost classics. By 1877 he graduated to his
first short stories and dramas, published under his real name. As a
humanist, universalist internationalist, and ardent
anti-nationalist, he denounced the
British Raj and advocated
independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance,
he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and
doodles, hundreds of texts, and some two thousand songs; his legacy
also endures in the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati
Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and
resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs,
dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal.
Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced) and Ghare-Baire (The
Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short
stories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism,
colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural contemplation. His
compositions were chosen by two nations as national anthems: India's
Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla. The Sri Lankan
national anthem was inspired by his work.
1 Early life: 1861–1878
2 Shelaidaha: 1878–1901
3 Santiniketan: 1901–1932
4 Twilight years: 1932–1941
6.2 Short stories
6.5 Songs (Rabindra Sangeet)
6.6 Art works
7.1 Repudiation of knighthood
Santiniketan and Visva-Bharati
8.1 Theft of Nobel Prize
10 Impact and legacy
12 List of works
13 Adaptations of novels and short stories in cinema
14 See also
17 Further reading
18 External links
Early life: 1861–1878
Main article: Early life of Rabindranath Tagore
The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore (nicknamed "Rabi")
was born on 7 May 1861 in the
Jorasanko mansion in
Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875).[d]
The last two days a storm has been raging, similar to the description
in my song—Jhauro jhauro borishe baridhara [... amidst it] a
hapless, homeless man drenched from top to toe standing on the roof of
his steamer [...] the last two days I have been singing this song over
and over [...] as a result the pelting sound of the intense rain,
the wail of the wind, the sound of the heaving Gorai [R]iver, have
assumed a fresh life and found a new language and I have felt like a
major actor in this new musical drama unfolding before me.
— Letter to Indira Devi.
Tagore and his wife Mrinalini Devi, 1883
Tagore was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early
childhood and his father travelled widely. The
Tagore family was
at the forefront of the Bengal renaissance. They hosted the
publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of Bengali and
Western classical music featured there regularly. Tagore's father
invited several professional
Dhrupad musicians to stay in the house
Indian classical music
Indian classical music to the children. Tagore's oldest
brother Dwijendranath was a philosopher and poet. Another brother,
Satyendranath, was the first Indian appointed to the elite and
formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Yet another brother,
Jyotirindranath, was a musician, composer, and playwright. His
sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife
Kadambari Devi, slightly older than Tagore, was a dear friend and
powerful influence. Her abrupt suicide in 1884, soon after he married,
left him profoundly distraught for years.
Tagore largely avoided classroom schooling and preferred to roam the
manor or nearby
Bolpur and Panihati, which the family visited.
His brother Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned him—by
having him swim the Ganges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, and
by practising judo and wrestling. He learned drawing, anatomy,
geography and history, literature, mathematics, Sanskrit, and
English—his least favourite subject. Tagore loathed formal
education—his scholarly travails at the local Presidency College
spanned a single day. Years later he held that proper teaching does
not explain things; proper teaching stokes curiosity:
After his upanayan (coming-of-age) rite at age eleven, Tagore and his
Calcutta in February 1873 to tour India for several
months, visiting his father's
Santiniketan estate and
reaching the Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie. There Tagore read
biographies, studied history, astronomy, modern science, and Sanskrit,
and examined the classical poetry of Kālidāsa. During his
1-month stay at
Amritsar in 1873 he was greatly influenced by
melodious gurbani and nanak bani being sung at Golden Temple for which
both father and son were regular visitors. He mentions about this in
his 'MY REMINISCENCES (1912)
The golden temple of
Amritsar comes back to me like a dream. Many a
morning have I accompanied my father to this Gurudarbar of the Sikhs
in the middle of the lake. There the sacred chanting resounds
continually. My father, seated amidst the throng of worshippers, would
sometimes add his voice to the hymn of praise, and finding a stranger
joining in their devotions they would wax enthusiastically cordial,
and we would return loaded with the sanctified offerings of sugar
crystals and other sweets.
He wrote 6 poems relating to Sikhism and no. of articles in Bengali
child magazine about Sikhism.
Tagore returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by
1877, one of them a long poem in the Maithili style of Vidyapati. As a
joke, he claimed that these were the lost works of (what he claimed
was) a newly discovered 17th-century Vaiṣṇava poet
Bhānusiṃha. Regional experts accepted them as the lost works of
Bhānusiṃha.[e] He debuted in the short-story genre in Bengali
with "Bhikharini" ("The Beggar Woman"). Published in the same
year, Sandhya Sangit (1882) includes the poem "Nirjharer Swapnabhanga"
("The Rousing of the Waterfall").
Tagore's house in Shelaidaha, Bangladesh
Because Debendranath wanted his son to become a barrister, Tagore
enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in
1878. He stayed for several months at a house that the Tagore
family owned near
Brighton and Hove, in Medina Villas; in 1877 his
nephew and niece—Suren and Indira Devi, the children of Tagore's
brother Satyendranath—were sent together with their mother, Tagore's
sister-in-law, to live with him. He briefly read law at University
College London, but again left school, opting instead for independent
Shakespeare's plays Coriolanus, and
Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra and
Religio Medici of Thomas Browne. Lively English, Irish, and
Scottish folk tunes impressed Tagore, whose own tradition of
Nidhubabu-authored kirtans and tappas and
Brahmo hymnody was
subdued. In 1880 he returned to Bengal degree-less, resolving
to reconcile European novelty with
Brahmo traditions, taking the best
from each. After returning to Bengal, Tagore regularly published
poems, stories, and novels. These had a profound impact within Bengal
itself but received little national attention. In 1883 he married
10-year-old Mrinalini Devi, born Bhabatarini, 1873–1902 (this
was a common practice at the time). They had five children, two of
whom died in childhood.
Tagore family boat (bajra or budgerow), the "Padma".
In 1890 Tagore began managing his vast ancestral estates in Shelaidaha
(today a region of Bangladesh); he was joined there by his wife and
children in 1898. Tagore released his Manasi poems (1890), among his
best-known work. As
Zamindar Babu, Tagore criss-crossed the Padma
River in command of the Padma, the luxurious family barge (also known
as "budgerow"). He collected mostly token rents and blessed villagers
who in turn honoured him with banquets—occasionally of dried rice
and sour milk. He met Gagan Harkara, through whom he became
Lalon Shah, whose folk songs greatly influenced
Tagore. Tagore worked to popularise Lalon's songs. The period
1891–1895, Tagore's Sadhana period, named after one of his
magazines, was his most productive; in these years he wrote more
than half the stories of the three-volume, 84-story Galpaguchchha.
Its ironic and grave tales examined the voluptuous poverty of an
idealised rural Bengal.
Main article: Middle years of Rabindranath Tagore
Tsinghua University, 1924
In 1901 Tagore moved to
Santiniketan to found an ashram with a
marble-floored prayer hall—The Mandir—an experimental school,
groves of trees, gardens, a library. There his wife and two of his
children died. His father died in 1905. He received monthly payments
as part of his inheritance and income from the Maharaja of Tripura,
sales of his family's jewellery, his seaside bungalow in Puri, and a
derisory 2,000 rupees in book royalties. He gained Bengali and
foreign readers alike; he published
Naivedya (1901) and Kheya (1906)
and translated poems into free verse.
In November 1913, Tagore learned he had won that year's
Nobel Prize in
Swedish Academy appreciated the idealistic—and for
Westerners—accessible nature of a small body of his translated
material focused on the 1912 Gitanjali: Song Offerings. He was
awarded a knighthood by King George V in the 1915 Birthday Honours,
but renounced it after the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the
"Institute for Rural Reconstruction", later renamed Shriniketan or
"Abode of Welfare", in Surul, a village near the ashram. With it,
Tagore sought to moderate Gandhi's
Swaraj protests, which he
occasionally blamed for British India's perceived mental — and thus
ultimately colonial — decline. He sought aid from donors,
officials, and scholars worldwide to "free village[s] from the
shackles of helplessness and ignorance" by "vitalis[ing]
knowledge". In the early 1930s he targeted ambient "abnormal
caste consciousness" and untouchability. He lectured against these, he
Dalit heroes for his poems and his dramas, and he
Guruvayoor Temple to
Twilight years: 1932–1941
Last picture of Rabindranath, 1941
Dutta and Robinson describe this phase of Tagore's life as being one
of a "peripatetic litterateur". It affirmed his opinion that human
divisions were shallow. During a May 1932 visit to a Bedouin
encampment in the Iraqi desert, the tribal chief told him that "Our
prophet has said that a true Muslim is he by whose words and deeds not
the least of his brother-men may ever come to any harm ..." Tagore
confided in his diary: "I was startled into recognizing in his words
the voice of essential humanity." To the end Tagore scrutinised
orthodoxy—and in 1934, he struck. That year, an earthquake hit Bihar
and killed thousands. Gandhi hailed it as seismic karma, as divine
retribution avenging the oppression of Dalits. Tagore rebuked him for
his seemingly ignominious implications. He mourned the perennial
Calcutta and the socioeconomic decline of Bengal, and
detailed these newly plebeian aesthetics in an unrhymed hundred-line
poem whose technique of searing double-vision foreshadowed Satyajit
Ray's film Apur Sansar. Fifteen new volumes appeared, among
them prose-poem works Punashcha (1932), Shes Saptak (1935), and
Patraput (1936). Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and
dance-dramas— Chitra (1914), Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938)—
and in his novels— Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay
Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher
storm, but to add color to my sunset sky.
—Verse 292, Stray Birds, 1916.
Tagore's remit expanded to science in his last years, as hinted in
Visva-Parichay, a 1937 collection of essays. His respect for
scientific laws and his exploration of biology, physics, and astronomy
informed his poetry, which exhibited extensive naturalism and
verisimilitude. He wove the process of science, the narratives of
scientists, into stories in Se (1937), Tin Sangi (1940), and
Galpasalpa (1941). His last five years were marked by chronic pain and
two long periods of illness. These began when Tagore lost
consciousness in late 1937; he remained comatose and near death for a
time. This was followed in late 1940 by a similar spell, from which he
never recovered. Poetry from these valetudinary years is among his
finest. A period of prolonged agony ended with Tagore's death
on 7 August 1941, aged eighty; he was in an upstairs room of the
Jorasanko mansion he was raised in. The date is still
mourned. A. K. Sen, brother of the first chief election
commissioner, received dictation from Tagore on 30 July 1941, a day
prior to a scheduled operation: his last poem.
I'm lost in the middle of my birthday. I want my friends, their touch,
with the earth's last love. I will take life's final offering, I will
take the human's last blessing. Today my sack is empty. I have given
completely whatever I had to give. In return if I receive
anything—some love, some forgiveness—then I will take it with me
when I step on the boat that crosses to the festival of the wordless
Jawaharlal Nehru and Rabindranath Tagore
Our passions and desires are unruly, but our character subdues these
elements into a harmonious whole. Does something similar to this
happen in the physical world? Are the elements rebellious, dynamic
with individual impulse? And is there a principle in the physical
world which dominates them and puts them into an orderly organization?
— Interviewed by Einstein, 14 April 1930.
Rabindranath with Einstein in 1930
At the Majlis (Iranian parliament) in Tehran, Iran, 1932
Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore set foot in more than thirty countries
on five continents. In 1912, he took a sheaf of his translated
works to England, where they gained attention from missionary and
Gandhi protégé Charles F. Andrews, Irish poet William Butler Yeats,
Ezra Pound, Robert Bridges, Ernest Rhys, Thomas Sturge Moore, and
others. Yeats wrote the preface to the English translation of
Gitanjali; Andrews joined Tagore at Santiniketan. In November 1912
Tagore began touring the United States and the United Kingdom,
staying in Butterton, Staffordshire with Andrews's clergymen
friends. From May 1916 until April 1917, he lectured in Japan and
the United States. He denounced nationalism. His essay
"Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by
Romain Rolland and other pacifists.
Shortly after returning home the 63-year-old Tagore accepted an
invitation from the Peruvian government. He travelled to Mexico. Each
government pledged US$100,000 to his school to commemorate the
visits. A week after his 6 November 1924 arrival in Buenos
Aires, an ill Tagore shifted to the Villa Miralrío at the behest
of Victoria Ocampo. He left for home in January 1925. In May 1926
Tagore reached Naples; the next day he met Mussolini in Rome.
Their warm rapport ended when Tagore pronounced upon Il Duce's fascist
finesse. He had earlier enthused: "[w]ithout any doubt he is a
great personality. There is such a massive vigour in that head that it
reminds one of Michael Angelo's chisel." A "fire-bath" of fascism was
to have educed "the immortal soul of Italy ... clothed in quenchless
On 14 July 1927 Tagore and two companions began a four-month tour of
Southeast Asia. They visited Bali, Java, Kuala Lumpur, Malacca,
Penang, Siam, and Singapore. The resultant travelogues compose Jatri
(1929). In early 1930 he left Bengal for a nearly year-long tour
Europe and the United States. Upon returning to Britain—and as
his paintings were exhibited in Paris and London—he lodged at a
Birmingham Quaker settlement. He wrote his Oxford Hibbert Lectures[f]
and spoke at the annual
London Quaker meet. There, addressing
relations between the British and the Indians — a topic he would
tackle repeatedly over the next two years — Tagore spoke of a "dark
chasm of aloofness". He visited Aga Khan III, stayed at Dartington
Hall, toured Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany from June to
mid-September 1930, then went on into the Soviet Union. In April
1932 Tagore, intrigued by the Persian mystic Hafez, was hosted by Reza
Shah Pahlavi. In his other travels, Tagore interacted with
Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Robert Frost, Thomas Mann, George
Bernard Shaw, H.G. Wells, and Romain Rolland. Visits to Persia
and Iraq (in 1932) and Sri Lanka (in 1933) composed Tagore's final
foreign tour, and his dislike of communalism and nationalism only
deepened. Vice-President of India M.
Hamid Ansari has said that
Rabindranath Tagore heralded the cultural rapprochement between
communities, societies and nations much before it became the liberal
norm of conduct. Tagore was a man ahead of his time. He wrote in 1932,
while on a visit to Iran, that "each country of Asia will solve its
own historical problems according to its strength, nature and needs,
but the lamp they will each carry on their path to progress will
converge to illuminate the common ray of knowledge."
Main article: Works of Rabindranath Tagore
Known mostly for his poetry, Tagore wrote novels, essays, short
stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's
prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; he is
indeed credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the
genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic,
and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple
subject matter: commoners. Tagore's non-fiction grappled with history,
linguistics, and spirituality. He wrote autobiographies. His
travelogues, essays, and lectures were compiled into several volumes,
Europe Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe) and Manusher
Dhormo (The Religion of Man). His brief chat with Einstein, "Note on
the Nature of Reality", is included as an appendix to the latter. On
the occasion of Tagore's 150th birthday an anthology (titled
Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali) of the total body of his works is
currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. This
includes all versions of each work and fills about eighty volumes.
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press collaborated with Visva-Bharati
University to publish The Essential Tagore, the largest anthology of
Tagore's works available in English; it was edited by
Fakrul Alam and
Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore's
Tagore performing the title role in
Valmiki Pratibha (1881) with his
niece Indira Devi as the goddess Lakshmi.
Tagore's experiences with drama began when he was sixteen, with his
brother Jyotirindranath. He wrote his first original dramatic piece
when he was twenty —
Valmiki Pratibha which was shown at the
Tagore's mansion. Tagore stated that his works sought to articulate
"the play of feeling and not of action". In 1890 he wrote Visarjan (an
adaptation of his novella Rajarshi), which has been regarded as his
finest drama. In the original Bengali language, such works included
intricate subplots and extended monologues. Later, Tagore's dramas
used more philosophical and allegorical themes. The play
Dak Ghar (The
Post Office'; 1912), describes the child Amal defying his stuffy and
puerile confines by ultimately "fall[ing] asleep", hinting his
physical death. A story with borderless appeal—gleaning rave reviews
Dak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words,
"spiritual freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified
creeds". Another is Tagore's Chandalika (Untouchable Girl),
which was modelled on an ancient Buddhist legend describing how
Ananda, the Gautama Buddha's disciple, asks a tribal girl for
water. In Raktakarabi ("Red" or "Blood Oleanders") is an
allegorical struggle against a kleptocrat king who rules over the
Chitrangada, Chandalika, and Shyama are other key plays that have
dance-drama adaptations, which together are known as Rabindra Nritya
Cover of the
Sabuj Patra magazine, edited by Pramatha Chaudhuri
Tagore began his career in short stories in 1877—when he was only
sixteen—with "Bhikharini" ("The Beggar Woman"). With this,
Tagore effectively invented the Bengali-language short story
genre. The four years from 1891 to 1895 are known as Tagore's
"Sadhana" period (named for one of Tagore's magazines). This period
was among Tagore's most fecund, yielding more than half the stories
contained in the three-volume Galpaguchchha, which itself is a
collection of eighty-four stories. Such stories usually showcase
Tagore's reflections upon his surroundings, on modern and fashionable
ideas, and on interesting mind puzzles (which Tagore was fond of
testing his intellect with). Tagore typically associated his earliest
stories (such as those of the "Sadhana" period) with an exuberance of
vitality and spontaneity; these characteristics were intimately
connected with Tagore's life in the common villages of, among others,
Patisar, Shajadpur, and Shilaida while managing the Tagore family's
vast landholdings. There, he beheld the lives of India's poor and
common people; Tagore thereby took to examining their lives with a
penetrative depth and feeling that was singular in Indian literature
up to that point. In particular, such stories as "Kabuliwala"
("The Fruitseller from Kabul", published in 1892), "Kshudita Pashan"
("The Hungry Stones") (August 1895), and "Atithi" ("The Runaway",
1895) typified this analytic focus on the downtrodden. Many of
the other Galpaguchchha stories were written in Tagore's Sabuj Patra
period from 1914 to 1917, also named after one of the magazines that
Tagore edited and heavily contributed to.
Tagore wrote eight novels and four novellas, among them Chaturanga,
Shesher Kobita, Char Odhay, and Noukadubi.
Ghare Baire (The Home and
the World)—through the lens of the idealistic zamindar protagonist
Nikhil—excoriates rising Indian nationalism, terrorism, and
religious zeal in the Swadeshi movement; a frank expression of
Tagore's conflicted sentiments, it emerged from a 1914 bout of
depression. The novel ends in Hindu-Muslim violence and
Gora raises controversial questions regarding the Indian identity. As
with Ghare Baire, matters of self-identity (jāti), personal freedom,
and religion are developed in the context of a family story and love
triangle. In it an Irish boy orphaned in the
Sepoy Mutiny is
raised by Hindus as the titular gora—"whitey". Ignorant of his
foreign origins, he chastises Hindu religious backsliders out of love
for the indigenous Indians and solidarity with them against his
hegemon-compatriots. He falls for a
Brahmo girl, compelling his
worried foster father to reveal his lost past and cease his nativist
zeal. As a "true dialectic" advancing "arguments for and against
strict traditionalism", it tackles the colonial conundrum by
"portray[ing] the value of all positions within a particular
frame [...] not only syncretism, not only liberal orthodoxy, but
the extremest reactionary traditionalism he defends by an appeal to
what humans share." Among these Tagore highlights "identity [...]
conceived of as dharma."
Jogajog (Relationships), the heroine Kumudini—bound by the ideals
of Śiva-Sati, exemplified by Dākshāyani—is torn between her pity
for the sinking fortunes of her progressive and compassionate elder
brother and his foil: her roue of a husband. Tagore flaunts his
feminist leanings; pathos depicts the plight and ultimate demise of
women trapped by pregnancy, duty, and family honour; he simultaneously
trucks with Bengal's putrescent landed gentry. The story revolves
around the underlying rivalry between two families—the Chatterjees,
aristocrats now on the decline (Biprodas) and the Ghosals
(Madhusudan), representing new money and new arrogance. Kumudini,
Biprodas' sister, is caught between the two as she is married off to
Madhusudan. She had risen in an observant and sheltered traditional
home, as had all her female relations.
Others were uplifting: Shesher Kobita—translated twice as Last Poem
and Farewell Song—is his most lyrical novel, with poems and rhythmic
passages written by a poet protagonist. It contains elements of satire
and postmodernism and has stock characters who gleefully attack the
reputation of an old, outmoded, oppressively renowned poet who,
incidentally, goes by a familiar name: "Rabindranath Tagore". Though
his novels remain among the least-appreciated of his works, they have
been given renewed attention via film adaptations by Ray and others:
Chokher Bali and
Ghare Baire are exemplary. In the first, Tagore
inscribes Bengali society via its heroine: a rebellious widow who
would live for herself alone. He pillories the custom of perpetual
mourning on the part of widows, who were not allowed to remarry, who
were consigned to seclusion and loneliness. Tagore wrote of it: "I
have always regretted the ending".
Title page of the 1913 Macmillan edition of Tagore's Gitanjali.
Part of a poem written by Tagore in Hungary, 1926.
Gitanjali (Bengali: গীতাঞ্জলি) is
Tagore's best-known collection of poetry, for which he was awarded the
Nobel Prize in 1913. Tagore was the first person (excepting Roosevelt)
Europe to get the Nobel Prize.
Besides Gitanjali, other notable works include Manasi, Sonar Tori
("Golden Boat"), Balaka ("Wild Geese" — the title being a metaphor
for migrating souls)
Tagore's poetic style, which proceeds from a lineage established by
15th- and 16th-century Vaishnava poets, ranges from classical
formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic. He was influenced by
the atavistic mysticism of
Vyasa and other rishi-authors of the
Upanishads, the Bhakti-Sufi mystic Kabir, and Ramprasad Sen.
Tagore's most innovative and mature poetry embodies his exposure to
Bengali rural folk music, which included mystic
Baul ballads such as
those of the bard Lalon. These, rediscovered and
repopularised by Tagore, resemble 19th-century Kartābhajā hymns that
emphasise inward divinity and rebellion against bourgeois bhadralok
religious and social orthodoxy. During his
his poems took on a lyrical voice of the moner manush, the Bāuls'
"man within the heart" and Tagore's "life force of his deep recesses",
or meditating upon the jeevan devata—the demiurge or the "living God
within". This figure connected with divinity through appeal to
nature and the emotional interplay of human drama. Such tools saw use
in his Bhānusiṃha poems chronicling the Radha-
which were repeatedly revised over the course of seventy
Later, with the development of new poetic ideas in Bengal — many
originating from younger poets seeking to break with Tagore's style
— Tagore absorbed new poetic concepts, which allowed him to further
develop a unique identity. Examples of this include Africa and
Camalia, which are among the better known of his latter poems.
Songs (Rabindra Sangeet)
Tagore was a prolific composer with around 2,230 songs to his
credit. His songs are known as rabindrasangit ("Tagore Song"),
which merges fluidly into his literature, most of which—poems or
parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—were lyricised. Influenced
by the thumri style of Hindustani music, they ran the entire gamut of
human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like
hymns to quasi-erotic compositions. They emulated the tonal
colour of classical ragas to varying extents. Some songs mimicked a
given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully; others newly blended
elements of different ragas. Yet about nine-tenths of his work
was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh value"
from select Western, Hindustani, Bengali folk and other regional
flavours "external" to Tagore's own ancestral culture.
Amar Shonar Bangla
Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh.
It was written — ironically — to protest the 1905 Partition of
Bengal along communal lines: cutting off the Muslim-majority East
Bengal from Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional
bloodbath. Tagore saw the partition as a cunning plan to stop the
independence movement, and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar
Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha, a
Sanskritised form of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas of the
Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata
Bharot Bhagyo Bidhata that Tagore composed. It was first
sung in 1911 at a
Calcutta session of the Indian National
Congress and was adopted in 1950 by the Constituent Assembly of
the Republic of India as its national anthem.
The Sri Lanka's National Anthem was inspired by his work.
For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of
emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's
poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in
Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at
least attempted to be sung... Even illiterate villagers sing his
songs". Tagore influenced sitar maestro
Vilayat Khan and
sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali Khan.
Primitivism: a pastel-coloured rendition of a
Malagan mask from
northern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.
Tagore's Bengali-language initials are worked into this "Ro-Tho" (of
RAbindranath THAkur) wooden seal, stylistically similar to designs
used in traditional Haida carvings from the
Pacific Northwest region
of North America. Tagore often embellished his manuscripts with such
At sixty, Tagore took up drawing and painting; successful exhibitions
of his many works—which made a debut appearance in Paris upon
encouragement by artists he met in the south of France—were
held throughout Europe. He was likely red-green colour blind,
resulting in works that exhibited strange colour schemes and off-beat
aesthetics. Tagore was influenced numerous styles, including scrimshaw
Malanggan people of northern New Ireland, Papua New Guinea,
Haida carvings from the
Pacific Northwest region of North America, and
woodcuts by the German Max Pechstein. His artist's eye for his
handwriting were revealed in the simple artistic and rhythmic
leitmotifs embellishing the scribbles, cross-outs, and word layouts of
his manuscripts. Some of Tagore's lyrics corresponded in a synesthetic
sense with particular paintings.
Surrounded by several painters Rabindranath had always wanted to
paint. Writing and music, playwriting and acting came to him naturally
and almost without training, as it did to several others in his
family, and in even greater measure. But painting eluded him. Yet he
tried repeatedly to master the art and there are several references to
this in his early letters and reminiscence. In 1900 for instance, when
he was nearing forty and already a celebrated writer, he wrote to
Jagadishchandra Bose, "You will be surprised to hear that I am sitting
with a sketchbook drawing. Needless to say, the pictures are not
intended for any salon in Paris, they cause me not the least suspicion
that the national gallery of any country will suddenly decide to raise
taxes to acquire them. But, just as a mother lavishes most affection
on her ugliest son, so I feel secretly drawn to the very skill that
comes to me least easily." He also realized that he was using the
eraser more than the pencil, and dissatisfied with the results he
finally withdrew, deciding it was not for him to become a
Tagore also had an artist's eye for his own handwriting, embellishing
the cross-outs and word layouts in his manuscripts with simple
National Gallery of Modern Art
National Gallery of Modern Art lists 102 works by Tagore in
Main article: Political views of Rabindranath Tagore
Tagore hosts Gandhi and wife Kasturba at
Santiniketan in 1940
Tagore opposed imperialism and supported Indian
nationalists, and these views were first revealed in
Manast, which was mostly composed in his twenties. Evidence
produced during the
Hindu–German Conspiracy Trial
Hindu–German Conspiracy Trial and latter
accounts affirm his awareness of the Ghadarites, and stated that he
sought the support of Japanese Prime Minister
Terauchi Masatake and
former Premier Ōkuma Shigenobu. Yet he lampooned the Swadeshi
movement; he rebuked it in The Cult of the Charkha, an acrid 1925
essay. He urged the masses to avoid victimology and instead seek
self-help and education, and he saw the presence of British
administration as a "political symptom of our social disease". He
maintained that, even for those at the extremes of poverty, "there can
be no question of blind revolution"; preferable to it was a "steady
and purposeful education".
So I repeat we never can have a true view of man unless we have a love
for him. Civilisation must be judged and prized, not by the amount of
power it has developed, but by how much it has evolved and given
expression to, by its laws and institutions, the love of humanity.
— Sādhanā: The Realisation of Life, 1916.
Such views enraged many. He escaped assassination—and only
narrowly—by Indian expatriates during his stay in a San Francisco
hotel in late 1916; the plot failed when his would-be assassins fell
into argument. Tagore wrote songs lionising the Indian
independence movement. Two of Tagore's more politically charged
compositions, "Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo" ("Where the Mind is Without
Fear") and "Ekla Chalo Re" ("If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk
Alone"), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhi.
Though somewhat critical of Gandhian activism, Tagore was key in
resolving a Gandhi–Ambedkar dispute involving separate electorates
for untouchables, thereby mooting at least one of Gandhi's fasts "unto
Repudiation of knighthood
See also: List of people who have declined a British honour
§ Knighthood (Knight Bachelor)
Tagore renounced his knighthood in response to the Jallianwala Bagh
massacre in 1919. In the repudiation letter to the Viceroy, Lord
Chelmsford, he wrote
The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the
incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part, wish to stand,
shorn, of all special distinctions, by the side of those of my
countrymen who, for their so called insignificance, are liable to
suffer degradation not fit for human beings.
Santiniketan and Visva-Bharati
Kala Bhavan (Institute of Fine Arts), Santiniketan, India
Tagore despised rote classroom schooling: in "The Parrot's Training",
a bird is caged and force-fed textbook pages—to death.
Tagore, visiting Santa Barbara in 1917, conceived a new type of
university: he sought to "make
Santiniketan the connecting thread
between India and the world [and] a world center for the study of
humanity somewhere beyond the limits of nation and geography."
The school, which he named Visva-Bharati,[g] had its foundation stone
laid on 24 December 1918 and was inaugurated precisely three years
later. Tagore employed a brahmacharya system: gurus gave pupils
personal guidance—emotional, intellectual, and spiritual. Teaching
was often done under trees. He staffed the school, he contributed his
Nobel Prize monies, and his duties as steward-mentor at
Santiniketan kept him busy: mornings he taught classes; afternoons and
evenings he wrote the students' textbooks. He fundraised widely
for the school in
Europe and the United States between 1919 and
Theft of Nobel Prize
On 25 March 2004, Tagore's
Nobel Prize was stolen from the safety
vault of the Visva-Bharati University, along with several other of his
belongings. On 7 December 2004, the
Swedish Academy decided to
present two replicas of Tagore's Nobel Prize, one made of gold and the
other made of bronze, to the Visva-Bharati University. It
inspired the fictional film Nobel Chor.
“Every person is worthy of an infinite wealth of love - the beauty
of his soul knows no limit.” -Rabindranath Tagore, Glimpses of
“Who are you, reader, reading my poems an hundred years hence? I
cannot send you one single flower from this wealth of the spring, one
single streak of gold from yonder clouds. Open your doors and look
abroad. From your blossoming garden gather fragrant memories of the
vanished flowers of an hundred years before. In the joy of your heart
may you feel the living joy that sang one spring morning, sending its
glad voice across an hundred years.”
“Trust love even if it brings sorrow. Do not close up your heart.”
― Rabindranath Tagore, The Gardener 
“The roots below the earth claim no rewards for making the branches
“We read the world wrong and say that it deceives us.”
“Once we dreamt that we were strangers. We wake up to find that we
were dear to each other.”
~ Rabindranath Tagore, Stray Birds 
(All quotes sourced from Project Gutenberg)
Impact and legacy
Bust of Tagore in Gordon Square, Bloomsbury, London
Rabindranath Tagore's bust at St Stephen Green Park, Dublin, Ireland
Every year, many events pay tribute to Tagore: Kabipranam, his birth
anniversary, is celebrated by groups scattered across the globe; the
annual Tagore Festival held in Urbana, Illinois (USA); Rabindra Path
Parikrama walking pilgrimages from
Kolkata to Santiniketan; and
recitals of his poetry, which are held on important
anniversaries. Bengali culture is fraught with this
legacy: from language and arts to history and politics. Amartya Sen
deemed Tagore a "towering figure", a "deeply relevant and many-sided
contemporary thinker". Tagore's Bengali originals—the 1939
Rabīndra Rachanāvalī—is canonised as one of his nation's greatest
cultural treasures, and he was roped into a reasonably humble role:
"the greatest poet India has produced".
Who are you, reader, reading my poems a hundred years hence?
I cannot send you one single flower from this wealth of the spring,
one single streak of gold from yonder clouds.
Open your doors and look abroad.
From your blossoming garden gather fragrant memories of the vanished
flowers of an hundred years before.
In the joy of your heart may you feel the living joy that sang one
spring morning, sending its glad voice across an hundred years.
— The Gardener, 1915.
Tagore was renowned throughout much of Europe, North America, and East
Asia. He co-founded
Dartington Hall School, a progressive
coeducational institution; in Japan, he influenced such figures
as Nobel laureate Yasunari Kawabata. Tagore's works were widely
translated into English, Dutch, German, Spanish, and other European
languages by Czech Indologist Vincenc Lesný, French Nobel
laureate André Gide, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova, former Turkish
Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit, and others. In the United States,
Tagore's lecturing circuits, particularly those of 1916–1917, were
widely attended and wildly acclaimed. Some controversies[h] involving
Tagore, possibly fictive, trashed his popularity and sales in Japan
North America after the late 1920s, concluding with his "near
total eclipse" outside Bengal. Yet a latent reverence of Tagore was
discovered by an astonished
Salman Rushdie during a trip to
By way of translations, Tagore influenced Chileans
Pablo Neruda and
Gabriela Mistral; Mexican writer Octavio Paz; and Spaniards José
Ortega y Gasset, Zenobia Camprubí, and Juan Ramón Jiménez. In the
period 1914–1922, the Jiménez-Camprubí pair produced twenty-two
Spanish translations of Tagore's English corpus; they heavily revised
The Crescent Moon and other key titles. In these years, Jiménez
developed "naked poetry". Ortega y Gasset wrote that "Tagore's
wide appeal [owes to how] he speaks of longings for perfection that we
all have [...] Tagore awakens a dormant sense of childish wonder,
and he saturates the air with all kinds of enchanting promises for the
reader, who [...] pays little attention to the deeper import of
Oriental mysticism". Tagore's works circulated in free editions around
1920—alongside those of Plato, Dante, Cervantes, Goethe, and
Tagore was deemed over-rated by some.
Graham Greene doubted that
"anyone but Mr. Yeats can still take his poems very seriously."
Several prominent Western admirers—including Pound and, to a lesser
extent, even Yeats—criticised Tagore's work. Yeats, unimpressed with
his English translations, railed against that "Damn Tagore [...]
We got out three good books, Sturge Moore and I, and then, because he
thought it more important to know English than to be a great poet, he
brought out sentimental rubbish and wrecked his reputation. Tagore
does not know English, no Indian knows English." William
Radice, who "English[ed]" his poems, asked: "What is their place in
world literature?" He saw him as "kind of counter-cultur[al]",
bearing "a new kind of classicism" that would heal the "collapsed
romantic confusion and chaos of the 20th [c]entury." The
translated Tagore was "almost nonsensical", and subpar English
offerings reduced his trans-national appeal:
Anyone who knows Tagore's poems in their original Bengali cannot feel
satisfied with any of the translations (made with or without Yeats's
help). Even the translations of his prose works suffer, to some
extent, from distortion. E.M. Forster noted [of] The Home and the
World [that] '[t]he theme is so beautiful,' but the charms have
'vanished in translation,' or perhaps 'in an experiment that has not
quite come off.'
— Amartya Sen, "Tagore and His India".
Jorasanko Thakur Bari, Kolkata; the room in which Tagore died in 1941.
The houseboat ("Bajra") of the Tagore family, at
There are five
Tagore museums in India and Bangladesh:
Rabindra Bharati Museum, at
Jorasanko Thakur Bari, Kolkata, India
Tagore Memorial Museum, at
Shilaidaha Kuthibadi, Shilaidaha,
Rabindra Memorial Museum at Shahzadpur Kachharibari, Shahzadpur,
Rabindra Bhavan Museum, in Santiniketan, India
Rabindra Museum, in Mungpoo, near Kalimpong, India
Jorasanko Thakur Bari
Jorasanko Thakur Bari (Bengali: House of the Thakurs (anglicised to
Tagore) in Jorasanko, north of Kolkata, is the ancestral home of the
Tagore family. It is currently located on the Rabindra Bharati
University campus at 6/4 Dwarakanath Tagore Lane Jorasanko,
Kolkata 700007. It is the house in which Tagore was born. It is
also the place where he spent most of his childhood and where he died
on 7 August 1941.
Shilaidaha Kuthibadi (Bengali: শিলাইদহ) is a
Kumarkhali Upazila of
Kushtia District in Bangladesh. The
place is famous for Kuthi Bari; a country house made by Dwarkanath
Tagore. Tagore lived a part of life here and created some of his
memorable poems while living here. The museum is named 'Tagore
Memorial Museum'. Many of the objects Tagore used are displayed here,
such as his bed, wardrobe, iron chest, lawn mower, framed pictures and
last but not the least his houseboat.
Shahzadpur Kachharibari has been converted into a museum and a
memorial in his name. Many artefacts and memorabilia items are on
display in the museum, including shoes, wooden sandals, a piano and a
harmonium. The building itself is of interesting architectural
heritage, and contains 7 rooms.
Additionally, there is the Rabindra Tirtha, a cultural center in
Narkel Bagan, New Town, Kolkata, India, completed in 2012.
List of works
Main article: List of works by Rabindranath Tagore
SNLTR hosts the 1415 BE edition of Tagore's complete Bengali
works. Tagore Web also hosts an edition of Tagore's works, including
annotated songs. Translations are found at
Project Gutenberg and
Wikisource. More sources are below.
* ভানুসিংহ ঠাকুরের পদাবলী
Bhānusiṃha Ṭhākurer Paḍāvalī
(Songs of Bhānusiṃha Ṭhākur)
(The Ideal One)
* সোনার তরী
(The Golden Boat)
(Wreath of Songs)
(The Flight of Cranes)
* বাল্মিকী প্রতিভা
(The Genius of Valmiki)
(The King of the Dark Chamber)
(The Post Office)
(The Broken Nest)
* ঘরে বাইরে
(The Home and the World)
(My Boyhood Days)
* Thought Relics
Thákurova ulice, Prague, Czech Republic
Tagore Room, Sardar Patel Memorial, Ahmedabad, India
* Creative Unity
* The Crescent Moon
* The Cycle of Spring
* The Fugitive
* The Gardener
* Gitanjali: Song Offerings
* Glimpses of Bengal
* The Home and the World
* The Hungry Stones
* I Won't Let you Go: Selected Poems
* The King of the Dark Chamber
* Letters from an Expatriate in Europe
* The Lover of God
* My Boyhood Days
* My Reminiscences
* The Post Office
* Sadhana: The Realisation of Life
* Selected Letters
* Selected Poems
* Selected Short Stories
* Songs of Kabir
* The Spirit of Japan
* Stories from Tagore
* Stray Birds
* The Wreck
Adaptations of novels and short stories in cinema
Main article: Adaptations of works of
Rabindranath Tagore in film and
Natir Puja – 1932 – The only film directed by Rabindranath Tagore
Naukadubi – 1947 (Noukadubi) – Nitin Bose
Kabuliwala – 1957 (Kabuliwala) – Tapan Sinha
Kshudhita Pashaan – 1960 (Kshudhita Pashan) – Tapan Sinha
Teen Kanya – 1961 (Teen Kanya) – Satyajit Ray
Charulata - 1964 (Nastanirh) – Satyajit Ray
Ghare Baire – 1985 (Ghare Baire) – Satyajit Ray
Chokher Bali – 2003 (Chokher Bali) – Rituparno Ghosh
Shasti – 2004 (Shasti) – Chashi Nazrul Islam
Shuva – 2006 (Shuvashini) – Chashi Nazrul Islam
Chaturanga – 2008 (Chaturanga) – Suman Mukhopadhyay
Elar Char Adhyay
Elar Char Adhyay – 2012 (Char Adhyay) – Bappaditya Bandyopadhyay
Sacrifice – 1927 (Balidan) – Nanand Bhojai and Naval Gandhi
Milan – 1946 (Nauka Dubi) – Nitin Bose
Dak Ghar - 1965 (Dak Ghar) - Zul Vellani
Kabuliwala – 1961 (Kabuliwala) – Bimal Roy
Uphaar – 1971 (Samapti) – Sudhendu Roy
Lekin... – 1991 (Kshudhit Pashaan) – Gulzar
Char Adhyay – 1997 (Char Adhyay) – Kumar Shahani
Kashmakash – 2011 (Nauka Dubi) – Rituparno Ghosh
Rabindranath Tagore portal
Timeline of Rabindranath Tagore
Gordon Square, London
Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai
^ Romanised from Bengali script: Robindronath Ṭhakur.
^ Bengali calendar: 25 Baishakh, 1268 – 22 Srabon, 1348
(২৫শে বৈশাখ, ১২৬৮ – ২২শে
শ্রাবণ, ১৩৪৮ বঙ্গাব্দ).
^ Gurudev translates as "divine mentor".
^ Tagore was born at No. 6
Dwarkanath Tagore Lane,
Jorasanko — the
address of the main mansion (the
Jorasanko Thakurbari) inhabited by
Jorasanko branch of the Tagore clan, which had earlier suffered an
Jorasanko was located in the Bengali section of
Calcutta, near Chitpur Road.
Dwarkanath Tagore was his
paternal grandfather. Debendranath had formulated the Brahmoist
philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal in
Brahmo society after Roy's death.
^ ... and wholly fictitious ...
^ On the "idea of the humanity of our God, or the divinity of Man the
^ Etymology of "Visva-Bharati": from the
Sanskrit for "world" or
"universe" and the name of a Rigvedic goddess ("Bharati") associated
with Saraswati, the Hindu patron of learning. "Visva-Bharati"
also translates as "India in the World".
^ Tagore was no stranger to controversy: his dealings with Indian
nationalists Subhas Chandra Bose and Rash Behari Bose, his yen
for Soviet Communism, and papers confiscated from Indian
nationalists in New York allegedly implicating Tagore in a plot to
overthrow the Raj via German funds. These destroyed Tagore's
image—and book sales—in the United States. His relations with
and ambivalent opinion of Mussolini revolted many; close friend
Romain Rolland despaired that "[h]e is abdicating his role as moral
guide of the independent spirits of
Europe and India".
^ a b "
Rabindranath Tagore - Facts". NobelPrize.
^ "Tagore, Sir Rabindranath", in Webster's Biographical Dictionary
(1943), Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.
^ Sil 2005.
^ "Tagore, not Dylan: The first lyricist to win the
Nobel Prize for
literature was actually Indian".
^ "Anita Desai and Andrew Robinson — The Modern Resonance of
Rabindranath Tagore". On Being. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
^ The Nobel Foundation.
^ O'Connell 2008.
^ a b c d e Sen 1997.
^ "Work of
Rabindranath Tagore celebrated in London". BBC News.
Retrieved 15 July 2015.
^ Tagore 1984, p. xii.
^ Thompson 1926, pp. 27–28.
^ Dasgupta 1993, p. 20.
^ "Nationalism is a Great Menace" Tagore and Nationalism, by
Radhakrishnan M. and Roychowdhury D. from Hogan, P. C.; Pandit, L.
(2003), Rabindranath Tagore: Universality and Tradition, pp 29-40
^ "Visva-Bharti-Facts and Figures at a Glance". Archived from the
original on 23 May 2007.
^ Datta 2002, p. 2.
^ Kripalani 2005a, pp. 6–8.
^ Kripalani 2005b, pp. 2–3.
^ Thompson 1926, p. 12.
^ a b de Silva, K. M.; Wriggins, Howard (1988). J. R. Jayewardene of
Sri Lanka: a Political Biography - Volume One: The First Fifty Years.
University of Hawaii Press. p. 368.
^ a b "Man of the series: Nobel laureate Tagore". The Times of India.
Times News Network. 3 April 2011.
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^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 34.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 37.
^ The News Today 2011.
^ Roy 1977, pp. 28–30.
^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 8–9.
^ a b c d e f Ghosh 2011.
^ a b Thompson 1926, p. 20.
^ Som 2010, p. 16.
^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 10.
^ Sree, S. Prasanna (2003). Woman in the novels of Shashi
Deshpande : a study (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
p. 13. ISBN 8176253812. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
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Tagore's Gitanjali: Texts and Critical Evaluation. Sarup & Sons.
p. 2. ISBN 9788176256605. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
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^ Das 2009.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 48–49.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 50.
^ (Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 55–56).
^ (Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 91).
^ "A journey with my Father My Reminiscences".
^ Dev, Amiya (2014). "Tagore and Sikhism". Mainstream weekly.
^ (Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 3).
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^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 265.
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^ Thompson 1926, p. 31.
^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 11–12.
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Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University. p. 171.
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Rabindranath Tagore. Cambridge University Press. p. 13.
ISBN 978-0521590181. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 373.
^ a b Scott 2009, p. 10.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 109–111.
^ Chowdury, A. A. (1992),
Lalon Shah, Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangla
Academy, ISBN 984-07-2597-1
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^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 133.
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^ Hjärne 1913.
^ Anil Sethi; Guha; Khullar; Nair; Prasad; Anwar; Singh; Mohapatra,
eds. (2014). "The Rowlatt Satyagraha". Our Pasts: Volume 3, Part 2
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^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 242.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 308–309.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 303.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 309.
^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 317.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 312–313.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 335–338.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 342.
^ Tagore & Radice 2004, p. 28.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 338.
^ [[#CITEREFIndo-Asian_News_Service2005Indo-Asian News Service
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^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 363.
^ The Daily Star 2009.
^ Sigi 2006, p. 89.
^ Tagore 1930, pp. 222–225.
^ Flickr 2006.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 374–376.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 178–179.
^ a b University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 1–2.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 206.
^ Hogan & Pandit 2003, pp. 56–58.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 182.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 253.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 256.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 267.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 270–271.
^ a b Kundu 2009.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 1.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 289–292.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 303–304.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 292–293.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 2.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 315.
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^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 124.
^ Ray 2007, pp. 147–148.
^ a b c d (Chakravarty 1961, p. 45).
^ (Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 265).
^ (Chakravarty 1961, pp. 45–46)
^ (Chakravarty 1961, p. 46)
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^ (Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 1)
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^ Urban 2001, pp. 6–7.
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^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 7.
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^ a b Dyson 2001.
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R. Siva Kumar
R. Siva Kumar (2011) The Last Harvest: Paintings of Rabindranath
National Gallery of Modern Art
National Gallery of Modern Art - Mumbai:Virtual Galleries".
Retrieved October 23, 2017.
^ "National Gallery of Modern Art:Collections". Retrieved October 23,
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^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 304.
^ Brown 1948, p. 306.
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^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 239–240.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 181.
^ Tagore 1916, p. 111.
^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 204.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 215–216.
^ Chakraborty & Bhattacharya 2001, p. 157.
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mass killing". The Times of India. Mumbai: Bennett, Coleman & Co.
Ltd. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 267.
^ Tagore & Pal 2004.
^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 220.
^ Roy 1977, p. 175.
^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 27.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 221.
Nobel Prize stolen". The Times of India. The Times Group.
25 March 2004. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
^ "Sweden to present India replicas of Tagore's Nobel". The Times of
India. The Times Group. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
^ Glimpses of Bengal
^ The Gardener
^ Stray Birds
^ Chakrabarti 2001.
^ a b Hatcher 2001.
^ Kämpchen 2003.
^ Tagore & Ray 2007, p. 104.
^ Farrell 2000, p. 162.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 202.
^ Cameron 2006.
^ Sen 2006, p. 90.
^ Kinzer 2006.
^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 214.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 297.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 214–215.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 212.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 273.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 255.
^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 254–255.
^ a b Bhattacharya 2001.
^ Tagore & Radice 2004, p. 26.
^ Tagore & Radice 2004, pp. 26–31.
^ Tagore & Radice 2004, pp. 18–19.
^ "Rabindra Bharti Museum (
Jorasanko Thakurbari),". Archived from the
original on 9 February 2012.
^ "Tagore House (
Shilaidaha Kuthibari: Out of focus By Ershad Kamol".
www.kumarkhali.com. Retrieved 29 December 2010. [permanent dead
^ "Kuthibari of Rbindranath". The Kushtia Times. Retrieved 29 December
Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation". Parjatan.gov.bd. 14 April 1971.
Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 10 October
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
Retrieved 30 October 2013.
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^ Thought Relics, Internet Sacred Text Archive
^ Chitra at Project Gutenberg
^ Creative Unity at Project Gutenberg
^ The Crescent Moon at Project Gutenberg
^ The Cycle of Spring at Project Gutenberg
^ Fruit-Gathering at Project Gutenberg
^ The Fugitive at Project Gutenberg
^ The Gardener at Project Gutenberg
Gitanjali at Project Gutenberg
^ Glimpses of Bengal at Project Gutenberg
The Home and the World
The Home and the World at Project Gutenberg
Hungry Stones at Project Gutenberg
^ The King of the Dark Chamber at Project Gutenberg
^ Mashi at Project Gutenberg
^ My Reminiscences at Project Gutenberg
^ The Post Office at Project Gutenberg
^ Sadhana: The Realisation of Life at Project Gutenberg
^ Songs of
Kabir at Project Gutenberg
^ The Spirit of Japan at Project Gutenberg
^ Stories from Tagore at Project Gutenberg
^ Stray Birds at Project Gutenberg
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By Rabindranath Tagore
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Abu Zakaria, G. (editor) (2011). Rabindranath Tagore—Wanderer
zwischen Welten. Klemm and Oelschläger.
ISBN 978-3-86281-018-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (2011). Rabindranath Tagore: an
interpretation. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books India.
Chaudhuri, A. (editor) (2004). The Vintage Book of Modern Indian
Literature (1st ed.). Vintage (published 9 November 2004).
ISBN 978-0-375-71300-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Deutsch, A. (editor); Robinson, A. (editor) (1989). The Art of
Rabindranath Tagore (1st ed.). Monthly Review Press (published August
1989). ISBN 978-0-233-98359-2. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
Shamsud Doulah, A. B. M. (2016). Rabindranath Tagore, the Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1913, and the British Raj: Some Untold Stories.
Partridge Publishing Singapore. ISBN 978-1-4828-6403-8.
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List of works
Chokher Bali (1902-1903)
Ghare Baire (1916)
Shesher Kabita (1929)
List of stories
Bhanusimha Thakurer Padabali
Bhanusimha Thakurer Padabali (1884)
Poems and songs
"Amar Sonar Bangla"
"Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo"
"Ekla Chalo Re"
"Jana Gana Mana"
The Post Office (1912)
Rabindra Nritya Natya
The Religion of Man
The Cult of the Charkha
Songs of Kabir
Natir Puja (1932 film)
The Essential Tagore
Stories by Rabindranath Tagore
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Rabindra Bharati University
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Akshay Kumar Datta
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Gour Govinda Ray
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Indian independence movement
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Hara Kumar Tagore
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Indira Devi Chaudhurani
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Asit Kumar Haldar
Saif Ali Khan
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Laureates of the
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1901 Sully Prudhomme
1902 Theodor Mommsen
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
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1907 Rudyard Kipling
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1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
1913 Rabindranath Tagore
1915 Romain Rolland
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan
1919 Carl Spitteler
1920 Knut Hamsun
1921 Anatole France
1922 Jacinto Benavente
1923 W. B. Yeats
1924 Władysław Reymont
1925 George Bernard Shaw
1926 Grazia Deledda
1927 Henri Bergson
1928 Sigrid Undset
1929 Thomas Mann
1930 Sinclair Lewis
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1932 John Galsworthy
1933 Ivan Bunin
1934 Luigi Pirandello
1936 Eugene O'Neill
1937 Roger Martin du Gard
1938 Pearl S. Buck
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1944 Johannes V. Jensen
1945 Gabriela Mistral
1946 Hermann Hesse
1947 André Gide
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1951 Pär Lagerkvist
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1955 Halldór Laxness
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1957 Albert Camus
1958 Boris Pasternak
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo
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Jean-Paul Sartre (declined award)
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon / Nelly Sachs
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias
1968 Yasunari Kawabata
1969 Samuel Beckett
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
1971 Pablo Neruda
1972 Heinrich Böll
1973 Patrick White
Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson
1975 Eugenio Montale
1976 Saul Bellow
1977 Vicente Aleixandre
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer
1979 Odysseas Elytis
1980 Czesław Miłosz
1981 Elias Canetti
1982 Gabriel García Márquez
1983 William Golding
1984 Jaroslav Seifert
1985 Claude Simon
1986 Wole Soyinka
1987 Joseph Brodsky
1988 Naguib Mahfouz
1989 Camilo José Cela
1990 Octavio Paz
1991 Nadine Gordimer
1992 Derek Walcott
1993 Toni Morrison
1994 Kenzaburō Ōe
1995 Seamus Heaney
1996 Wisława Szymborska
1997 Dario Fo
1998 José Saramago
1999 Günter Grass
2000 Gao Xingjian
2001 V. S. Naipaul
2002 Imre Kertész
2003 J. M. Coetzee
2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2005 Harold Pinter
2006 Orhan Pamuk
2007 Doris Lessing
2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio
2009 Herta Müller
2010 Mario Vargas Llosa
2011 Tomas Tranströmer
2012 Mo Yan
2013 Alice Munro
2014 Patrick Modiano
2015 Svetlana Alexievich
2016 Bob Dylan
2017 Kazuo Ishiguro
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