HOME
The Info List - RSS


--- Advertisement ---



RSS
RSS
(Rich Site Summary; originally RDF Site Summary; often called Really Simple Syndication) is a type of web feed[2] which allows users to access updates to online content in a standardized, computer-readable format. These feeds can, for example, allow a user to keep track of many different websites in a single news aggregator. The news aggregator will automatically check the RSS
RSS
feed for new content, allowing the content to be automatically passed from website to website or from website to user. This passing of content is called web syndication. Websites usually use RSS
RSS
feeds to publish frequently updated information, such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, video. An RSS
RSS
document (called "feed", "web feed",[3] or "channel") includes full or summarized text, and metadata, like publishing date and author's name. A standard XML
XML
file format ensures compatibility with many different machines/programs. RSS
RSS
feeds also benefit users who want to receive timely updates from favourite websites or to aggregate data from many sites. Subscribing to a website RSS
RSS
removes the need for the user to manually check the website for new content. Instead, their browser constantly monitors the site and informs the user of any updates. The browser can also be commanded to automatically download the new data for the user. RSS
RSS
feed data is presented to users using software called a news aggregator. This aggregator can be built into a website, installed on a desktop computer, or installed on a mobile device. Users subscribe to feeds either by entering a feed's URI
URI
into the reader or by clicking on the browser's feed icon. The RSS
RSS
reader checks the user's feeds regularly for new information and can automatically download it, if that function is enabled. The reader also provides a user interface.

Contents

1 History 2 Example 3 Variants 4 Modules 5 Interoperability 6 BitTorrent
BitTorrent
and RSS 7 RSS
RSS
to email 8 RSS
RSS
compared with Atom 9 Current usage 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2013)

Main article: History of web syndication technology The RSS
RSS
formats were preceded by several attempts at web syndication that did not achieve widespread popularity. The basic idea of restructuring information about websites goes back to as early as 1995, when Ramanathan V. Guha and others in Apple Computer's Advanced Technology Group developed the Meta Content Framework.[4] RDF Site Summary, the first version of RSS, was created by Dan Libby and Ramanathan V. Guha at Netscape. It was released in March 1999 for use on the My.Netscape.Com portal.[5] This version became known as RSS 0.9.[6] In July 1999, Dan Libby of Netscape
Netscape
produced a new version, RSS
RSS
0.91,[2] which simplified the format by removing RDF elements and incorporating elements from Dave Winer's news syndication format.[7] Libby also renamed the format from RDF to RSS
RSS
Rich Site Summary and outlined further development of the format in a "futures document".[8] This would be Netscape's last participation in RSS
RSS
development for eight years. As RSS
RSS
was being embraced by web publishers who wanted their feeds to be used on My.Netscape.Com and other early RSS
RSS
portals, Netscape
Netscape
dropped RSS
RSS
support from My.Netscape.Com in April 2001 during new owner AOL's restructuring of the company, also removing documentation and tools that supported the format.[9] Two parties emerged to fill the void, with neither Netscape's help nor approval: The RSS-DEV Working Group and Dave Winer, whose UserLand Software had published some of the first publishing tools outside Netscape
Netscape
that could read and write RSS. Winer published a modified version of the RSS
RSS
0.91 specification on the UserLand website, covering how it was being used in his company's products, and claimed copyright to the document.[10] A few months later, UserLand filed a U.S. trademark registration for RSS, but failed to respond to a USPTO
USPTO
trademark examiner's request and the request was rejected in December 2001.[11] The RSS-DEV Working Group, a project whose members included Guha and representatives of O'Reilly Media
O'Reilly Media
and Moreover, produced RSS
RSS
1.0 in December 2000.[12] This new version, which reclaimed the name RDF Site Summary from RSS
RSS
0.9, reintroduced support for RDF and added XML namespaces support, adopting elements from standard metadata vocabularies such as Dublin Core. In December 2000, Winer released RSS
RSS
0.92[13] a minor set of changes aside from the introduction of the enclosure element, which permitted audio files to be carried in RSS
RSS
feeds and helped spark podcasting. He also released drafts of RSS
RSS
0.93 and RSS
RSS
0.94 that were subsequently withdrawn.[14] In September 2002, Winer released a major new version of the format, RSS
RSS
2.0, that redubbed its initials Really Simple Syndication. RSS
RSS
2.0 removed the type attribute added in the RSS
RSS
0.94 draft and added support for namespaces. To preserve backward compatibility with RSS 0.92, namespace support applies only to other content included within an RSS
RSS
2.0 feed, not the RSS
RSS
2.0 elements themselves.[15] (Although other standards such as Atom attempt to correct this limitation, RSS feeds are not aggregated with other content often enough to shift the popularity from RSS
RSS
to other formats having full namespace support.) Because neither Winer nor the RSS-DEV Working Group had Netscape's involvement, they could not make an official claim on the RSS
RSS
name or format. This has fueled ongoing controversy[specify] in the syndication development community as to which entity was the proper publisher of RSS. One product of that contentious debate was the creation of an alternative syndication format, Atom, that began in June 2003.[16] The Atom syndication format, whose creation was in part motivated by a desire to get a clean start free of the issues surrounding RSS, has been adopted as IETF
IETF
Proposed Standard RFC 4287. In July 2003, Winer and UserLand Software
UserLand Software
assigned the copyright of the RSS
RSS
2.0 specification to Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society, where he had just begun a term as a visiting fellow.[17] At the same time, Winer launched the RSS
RSS
Advisory Board with Brent Simmons and Jon Udell, a group whose purpose was to maintain and publish the specification and answer questions about the format.[18] In September 2004, Stephen Horlander created the now ubiquitous RSS icon () for use in the Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox
browser.[19] In December 2005, the Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
team[20] and Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft Outlook
team[21] announced on their blogs that they were adopting Firefox's RSS
RSS
icon. In February 2006, Opera Software
Opera Software
followed suit.[22] This effectively made the orange square with white radio waves the industry standard for RSS
RSS
and Atom feeds, replacing the large variety of icons and text that had been used previously to identify syndication data. In January 2006, Rogers Cadenhead
Rogers Cadenhead
relaunched the RSS
RSS
Advisory Board without Dave Winer's participation, with a stated desire to continue the development of the RSS
RSS
format and resolve ambiguities. In June 2007, the board revised their version of the specification to confirm that namespaces may extend core elements with namespace attributes, as Microsoft
Microsoft
has done in Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
7. According to their view, a difference of interpretation left publishers unsure of whether this was permitted or forbidden. Example RSS
RSS
is XML-formatted plain text. The RSS
RSS
format itself is relatively easy to read both by automated processes and by humans alike. An example feed could have contents such as the following:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <rss version="2.0"> <channel> <title> RSS
RSS
Title</title> <description>This is an example of an RSS feed</description> <link>http://www.example.com/main.html</link> <lastBuildDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2010 00:01:00 +0000 </lastBuildDate> <pubDate>Sun, 06 Sep 2009 16:20:00 +0000</pubDate> <ttl>1800</ttl>

<item> <title>Example entry</title> <description>Here is some text containing an interesting description.</description> <link>http://www.example.com/blog/post/1</link> <guid isPermaLink="false">7bd204c6-1655-4c27-aeee-53f933c5395f</guid> <pubDate>Sun, 06 Sep 2009 16:20:00 +0000</pubDate> </item>

</channel> </rss>

User interface
User interface
of a feed reader

When retrieved, reading software could use the XML
XML
structure to present a neat display to the end users. Variants There are several different versions of RSS, falling into two major branches (RDF and 2.*). The RDF (or RSS
RSS
1.*) branch includes the following versions:

RSS
RSS
0.90 was the original Netscape
Netscape
RSS
RSS
version. This RSS
RSS
was called RDF Site Summary, but was based on an early working draft of the RDF standard, and was not compatible with the final RDF Recommendation. RSS
RSS
1.0 is an open format by the RSS-DEV Working Group, again standing for RDF Site Summary. RSS
RSS
1.0 is an RDF format like RSS
RSS
0.90, but not fully compatible with it, since 1.0 is based on the final RDF 1.0 Recommendation. RSS
RSS
1.1 is also an open format and is intended to update and replace RSS
RSS
1.0. The specification is an independent draft not supported or endorsed in any way by the RSS-Dev Working Group or any other organization.

The RSS
RSS
2.* branch (initially UserLand, now Harvard) includes the following versions:

RSS
RSS
0.91 is the simplified RSS
RSS
version released by Netscape, and also the version number of the simplified version originally championed by Dave Winer
Dave Winer
from Userland Software. The Netscape
Netscape
version was now called Rich Site Summary; this was no longer an RDF format, but was relatively easy to use. RSS
RSS
0.92 through 0.94 are expansions of the RSS
RSS
0.91 format, which are mostly compatible with each other and with Winer's version of RSS 0.91, but are not compatible with RSS
RSS
0.90. RSS
RSS
2.0.1 has the internal version number 2.0. RSS
RSS
2.0.1 was proclaimed to be "frozen", but still updated shortly after release without changing the version number. RSS
RSS
now stood for Really Simple Syndication. The major change in this version is an explicit extension mechanism using XML
XML
namespaces.[23]

Later versions in each branch are backward-compatible with earlier versions (aside from non-conformant RDF syntax in 0.90), and both versions include properly documented extension mechanisms using XML Namespaces, either directly (in the 2.* branch) or through RDF (in the 1.* branch). Most syndication software supports both branches. "The Myth of RSS
RSS
Compatibility", an article written in 2004 by RSS
RSS
critic and Atom advocate Mark Pilgrim, discusses RSS
RSS
version compatibility issues in more detail. The extension mechanisms make it possible for each branch to copy innovations in the other. For example, the RSS
RSS
2.* branch was the first to support enclosures, making it the current leading choice for podcasting, and as of 2005[update] is the format supported for that use by iTunes and other podcasting software; however, an enclosure extension is now available for the RSS
RSS
1.* branch, mod_enclosure. Likewise, the RSS
RSS
2.* core specification does not support providing full-text in addition to a synopsis, but the RSS
RSS
1.* markup can be (and often is) used as an extension. There are also several common outside extension packages available, e.g. one from Microsoft
Microsoft
for use in Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
7. The most serious compatibility problem is with HTML
HTML
markup. Userland's RSS
RSS
reader—generally considered as the reference implementation—did not originally filter out HTML
HTML
markup from feeds. As a result, publishers began placing HTML
HTML
markup into the titles and descriptions of items in their RSS
RSS
feeds. This behavior has become expected of readers, to the point of becoming a de facto standard,[citation needed] though there is still some inconsistency in how software handles this markup, particularly in titles. The RSS
RSS
2.0 specification was later updated to include examples of entity-encoded HTML; however, all prior plain text usages remain valid. As of January 2007[update], tracking data from www.syndic8.com indicates that the three main versions of RSS
RSS
in current use are 0.91, 1.0, and 2.0, constituting 13%, 17%, and 67% of worldwide RSS
RSS
usage, respectively.[24] These figures, however, do not include usage of the rival web feed format Atom. As of August 2008[update], the syndic8.com website is indexing 546,069 total feeds, of which 86,496 (16%) were some dialect of Atom and 438,102 were some dialect of RSS.[25] Modules The primary objective of all RSS
RSS
modules is to extend the basic XML schema established for more robust syndication of content. This inherently allows for more diverse, yet standardized, transactions without modifying the core RSS
RSS
specification. To accomplish this extension, a tightly controlled vocabulary (in the RSS
RSS
world, "module"; in the XML
XML
world, "schema") is declared through an XML
XML
namespace to give names to concepts and relationships between those concepts. Some RSS
RSS
2.0 modules with established namespaces are:

Media RSS (MRSS) 2.0 Module OpenSearch RSS
RSS
2.0 Module

Interoperability Although the number of items in an RSS
RSS
channel is theoretically unlimited, some news aggregators do not support RSS
RSS
files larger than 150KB. For example, applications that rely on the Common Feed List of Windows might handle such files as if they were corrupt, and not open them. Interoperability
Interoperability
can be maximized by keeping the file size under this limit. BitTorrent
BitTorrent
and RSS Some BitTorrent
BitTorrent
clients support RSS. RSS
RSS
feeds which provide links to .torrent files allow users to subscribe and automatically download content as soon as it is published. RSS
RSS
to email See also: PubSubHubbub Some services deliver RSS
RSS
to email inbox, sending updates from user's personal selection and schedules.[26][27] Conversely, some services deliver email to RSS
RSS
readers.[28] Examples of those services include Blogtrottr, IFTTT
IFTTT
and Zapier. RSS
RSS
compared with Atom Both RSS
RSS
and Atom are widely supported and are compatible with all major consumer feed readers. RSS
RSS
gained wider use because of early feed reader support. Technically, Atom has several advantages: less restrictive licensing, IANA-registered MIME type, XML
XML
namespace, URI support, Relax NG support.[29] The following table shows RSS
RSS
elements alongside Atom elements where they are equivalent. Note: the asterisk character (*) indicates that an element must be provided (Atom elements "author" and "link" are only required under certain conditions).

RSS
RSS
2.0 Atom 1.0

author author*

category category

channel feed

copyright rights

- subtitle

description* summary and/or content

generator generator

guid id*

image logo

item entry

lastBuildDate (in channel) updated*

link* link*

managingEditor author or contributor

pubDate published (subelement of entry)

title* title*

ttl -

Current usage Several major sites such as Facebook
Facebook
and Twitter
Twitter
previously offered RSS
RSS
feeds but have reduced or removed support. Additionally, widely used readers such as Shiira, FeedDemon, and Google Reader
Google Reader
have been discontinued having cited declining popularity in RSS.[30] RSS
RSS
support was removed in OS X Mountain Lion's versions of Mail and Safari, although the features were partially restored in Safari 8.[31][32] As of August 2015, Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox
and Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
include RSS support by default, while Google Chrome
Google Chrome
and Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge do not. Additionally, reader services such as Feedly
Feedly
provide synchronization between desktop RSS
RSS
readers and mobile devices. See also

Aaron Swartz Comparison of feed aggregators DataPortability FeedSync previously Simple Sharing Extensions Mashup (web application hybrid) PubSubHubbub

References

^ "The application/rss+xml Media Type". Network Working Group. May 22, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-16.  ^ a b Libby, Dan (1999-07-10). " RSS
RSS
0.91 Spec, revision 3". Netscape ttem. Archived from the original on 2000-12-04. Retrieved 2007-02-14.  ^ "Web feeds RSS
RSS
The Guardian guardian.co.uk", The Guardian, London, 2008, webpage: GuardianUK-webfeeds. ^ Lash, Alex (1997-10-03). "W3C takes first step toward RDF spec". Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2007-02-16.  ^ Hines, Matt (1999-03-15). " Netscape
Netscape
Broadens Portal
Portal
Content Strategy". Newsbytes.  ^ "My Netscape
Netscape
Network: Quick Start". Netscape
Netscape
Communications. Archived from the original on 2000-12-08. Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ RSS Advisory Board (June 7, 2007). " RSS
RSS
History". Retrieved 2007-09-04.  ^ "MNN Future Directions". Netscape
Netscape
Communications. Archived from the original on 2000-12-04. Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ Andrew King (2003-04-13). "The Evolution of RSS". Retrieved 2007-01-17.  ^ Winer, Dave (2000-06-04). " RSS
RSS
0.91: Copyright and Disclaimer". UserLand Software. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. "'RSS' Trademark Latest Status Info".  ^ RSS-DEV Working Group (2000-12-09). "RDF Site Summary (RSS) 1.0". Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ Winer, Dave (2000-12-25). " RSS
RSS
0.92 Specification". UserLand Software. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ Winer, Dave (2001-04-20). " RSS
RSS
0.93 Specification". UserLand Software. Archived from the original on 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2006-10-31.  ^ Harvard Law (2007-04-14). "Top-level namespaces". Retrieved 2009-08-03.  ^ Festa, Paul (2003-08-04). "Dispute exposes bitter power struggle behind Web logs". news.cnet.com. Retrieved 2008-08-06. The conflict centers on something called Really Simple Syndication (RSS), a technology widely used to syndicate blogs and other Web content. The dispute pits Harvard Law School fellow Dave Winer, the blogging pioneer who is the key gatekeeper of RSS, against advocates of a different format.  ^ "Advisory Board Notes". RSS
RSS
Advisory Board. 2003-07-18. Retrieved 2007-09-04.  ^ " RSS
RSS
2.0 News". Dave Winer. Retrieved 2007-09-04.  ^ "2004-09-26 Branch builds". Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Icons: It’s still orange, Microsoft
Microsoft
RSS
RSS
Blog, December 14, 2005 ^ RSS
RSS
icon goodness, blog post by Michael A. Affronti of Microsoft (Outlook Program Manager), December 15, 2005 ^ "Making love to the new feed icon". Opera Desktop Team. 2006-02-16. Retrieved 2010-07-04.  ^ "Namespaces in XML
XML
1.0" (2nd ed.). W3C. August 16, 2006.  ^ Holzner, Steven. "Peachpit article". Peachpit article. Retrieved 2010-12-11.  ^ "Syndic8 stats table". Syndic8.com. Archived from the original on 2002-08-03. Retrieved 2011-08-12.  ^ "Why Blogtrottr?". Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "Free realtime RSS
RSS
and Atom feed to email service. Get your favourite blogs, feeds, and news delivered to your inbox". Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ " RSS
RSS
Feed Reader, your tool for saving time and money at RSS.com". Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Leslie Sikos (2011). Web standards – Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML. Apress. ISBN 978-1-4302-4041-9.  ^ Hölzle, Urs. "A second spring of cleaning". googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.  ^ Frakes, Dan (February 19, 2012). "Mountain Lion: Hands on with Mail". Macworld. Mac Publishing. Retrieved February 23, 2012.  ^ "Subscribe to RSS
RSS
Feeds in Safari for OS X Yosemite". OSX Daily. Retrieved January 24, 2015. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to RSS.

RSS
RSS
0.90 Specification RSS
RSS
0.91 Specification RSS
RSS
1.0 Specifications RSS
RSS
2.0 Specification History of the RSS
RSS
Fork (Mark Pilgrim) Building an RSS
RSS
feed Tutorial with example

v t e

Web syndication

History Blogging Podcasting Video blogging Web syndication
Web syndication
technology

Types

Art Bloggernacle Classical music Corporate Dream diary Edublog Electronic journal Fake Family Fashion Food Health Law Lifelog Litblog MP3 News Photoblog Police Political Prayer Project Reverse Travel Warblog

Technology

General

BitTorrent Feed URI
URI
scheme

Features

Linkback Permalink Ping Pingback Reblogging Refback Rollback Trackback

Mechanism

Conversation threading Geotagging RSS
RSS
enclosure Synchronization

Memetics

Atom feed Data feed Photofeed Product feed RDF feed Web feed

RSS

GeoRSS MRSS RSS
RSS
TV

Social

Livemark Mashup . pooling Referencing RSS
RSS
editor RSS
RSS
tracking Streaming media

Standard

OML OPML RSS
RSS
Advisory Board—Usenet: .net World Wide Web
World Wide Web
+ (-let) XBEL XOXO

Form

Audio podcast Enhanced podcast Mobilecast Narrowcasting Peercasting Screencast Slidecasting Videocast Webcomic Web series

Anonymous blogging Collaborative blog Columnist Instant messaging Liveblogging Microblog Mobile blogging Roblog Spam blog Video blogging Motovlogging

Media

Alternative media

Carnivals Fiction Journalism

Citizen Database

Online diary Search engines Sideblog Software Web directory

Micromedia

Aggregation

News Poll Review Search Video

Atom AtomPub Broadcatching Hashtag NewsML

1 G2

Social communication Social software Web Slice

Related

Blogosphere Escribitionist Glossary of blogging Pay per click Posting style Slashdot effect Spam in blogs Uses of podcasting

v t e

News aggregators

Client software

Standalone

Akregator BlogBridge FeedDemon Feedreader Flipboard Genieo Google Currents Google Play Newsstand Liferea NetNewsWire NewsAccess Newsbeuter NewsFire QuiteRSS RSS
RSS
Bandit RSSOwl Seesmic WebFetch

Web browsers

AOL
AOL
Explorer Avant Browser Basilisk Camino iCab Flock Internet Explorer K-Meleon Kazehakase Maxthon Firefox GNOME Web Netscape
Netscape
Browser Netscape
Netscape
Navigator 9 OmniWeb Pale Moon Safari SeaMonkey Shiira Sleipnir Tencent Traveler Vivaldi Waterfox

Email clients

Apple Mail Claws Mail FossaMail Gnus IBM Notes Microsoft
Microsoft
Outlook Mozilla Thunderbird Netscape
Netscape
Messenger 9 Opera Mail Pegasus Mail The Bat! Windows Live Mail Zimbra

Web browser plugins

Cooliris Sage

Web apps or mobile apps

Bloglines CommaFeed Cheetah News Daylife Digg Reader Drupal Feedbin Feedly FriendFeed Google News Google Reader iGoogle dotCMS Imooty.eu Magnolia My Yahoo! News360 NewsBlur Newsknowledge Netvibes Pageflakes Planet Pulse Rojo.com Prismatic Spokeo The Old Reader Tiny Tiny RSS TweetDeck WebGUI Windows Live Personalized Experience winnowTag

Media aggregators

Podcatcher

Adobe Media Player Akregator Amarok Flock iTunes Juice MediaMonkey Miro Rhythmbox Songbird Winamp Zune

RSS+BitTorrent

BitLord BitTorrent
BitTorrent
6 Deluge Miro Opera Mail qBittorrent TorrentFlux Tribler μTorrent Vuze

Related articles

Comparison of feed aggregators History of Media aggregation RSS
RSS
enclosure

Italics indicate discontinued software.

v t e

Data exchange formats

Human readable formats

Atom XML YAML JSON RDF Rebol RSS OWL

Binary formats

AMF ASN.1

SMI

Avro BSON CBOR FlatBuffers MessagePack Protocol Buffers Thrift Smile XDR

Authority control

.