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The RD-191
RD-191
is a high performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia. It is derived from the RD-170
RD-170
originally used in the Energia
Energia
launcher. The RD-191
RD-191
is fueled by a kerosene / LOX
LOX
mixture and uses an oxygen-rich staged combustion cycle.

Contents

1 Design 2 Development 3 Variants

3.1 RD-151 3.2 RD-181 3.3 RD-193

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Design[edit] Burn ignition is provided by a chemical method, by feeding into the combustion chamber special starting fuel which is self-igniting on contact with liquid oxygen. The engine is capable of throttling down to 30% of nominal thrust; the design also allows for a short-duration enhanced thrust (up to 105% of nominal level) in emergency situations. A Cardan suspension provides for yaw and pitch controls by gimballed thrust deflection up to 8 degrees. A modern design, the engine incorporates sensors monitoring burn conditions. The measurements are used for telemetry and an emergency protection system. The engine fulfills two additional functions, heating helium gas for pressurization of propellant tanks and generating hydraulic power for hydraulic actuators to deflect the nozzle and aerodynamic rudders. Development[edit] On September 5, 2008, the creator of the engine, NPO Energomash, reported that the engine has completed the full cycle of development and burn tests and is ready for manufacturing and delivery.[3] The primary launch vehicle utilizing this engine is the Angara rocket, currently being developed.[4] As of 2010, the engine had passed all development phases and its nine prototypes had accumulated over 23,000 seconds in 105 firing tests, with one of them reaching the maximum running time of 3,635 seconds in 12 tests. Currently, interdepartmental tests are under way and manufacturing of the engines for flight development tests has started. The flight tests will begin with a launch of the Angara-1.2 light-class rocket, and then of the Angara-A5 heavy launcher. Despite problems with funding, work on the RD-191
RD-191
engine is in line with the Angara rocket family's master schedule.[5] Variants[edit] RD-151[edit] A version of the RD-191
RD-191
with thrust reduced to 170 tonnes, called RD-151, was fire-tested on July 30, 2009. The first flight test of this engine was conducted on August 25, 2009 as part of the first launch of South Korean Naro-1
Naro-1
rocket.[6][7] RD-181[edit] The RD-181 is based on the RD-191
RD-191
and is adapted for integration on the Antares rocket. While the RD-193
RD-193
was designed as a close replacement for the NK-33, on December 17, 2014, Orbital Sciences announced that it would use the NPO Energomash
NPO Energomash
RD-181 on the version 2 Antares launch vehicle and had contracted directly with NPO Energomash for up to 20 RD-181 engines.[8] Two engines will be used on the first stage of each Antares, which is currently used to carry cargo to the International Space Station
International Space Station
under contract to NASA.[9] While Russian press had stated that the contract was valued at 1 Billion USD with options, on January 26, 2015, Orbital stated that even when exercising all the options the contract was less than that amount, and that the initial contractual commitment was significantly less than that. Orbital ATK on February 19, 2015, said that its revamped Antares rocket featuring a new main engine would make its first launch in March 2016. On May 29, 2015, Orbital stated that the new engines had successfully conducted seven certification firings and all went as expected. It also stated that the first two flight models were doing its final tests and would be delivered to Orbital in early July. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] The two RD-181s have 440 kilonewtons (100,000 lbf) more thrust than the paired AJ-26
AJ-26
engines used on the first generation Antares. Orbital plans to modify the core stage to accommodate the increased performance, and then to finish up its cargo contract commitment to NASA for delivering a total of 20,000 kg (44,000 lb) of cargo in only four additional flights, rather than the five more that would have been required with the AJ-26/Antares I combination. RD-193[edit] Main article: RD-193 In April 2013, it was announced that a further derivation, the RD-193, had completed testing. This version is lighter and shorter, designed for use on the light-launcher Soyuz-2.1v
Soyuz-2.1v
when the inventory of surplus NK-33
NK-33
engines is exhausted.[16] See also[edit]

Comparison of orbital rocket engines

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2011-12-26.  RD-191
RD-191
Rocket Engine ^ "Angara 1.2". Spaceflight101. Retrieved 2015-06-30.  ^ "A new engine is ready for Angara (in Russian)". 2008-09-05.  ^ "Successful Tests of Angara Stage 1 Engine". Khrunichev. 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on 2007-12-30.  ^ Chvanov, Vladimir (2010). "Russia's liquid rocket enginges are unrivalled". Military Parade (2): 40–41.  ^ "First launch of KSLV-1 is conducted". 2009-08-25.  ^ "S. Korea to launch first space rocket on Aug. 19". 2009-08-25.  ^ "ГОДОВОЙ ОТЧЕТ ОАО «НПО «Энергомаш» за 2014 год. page 20". «НПО «Энергомаш». 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-10-31.  ^ Morring, Frank, Jr. (16 December 2014). "Antares Upgrade Will Use RD-181s In Direct Buy From Energomash". Aviation Week. Retrieved 28 December 2014.  ^ Zak, Anatoly. "RD-181". russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Selding, Peter B. "Orbital Sciences Orders RD-181 Engines for Antares Rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Selding, Peter B. "Orbital Sciences: Russian Press Overstate RD-181 Contract Value". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Selding, Peter B. "Re-engined Antares To Carry Space Station Cargo in 2016 Debut". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Selding, Peter B. "Orbital ATK Sees Commercial Satellites as Top Growth Area". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2015-06-04.  ^ Афанасьев И. (2012). ""Энергомаш" в новом тысячелетии" (PDF). News of Cosmonautics. 8 (22).  ^ "New engine for light rocket "Soyuz" prepare for mass production at the end of the year" (in Russian). Новости космонавтики. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to RD-191.

"RD-191". Energomash. Archived from the original on 2014-07-05. 

v t e

Rocket engines and solid motors for orbital launch vehicles

Comparison of orbital rocket engines

Liquid fuel

Cryogenic (LH2 / LOX)

China

YF-73 YF-75 YF-75D YF-77

Europe

HM7B Vinci Vulcain

India

CE-7.5 CE-20

Japan

LE-5 LE-7 LE-9

Russia

KVD-1
KVD-1
(RD-56) RD-0120 RD-0146 RD-0150

USA

BE-3U J-2 RL10 RS-25 (SSME) RS-68

Cryogenic (CH4 / LOX)

Russia

RD-0164, 0169 RD-162, 167 169 RD-182 183 184 185 RD-0141 RD-0143

USA

BE-4 Raptor

Semi-cryogenic ( RP-1
RP-1
/ LOX)

China

YF-100 YF-115

India

SCE-200

New Zealand

Rutherford

Russia

NK-33
NK-33
NK-44 RD-58 RD-0105, 0109 RD-0107, 0108, 0110 RD-0110R RD-0124 RD-107, 108, 117, 118 RD-111 RD-120, 146 RD-170, 171 RD-180 RD-191, 151, 181 RD-193 S1.5400

Ukraine

RD-8 RD-801 RD-810

USA

F-1 H-1 Kestrel LR-79 LR-89 LR-105 Merlin 1 RS-27 RS-27A RS-56 S-3D XLR50

Semi-cryogenic Hypergolic ( LOX
LOX
/ UDMH )

Russia

RD-109 RD-112, 113 114 115 RD-119

France

S1 LRE

Hypergolic (UDMH, UH 25, Aerozine or MMH reacting with NTO N2O4 or MON)

China

YF-1, 2, 3 YF-20, 21, 22, 24, 25 YF-23 YF-40 YF-50D

Europe

Aestus Astris Vexin Viking

India

PS4 Vikas

Israel

LK-4

North Korea

Paektusan LRE along other LREs

Russia

17D61 RD-0202 to 0206, 0208 to 0213 RD-0207, 0214 RD-0216, 0217, 0235 RD-0233, 0234 RD-0236 RD-0237 RD-0243, 0244, 0245 RD-0255, 0256, 0257 RD-250, 251, 252, 261, 262 RD-253, 275 RD-263, 268, 273 RD-270 RD-854, 861 RD-855 RD-856 RD-864, 869 S5.92 S5.98M

Ukraine

RD-843

USA

AJ10 LR-87 LR-91 TR-201

Hypergolic (other oxidizers)

Europe

Gamma

Russia

RD-112, 113 RD-119 RD-211 to 214 RD-215, 216 RD-301

USA

XLR81

Solid fuel

China

FG-02 FG-36 FG-46 FG-47 SpaB-65 SpaB-140C

Europe

Mage 1 P-4 P-6 PAP P80 P120 P230 Topaze Waxwing Zefiro 9 Zefiro 23

India

S7 S9 S12 S139 S200

Israel

LK-1 RSA-3

Japan

KM-V1 KM-V2b M-14 M-24 M-34 M-34c SRB-A

USA

AJ-60A Algol Castor 30 GEM Orbus-6 Orbus-21 Orion Space Shuttle SRB Star 27 Star 37 Star 48 UA120 USRM X-248 X-254

Engines under development are in italics.

v t e

RD-170
RD-170
rocket engine family

Derivatives

RD-171 RD-180 RD-191 RD-151

Technologies

Bipropellant LOX RP-1 Staged combustion cycle

Historic rockets

Atlas III
Atlas III
(RD-180) Energia
Energia
(RD-170) Naro-1
Naro-1
(RD-151)

Current rockets

Atlas V
Atlas V
(RD-180) Zenit (RD-171) Angara (RD-191)

Rockets under development

Antares (200-series) (RD-181)

Cancelled proposals

GX (RD-180) Rus-M
Rus-M
(RD-180)

v t e

Russian and former Soviet military designation sequences for radar, missile and rocket systems

Radar systems

Land-based

A-100 P-3 P-8 P-10 P-12 P-14 P-15 P-18 P-19 P-20 P-30 P-35 P-37 P-40 P-70 P-80 P-100 Kabina 66 Kasta 2E RSN-225 Azov SNR-75 1S91 30N6 36D6 64N6 76N6 96L6E 9S15 9S19 9S32 Duga Dnestr Dnepr Daryal Dunay Volga Don-2N Voronezh Container

Ship-borne

Airborne

N001 N002 N005 N006 N007 N008 N010 N011 N012 N014 N019 N025 N035 N036

Missiles

ICBM

BZhRK GR-1 R-7 R-9 R-16 R-26 R-36 R-36M R-46 RS-24 RS-26 RT-2 RT-2PM RT-2PM2 RT-20 RT-21 RT-23 RS-28 UR-100 UR-100MR UR-100N UR-200

IRBM

R-14 RSD-10

MRBM

R-5 R-12 RT-15 RT-25

SRBM

2K1 2K6 9K52 9K720 R-1 R-2 R-11 R-11A R-17 OTR-21 OTR-23 TR-1

SLBM

R-13 R-15 R-21 R-27 R-29 R-39 RSM-45 RSM-56

Surface-to-surface (cruise)

Burya RSS-40

Surface-to-surface (naval)

P-1 P-5 P-15 P-70 P-120 P-270 P-500 P-700 P-750 P-800 P-900 P-900A P-1000 RKV-500A RPK-2 RPK-6 RPK-7 URPK-3 URPK-4 URPK-5

Surface-to-air

2K11 Krug/SA-4 "Ganef" 2K12 Kub/SA-6 "Gainful" 2K22 Tunguska/SA-19 "Grison"/SA-N-11 (tracked gun-missile system including SA-19) Kashtan CIWS
Kashtan CIWS
(naval gun-missile system including SA-19/SA-N-11) 9K33 Osa/SA-8 "Gecko"/SA-N-4 9K31 Strela-1/SA-9 "Gaskin" 9K32 Strela-2, a.k.a. SA-7 Grail 9K34 Strela-3/SA-14 "Gremlin"/SA-N-8 9K38 Igla/SA-16 "Gimlet"/SA-18 "Grouse"/SA-24 "Grinch"/SA-N-10/SA-N-14 9K333 Verba 9K35 Strela-10/SA-13 "Gopher" 9K37 Buk/SA-11 "Gadfly"/SA-17 "Grizzly"/SA-N-7/SA-N-12 Pantsir-S1/SA-22 "Greyhound" (wheeled or tracked gun-missile system including SA-22) 9K330 Tor/SA-15 "Gauntlet"/SA-N-9 42S6 Morfey S-25 Berkut/SA-1 "Guild" S-75 Dvina/SA-2 "Guideline"/SA-N-2 S-125 Neva/Pechora/SA-3 "Goa"/SA-N-1 S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna/SA-5 "Gammon" S-300/SA-10 "Grumble"/SA-12 "Gladiator/Giant"/SA-20 "Gargoyle"/SA-N-6 S-350 (50R6) Vityaz S-400 Triumf/SA-21 "Growler" S-500 55R6M "Triumfator-M." M-11 Shtorm/SA-N-3 "Goblet" Sosna-R

Air-to-surface

KSR-2 KSR-5 KS-1 K-10S KH-11 Kh-15 Kh-20 Kh-22 Kh-23 Kh-25 Kh-26 Kh-28 Kh-29 Kh-31 Kh-35 Kh-38 Kh-41 Kh-55 Kh-58 Kh-59 Kh-80 Kh-90 9M114V

Air-to-air

K-5 R-3 R-4 R-8 R-23 R-27 R-33 R-37 R-38 R-40 R-60 R-73 R-77 R-172

Anti-tank

3M6 9K111 9K112 9K114 9K115 9K115-2 9K121 9M14 9M15 9M17 9M113 9M117 9M119 9M120 9M123 9M133 Kornet-D Hermes

Unguided rockets

Air-launched

RP-1 RP-5 RP-6 RP-9 RP-15 RP-21 RS-82 RS-132

Rocket artillery

BM-14 BM-21 BM-24 BM-25 BM-27 BM-30 TOS-1

Engines

RD-8 RD-9 R-11 R-13 R-15 R-25 R-29 RD-33 RD-45 RD-58 RD-107 RD-117 RD-0120 RD-0124 RD-0146 RD-170 RD

.