HOME
The Info List - RFK Bridge





Route map: Google Template:Attached KML/Triborough Bridge KML is from Wikidata

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge (Triborough Bridge)

Aerial view of the Queens–Wards Island span of the Triborough Bridge, over the East River; Queens
Queens
is in the foreground

Coordinates 40°46′50″N 73°55′38″W / 40.780488°N 73.927168°W / 40.780488; -73.927168

Carries 8 lanes of I-278 (Bronx and Queens
Queens
spans) 6 lanes of NY 900G ( Manhattan
Manhattan
span)

Crosses East River, Harlem River
Harlem River
and Bronx Kill

Locale New York City, United States

Official name Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge

Other name(s) Triborough Bridge, RFK Triborough Bridge, Triboro Bridge, RFK Bridge

Maintained by MTA Bridges and Tunnels

Characteristics

Design Suspension bridge, lift bridge, truss bridge

Total length 2,780 feet (850 m) ( Queens
Queens
span) 770 feet (230 m) ( Manhattan
Manhattan
span) 1,600 feet (490 m) (Bronx span)

Width 98 feet (30 m) ( Queens
Queens
span)

Longest span 1,380 feet (420 m) ( Queens
Queens
span) 310 feet (94 m) ( Manhattan
Manhattan
span) 383 feet (117 m) (Bronx span)

Clearance above 14 feet 6 inches (4.42 m) (Queens / Bronx spans) 13 feet 10 inches (4.22 m) ( Manhattan
Manhattan
span)

Clearance below 143 feet (44 m) ( Queens
Queens
span) 135 feet (41 m) ( Manhattan
Manhattan
span when raised) 55 feet (17 m) (Bronx span)

History

Opened July 11, 1936; 81 years ago (1936-07-11)

Statistics

Daily traffic 95,552 (Queens– Manhattan
Manhattan
and Bronx–Manhattan, 2016)[1] 83,053 (Queens–Bronx, 2016)[1]

Toll As of March 19, 2017, $8.50 (Tolls By Mail and non-New York E-ZPass); $5.76 (New York E-ZPass)

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge (Triborough Bridge)

Point where the three spans meet

The Triborough Bridge, known officially as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge
Bridge
since 2008, and sometimes referred to as the RFK Triborough Bridge
Bridge
or RFK Bridge, is a complex of three separate bridges and their connecting viaducts or elevated expressways[2] in New York City. The complex of bridges and elevated roads serves to connect three boroughs, Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx. The viaducts were built on Randalls and Wards Islands, previously two islands which are now joined as one by landfill. The bridge complex, which carries Interstate 278
Interstate 278
and unmarked New York State Route 900G, connects with the FDR Drive
FDR Drive
and the Harlem River
Harlem River
Drive in Manhattan, the Bruckner Expressway and the Major Deegan Expressway
Major Deegan Expressway
in the Bronx, and the Grand Central Parkway and Astoria Boulevard
Astoria Boulevard
in Queens. The three bridges of the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
complex are:[2]

The Harlem River
Harlem River
vertical-lift bridge, the largest in the world, which connects Manhattan
Manhattan
to Randalls Island The Bronx Kill
Bronx Kill
truss bridge, which connects Randalls Island
Randalls Island
to the Bronx The suspension bridge over Hell Gate
Hell Gate
(a strait of the East River), which connects Wards Island to Astoria in Queens

These three bridges are connected by an elevated highway viaduct across Randalls and Wards Islands
Randalls and Wards Islands
and 14 miles (23 km) of support roads.[2][3] Also part of the complex is a grade-separated T-interchange on Randalls Island, which sorted out traffic in a way that ensured that drivers paid a toll at only one bank of toll booths.[4] The toll booths have since been removed since all tolls are collected electronically at the approaches to each bridge. The bridge complex was designed by chief engineer Othmar H. Ammann
Othmar H. Ammann
and architect Aymar Embury II,[5] and has been called the "biggest traffic machine ever built".[4] The American Society of Civil Engineers designated the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Project as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1986.[6] The bridge is owned and operated by MTA Bridges and Tunnels, a division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Planning and construction 1.2 Recent events

2 Usage

2.1 Tolls 2.2 Public transportation

3 Statistics

3.1 East River
East River
suspension bridge (I-278) 3.2 Harlem River
Harlem River
lift bridge (NY 900G) 3.3 Bronx Kill
Bronx Kill
crossing (I-278)

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Planning and construction[edit] Plans for connecting Manhattan, Queens
Queens
and the Bronx were first announced by Edward A. Byrne, chief engineer of the New York City Department of Plant and Structures, in 1916.[7] While such a bridge complex's construction had long been recommended by local officials, the project failed to receive funding until 1925, when the city appropriated money for surveys, test borings and structural plans.[3]

Location of the bridge in New York City

Art Deco
Art Deco
saddle housing

Construction began on October 25, 1929 – Black Friday – but soon the Triborough project's outlook began to look bleak. Chief engineer Othmar Ammann, who had collapsed the original design's two-deck roadway into one, requiring lighter towers, and thus, lighter piers, saving $10 million on the towers alone, was enlisted again to help guide the project, but the combination of Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
graft, the stock market crash, and the Great Depression
Great Depression
which followed it, brought the project to a virtual halt,[8] as investors shied away from purchasing the municipal bonds needed to fund it.[5] By the spring of 1932, the project was moribund.[9] The project was resurrected by Robert Moses, who pushed the state legislature to create the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Authority (TBA) to fund, build and operate it. Moses was confronted by a situation where the city had not planned any of the necessary approaches to the structure, or even bought up the property that would clearly be needed to build those roads, property which they could have gotten at bargain prices early on.[8] Moses solved this problem in typical fashion by proposing new roads and parkways to feed into the bridge, which would connect it to the existing ones he had already built. The complex of roads included the Grand Central Parkway
Grand Central Parkway
and Astoria Boulevard
Astoria Boulevard
in Queens, an extension to the East River
East River
Drive (now the FDR Drive) in Manhattan, and Whitlock Avenue and Eastern Boulevard in the Bronx.[4] While reformers embraced Moses' plans, state and city officials were overwhelmed by their scale, and slow to move to provide financing for the vast system.[8] Moses leveraged his leadership of the Authority – after he wrenched control of it away from Tammany – as well as the state and city positions he also held, to start the project up again, with construction resuming in November 1933.[9] Eventually, funding would come from the city and from the Federal government under New Deal
New Deal
programs such as the Public Works Administration (PWA), the latter of which involved complex political infighting between Moses, PWA Administrator Harold L. Ickes, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
and New York City
New York City
Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia, over which Moses almost lost his job.[10] The other major source of funding was from interest-bearing bonds issued by the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Authority itself, and not by the city. These bonds were secured by future toll revenue.[11][12] The scale of the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
project, including its approaches, was such that hundreds of large apartment buildings were demolished to make way for it. The structure used concrete from factories "from Maine to the Mississippi", and steel from 50 mills in Pennsylvania. To make the formwork for pouring the concrete, a forest's worth of trees on the Pacific Coast was cut down.[4] Robert Caro, the biographer of Moses, said about it:

Triborough was not a bridge so much as a traffic machine, the largest ever built. The amount of human energy expended in its construction gives some idea of its immensity: more than five thousand men would be working at the site, and these men would only be putting into place the materials furnished by the labor of many times five thousand men; before the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
was completed, its construction would have generated more than 31,000,000-man hours of work in 134 cities in twenty states.[4]

The completed structure, described by The New York Times
The New York Times
as a "Y-shaped sky highway", was dedicated on July 11, 1936, at ceremonies held on the central span which were attended by President Roosevelt, Mayor La Guardia, New York State Governor Herbert H. Lehman, Public Works Administrator Ickes, Postmaster General James A. Farley and Moses, who acted as master of ceremonies.[13][3][14] Due to the previous conflicts between himself and Moses, the attendance of Roosevelt was not certain until the last minute. The ceremonies were broadcast via a nationwide radio connection.[14] The total cost of the bridge, the largest PWA project in the East, was more than $60 million (equivalent to $1058.13 million in 2017) – one of the largest public works projects of the Great Depression, more expensive than the Hoover Dam.[15][3][14] Of this, $16 million came from the city and $9 million directly from the PWA, which also purchased $35 million worth of TBA bonds, which were eventually bought back and resold to the public.[9] In the first year of the bridge's operation it generated $2.72 million (equivalent to $46.30 million in 2017) – produced by 9.65 million vehicles.[5] A by-product of the Triborough project was the creation of parks and playgrounds in the lands underneath the bridges and approaches on Wards and Randalls Island
Randalls Island
(see Randall's Island Park), in Astoria, and in Manhattan.[9] Recent events[edit]

Expansion of toll plaza underway, 2016

Motorists were first able to pay with E‑ZPass in lanes for automatic coin machines at the Randalls Island
Randalls Island
toll plazas on August 21, 1996.[16] At some point in the past, a sign on the bridge informed travelers, "In event of attack, drive off bridge," New York Times
New York Times
columnist William Safire
William Safire
wrote in 2008. The "somewhat macabre sign", he wrote, must have "drawn a wry smile from millions of motorists."[17] On November 19, 2008, the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
was officially renamed after Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
at the request of the Kennedy family.[18] Forty years had passed since the New York United States
United States
Senator and former U.S. Attorney General
U.S. Attorney General
had been assassinated during a 1968 presidential bid.[19][20][21] Traffic and news reports have come to commonly refer to the bridge as the "RFK Triborough Bridge" and at times simply the "Triborough Bridge" to avoid confusion among residents long accustomed to its original name.[22] In 2015, the MTA started two reconstruction projects on different parts of the bridge[23] as part of a $1 billion, 15-year program to renovate the bridge complex.[24] The MTA commenced construction on a $213 million rehabilitation of the 1930s-era toll plaza between the Queens
Queens
and Bronx spans, which included a rebuilding of the roadway and the supporting structure underneath. The new tollbooth structure is to be completed in 2019.[23] In addition, a ramp from the Manhattan
Manhattan
span to the northbound Harlem River
Harlem River
Drive was being built for $68.3 million, with the ramp to be finished by December 2017. [23] Cashless tolling, a program that eliminates toll gates and allows drivers to maintain highway speeds across the span, was implemented on June 15, 2017. Tolls are either collected electronically by EZ Pass transponder or by mail using data collected by license plate readers. [23] Usage[edit] The toll revenues from the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
pay for a portion of the public transit subsidy for the New York City
New York City
Transit Authority and the commuter railroads.[25] The bridge had annual average daily traffic of 164,116 in 2014. For that year, the bridge saw annual toll-paying traffic rise by 2.9% to 59.9 million, generating $393.6 million in revenue at an average toll of $6.57.[26] The bridge has sidewalks in all three legs where the TBTA officially requires bicyclists to walk their bicycles across[27] due to safety concerns.[28] However, the signs stating this requirement have been usually ignored by bicyclists,[29] while the New York City
New York City
Government has recommended that the TBTA should reassess this kind of bicycling ban.[30] Stairs on the 2 km (1.2 mi) Queens
Queens
leg impede handicapped access. The Queens
Queens
stairway along the southern side was demolished at the beginning of the 21st century, thus isolating that walkway, but the ramp of the Wards Island end of the walkway along the northern side was improved in 2007.[citation needed] The two sidewalks of the Bronx span are connected to only one ramp at the Randalls Island end.[citation needed] Tolls[edit] Beginning on March 19, 2017, drivers will pay $8.50 per car or $3.50 per motorcycle for tolls by mail. E‑ZPass users with transponders issued by the New York E‑ZPass Customer Service Center pay $5.76 per car or $2.51 per motorcycle. All E-ZPass
E-ZPass
users with transponders not issued by the New York E-ZPass
E-ZPass
CSC will be required to pay Toll-by-mail rates.[31] Open-road cashless tolling began on June 15, 2017.[32] The tollbooths were dismantled, and drivers are no longer able to pay cash at the bridge. Instead, there are cameras mounted onto new overhead gantries near where the booths were formerly located.[33][34] Drivers without E-ZPass
E-ZPass
will have a picture of their license plate taken, and the toll will be mailed to them. For E-ZPass
E-ZPass
users, sensors will detect their transponders wirelessly.[33][34] Public transportation[edit] The Triborough Bridge
Bridge
carries the M35, M60 SBS, and X80 bus routes operated by MTA New York City
New York City
Transit, and nine express bus routes operated by the MTA Bus Company: BxM1, BxM2, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM11, and BxM18.[35] In the 1920s, New York's Transit Commission considered extending the BMT Astoria Line
BMT Astoria Line
along the same route the Triborough now follows. The proposal would have created a crosstown subway line along 125th Street.[36]

The East River
East River
suspension bridge

The Harlem River
Harlem River
lift bridge in 2007

Bronx Kill
Bronx Kill
crossing in 2008

Statistics[edit] East River
East River
suspension bridge (I-278)[edit]

Span crosses the East River
East River
at the Hell Gate
Hell Gate
between Queens
Queens
and Wards Island Connects to Grand Central Parkway
Grand Central Parkway
and Brooklyn– Queens
Queens
Expressway Length of main span: 1,380 feet (421 m) Length of each side span: 700 feet (213 m) Length, anchorage to anchorage: 2,780 feet (847 m)[3] Width of bridge: 98 feet (30 m) Number of traffic lanes: 8 lanes Height of towers above mean high water: 315 feet (96 m) Clearance at center above mean high water: 143 feet (44 m) Number of sidewalks: 1

Harlem River
Harlem River
lift bridge (NY 900G)[edit]

Span crosses the Harlem River
Harlem River
between Manhattan
Manhattan
and Randalls Island Connects to Harlem River
Harlem River
Drive, FDR Drive, and 125th Street Length of main lift-truss span: 310 feet (94 m) Length of each side truss span: 195 feet (59 m) Length, anchorage to anchorage: 700 feet (213 m)[3] Height of towers: 210 feet (64 m) Clearance of lift span above mean high water: 55 feet (17 m) Clearance of lift span in raised position: 135 feet (41 m) Number of traffic lanes: 6 lanes Number of sidewalks: 2 (1 on each side)

Bronx Kill
Bronx Kill
crossing (I-278)[edit]

Span crosses the Bronx Kill
Bronx Kill
between The Bronx
The Bronx
and Randalls Island Connects to Major Deegan Expressway
Major Deegan Expressway
and Bruckner Expressway Length of main truss span: 383 feet (117 m) Length of approach truss span: 1,217 feet (371 m)[3] Length, anchorage to anchorage: 1,600 feet (488 m) Clearance of truss span above mean high water: 55 feet (17 m) Number of traffic lanes: 8 lanes Number of sidewalks: 2 (1 on each side)

See also[edit]

Bridges portal New York portal New York City
New York City
portal List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in New York National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Queens
Queens
County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Bronx County, New York List of reference routes in New York

References[edit] Notes

^ a b " New York City
New York City
Bridge
Bridge
Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ a b c " Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved November 3, 2015. The Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge (formerly the Triborough Bridge), the authority's flagship facility, opened in 1936. It is actually three bridges, a viaduct, and 14 miles of approach roads connecting Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx.  ^ a b c d e f g See:

"Triboro Plaza Highlights : NYC Parks". New York City
New York City
Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  "Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Playground B Highlights : NYC Parks". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 3, 2015. 

^ a b c d e Caro (1974), pp.386–95 ^ a b c Shanor, Rebecca Read. " Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Memorial Bridge [Triborough Bridge]" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City
New York City
(2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2 , p.1110 ^ "Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Project". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Retrieved November 12, 2016.  ^ "Triboro Plaza". New York City
New York City
Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ a b c Caro (1974), pp.340–44 ^ a b c d Federal Writers' Project
Federal Writers' Project
(1939), New York City
New York City
Guide, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-403-02921-X  (Reprinted by Scholarly Press, 1976; often referred to as WPA Guide to New York City), pp.392–94 ^ Caro (1974), pp.426–40 ^ Caro (1974), p.345 ^ The bonds not only helped to finance the project, but also assured that the Authority would be self-perpetuating and immune from legislative oversight, as the Authority's contractual obligations to the bond-holders were paramount and could not, according to the Authority's legal theory, be altered by legislative action. They also assured that the Triborough would never be toll free. Caro (1974), pp.1119–22 ^ Staff. (July 12, 1936) "Great Link is Acclaimed; People Demanding Such Up-to-Date Projects, Roosevelt Says", The New York Times. Accessed November 3, 2015 ^ a b c Caro (1974), pp.440–43 ^ Roberts, Sam (July 11, 2006). "Reappraising a Landmark Bridge, and the Visionary Behind It". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ Purdy, Matthew (August 22, 1996). "Drivers Give Passing Grade To E-Z Pass In Major Test". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ Safire, William (July 13, 2008). "On Language: Dead End". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ Gershman, Jacob (January 8, 2008). "Enduring Wish May Come True in RFK Bridge". The New York Sun. Retrieved January 9, 2008.  ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(January 8, 2008). "Triborough Bridge
Bridge
may be renamed for Robert F. Kennedy". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 9, 2008.  ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
(November 21, 2008). "Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Renamed Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge" (Press release). Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ Chan, Sewell (November 19, 2008). "The Triborough Is Officially the R.F.K. Bridge". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ de Kretser, Leela (May 6, 2010). "U-Haul Abandoned on R.F.K.-Triborough Bridge". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d "MTA news Two Capital Improvement Projects At Flagship Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge
Bridge
Underway". www.mta.info. Retrieved December 28, 2016.  ^ "RFK Bridge
Bridge
Gets $1 B Capital Improvement, Project To Take 15 Years; GAHS 75th Anniversary Photo Exhibit". Queens
Queens
Gazette. July 6, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2016.  ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (February 13, 1994). "F.Y.I." The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ "Appendix E: History and Projection of Traffic, Toll Revenues and Expenses and Review of Physical Conditions of the Facilities of Triborough Bridge
Bridge
and Tunnel Authority", Stantec
Stantec
for the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
and Tunnel Authority, April 30, 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015. ^ MTA Bridges & Tunnels (October 1, 2003). "Rules and Regulations Governing the Use of the Triborough Bridge
Bridge
and Tunnel Authority Facilities" (PDF). Section 1022.1(e). Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "MTA Bike & Ride". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ " New York City
New York City
Bicycle Master Plan" (PDF). New York City
New York City
Department of City Planning. May 1997. p. 16. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ " New York City
New York City
Bicycle Master Plan" (PDF). New York City
New York City
Department of City Planning. May 1997. p. 57. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "2017 Toll Information". MTA Bridges & Tunnels. Retrieved March 16, 2017.  ^ "Cashless Tolls Arrive on RFK Triboro Bridge". Spectrum News NY1 New York City. June 15, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.  ^ a b Siff, Andrew (October 5, 2016). "Automatic Tolls to Replace Gates at 9 NYC Spans: Cuomo". NBC New York. Retrieved December 25, 2016.  ^ a b WABC (December 21, 2016). "MTA rolls out cashless toll schedule for bridges, tunnels". ABC7 New York. Retrieved December 25, 2016.  ^

" Queens
Queens
Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017.  " Manhattan
Manhattan
Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 

^ "New subways: proposed additions to rapid transit system to cost $218,000,000 ..." MOA website (University of Michigan)

Bibliography

Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-72024-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Triborough Bridge.

Official website Triborough Bridge
Bridge
historic overview at nycroads.com Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-301, "Triborough Bridge, Passing through Queens, Manhattan
Manhattan
& the Bronx, Queens, Queens
Queens
County, NY", 28 photos, 3 photo caption pages Triborough Bridge
Bridge
at Structurae Triborough Bridge
Bridge
Harlem River
Harlem River
Lift Span at Structurae

Links to related articles

v t e

Bridges and tunnels in New York City

Vehicular

Bridges

Alexander Hamilton Bayonne Broadway Brooklyn Bronx–Whitestone City Island Cross Bay Grand Street George Washington Goethals Greenpoint Avenue Henry Hudson High Joseph P. Addabbo Kosciuszko Macombs Dam Madison Avenue Manhattan Mill Basin Marine Parkway Outerbridge Park Avenue Viaduct Pelham Pulaski Queensboro (Ed Koch) Rikers Island Triborough (Robert F. Kennedy) Roosevelt Island Third Avenue Throgs Neck University Heights Verrazano-Narrows Washington Williamsburg Willis Avenue 145th Street

Tunnels

Battery Park Holland Brooklyn–Battery (Hugh L. Carey) Lincoln Queens–Midtown Park Avenue

Railroad and Subway

Bridges

Arthur Kill Broadway Hell Gate Manhattan Park Avenue Bridge Pelham Bay Spuyten Duyvil Williamsburg

Tunnels

14th Street 53rd Street 60th Street 63rd Street 149th Street Clark Street Concourse Cranberry Street Downtown Hudson Tubes East River Freedom Joralemon Street Lexington Avenue Montague Street North River Park Avenue Rutgers Street Steinway Uptown Hudson Tubes

Operators

Amtrak NYC Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) NYS Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) MTA Bridges and Tunnels MTA New York City
New York City
Subway Port Authority PATH Train

Crossings of the East River

Upstream Hell Gate
Hell Gate
Bridge Amtrak Triborough Bridge ( East River
East River
Suspension Span)

Downstream Roosevelt Island Bridge

Crossings of the Harlem River

Upstream Willis Avenue Bridge Triborough Bridge (Harlem Lift Bridge) Downstream Wards Island Bridge

v t e

Robert F. Kennedy

November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968

United States
United States
Senator from New York, 1965–1968 64th United States
United States
Attorney General, 1961–1964

Life

1948 Palestine visit Senate Committee investigation of Labor and Management Cuban Missile Crisis

ExComm

Civil rights

Freedom Riders Voter Education Project

Baldwin–Kennedy meeting 1964 Democratic National Convention Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation Mississippi Delta tour Kennedy Compound Hickory Hill home

Electoral

1964 U.S. Senate election 1968 presidential campaign

primaries Boiler Room Girls

Speeches

Law Day Address (1961) Day of Affirmation Address
Day of Affirmation Address
(1966) Conflict in Vietnam and at Home (1968) University of Kansas (1968) Ball State (1968) On the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. (1968) "On the Mindless Menace of Violence" (1968)

Books

The Enemy Within (1960) The Pursuit of Justice
The Pursuit of Justice
(1964) To Seek a Newer World (1967) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1969)

Assassination

Sirhan Sirhan Ambassador Hotel Conspiracy theories Gravesite

Legacy and memorials

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Department of Justice Building Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Center for Justice and Human Rights

Human Rights Award Journalism Award Book Award

Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Memorial Stadium Landmark for Peace Memorial Kennedy–King College Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Community Schools Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Bridge

Popular culture

Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment (1963 documentary) Robert Kennedy Remembered (1968 documentary) "Abraham, Martin and John" (1968 song) The Missiles of October
The Missiles of October
(1974 docudrama) Kennedy (1983 miniseries) Blood Feud (1983 film) Prince Jack
Prince Jack
(1985 film) Robert Kennedy and His Times
Robert Kennedy and His Times
(1985 miniseries) Hoover vs. The Kennedys (1987 miniseries) Thirteen Days (2000 film) RFK (2002 film) Bobby (2006 film) RFK Must Die (2007 documentary) The Kennedys (2011 miniseries) Ethel (2012 documentary) Jackie (2016 film)

Family, family tree

Ethel Skakel (wife) Kathleen Kennedy (daughter) Joseph P. Kennedy (son) Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Jr. (son) David Kennedy (son) Courtney Kennedy (daughter) Michael Kennedy (son) Kerry Kennedy
Kerry Kennedy
(daughter) Chris Kennedy (son) Max Kennedy
Max Kennedy
(son) Doug Kennedy (son) Rory Kennedy
Rory Kennedy
(daughter) Joseph P. Kennedy III (grandson) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(father) Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy
(mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
(brother) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(brother presidency) Rosemary Kennedy
Rosemary Kennedy
(sister) Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish (sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(sister) Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(sister) Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
(brother) Patrick J. Kennedy (grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald
(

.