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RCA
RCA
Records is an American record label owned by Sony
Sony
Music, a subsidiary of Sony
Sony
Corporation of America. It is one of Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment's three flagship record labels, alongside Columbia Records and Epic Records. The label has released multiple genres of music, including pop, rock, hip hop, electronic, R&B, blues, jazz, and country. The company's name is derived from the initials of the label's defunct parent company, the Radio Corporation of America[1] (RCA). It is the second oldest recording company in US history, after sister label Columbia Records. RCA's Canadian
Canadian
unit (formerly Berliner Gramophone Canada, then RCA
RCA
Victor Company Ltd. Canada), is Sony's oldest label in Canada. It was one of only two Canadian
Canadian
record companies to survive the Great Depression.[2] Artists currently signed to RCA
RCA
Records include Britney Spears, Shakira, Christina Aguilera, Miley Cyrus, Justin Timberlake, Alicia Keys, Usher, Charlie Wilson, R. Kelly, Enrique Iglesias, Foo Fighters, Kings of Leon, Kesha, Chris Brown, D'Angelo, Pentatonix, Brockhampton, Pink, Craig David, Buddy Guy, Walk the Moon, Pitbull, and Zayn.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 World War II
World War II
era 1.2 The post-war 1940s 1.3 The 1950s 1.4 The 1960s 1.5 The 1970s 1.6 The 1980s 1.7 The 1990s 1.8 The 2000s 1.9 The 2010s

2 Broadway and Hollywood 3 Criticism and controversies

3.1 Kelly Clarkson 3.2 Avril Lavigne 3.3 Kenny Rogers 3.4 Other notable events

4 Other RCA
RCA
labels 5 Previous labels 6 Executives 7 Artists and releases 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] For the company's history before 1929, see Victor Talking Machine Company.

Classic RCA
RCA
logo, first retired in 1968; revived in 1987 until 2015.

In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America
Radio Corporation of America
(RCA) purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company, then the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs (including the famous "Victrola") and phonograph records (in British English, "gramophone records"). The company then became RCA
RCA
Victor. In absorbing Victor, RCA
RCA
acquired the New World
New World
rights to the famous Nipper/"His Master's Voice" trademark. In 1931, RCA Victor's British affiliate the Gramophone Company
Gramophone Company
merged with the Columbia Graphophone Company
Columbia Graphophone Company
to form EMI. This gave RCA
RCA
head David Sarnoff a seat on the EMI
EMI
board.[4]

In September 1931, RCA
RCA
Victor introduced the first 33⅓ rpm records sold to the public, calling them "Program Transcriptions". These used a shallower and more closely spaced implementation of the large "standard groove" found on contemporary 78 rpm records, rather than the "microgroove" used for post- World War II
World War II
33⅓ rpm "LP" (long play) records. In the depths of the Great Depression, the format was a commercial failure, partly because the new playback equipment these records required was quite expensive. The format was abandoned by 1933 and two-speed turntables were no longer offered in RCA's consumer products, but some Program Transcriptions lingered in the record catalog until the end of the 1930s.[5] During the early part of the depression, RCA
RCA
Victor made a number of attempts to create a successful cheap label to compete with the "dime store labels" (Perfect, Oriole, Banner, Melotone, etc.). The first was the short-lived "Timely Tunes" label in 1931 sold at Montgomery Ward. In 1932, Bluebird Records
Bluebird Records
was created as a sub-label of RCA
RCA
Victor. It was originally an 8-inch record with a dark blue label, alongside an 8-inch Electradisk label (sold at Woolworth's). Neither were a success. In 1933, RCA
RCA
Victor reintroduced Bluebird and Electradisk as a standard 10-inch label (Bluebird's label was redesigned as it became known as the 'buff' label). Another cheap label, Sunrise, was produced (although nobody seems to know for whom it was produced, as Sunrise records are exceptionally rare today). The same musical couplings were issued on all three labels and Bluebird Records
Bluebird Records
still survives eight decades after Electradisk and Sunrise were discontinued. RCA
RCA
Victor also produced records for Montgomery Ward
Montgomery Ward
label during the 1930s. Besides manufacturing records for themselves, RCA
RCA
Victor operated RCA Custom which was the leading record manufacturer for independent record labels.[6] RCA
RCA
Custom also pressed record compilations for The Reader's Digest Association. RCA
RCA
sold its interest in EMI
EMI
in 1935, but EMI
EMI
continued to distribute RCA
RCA
Victor recordings in the UK and its territories on the HMV
HMV
label until the late 1950s. RCA
RCA
also manufactured and distributed HMV recordings on the RCA
RCA
Victor and special HMV
HMV
labels in North America.[7] World War II
World War II
era[edit]

RCA
RCA
Victor's traditional 78 RPM label design from the end of World War II until 1954.

An early, Canadian, 45 RPM RCA
RCA
Victor label

During World War II, ties between RCA
RCA
Victor and its Japanese affiliate JVC
JVC
were severed. JVC's record company is today called Victor Entertainment
Victor Entertainment
and still retains the Nipper/His Master's Voice trademark for use in Japan. From 1942 to 1944, RCA
RCA
Victor was seriously impacted by the American Federation of Musicians recording ban. Virtually all union musicians in the US and Canada
Canada
were forbidden from making recordings during the period. One of the few exceptions was the eventual release of recorded radio broadcast performances by the NBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Arturo Toscanini. However, RCA
RCA
Victor lost the Philadelphia Orchestra during this period; the orchestra's contract with RCA
RCA
Victor expired during the strike and when Columbia Records
Columbia Records
settled with the union before RCA, Eugene Ormandy
Eugene Ormandy
and the Philadelphians signed a new contract with Columbia and began recording in 1944. Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra
Philadelphia Orchestra
would not return to RCA
RCA
until 1968. The post-war 1940s[edit] In 1949, RCA
RCA
Victor introduced the 7-inch 45 rpm micro-grooved vinylite record, marketed simply as a "45". The new format, which had been under development for several years,[8] was RCA
RCA
Victor's belatedly unveiled alternative to the 12-inch and 10-inch 33⅓ rpm microgroove vinyl "LP" (Long Play) discs introduced by arch-rival Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in the early summer of 1948. In heavy promotion, RCA
RCA
sold compact, inexpensive add-on and stand-alone units that played the 45 rpm format exclusively. At first, RCA
RCA
Victor's 45s were issued on colored vinyl according to the musical genre: contemporary pop music on black vinyl (47-XXXX series), prestigious Broadway musicals and operettas on "midnight blue" vinyl (52-xxxx series), classical music on red vinyl (49-xxxx series), country and polka on green (48-xxxx series), children's fare on yellow (also in the 47-xxxx series), rhythm and blues on orange or cerise (50-xxxx series), and international on light blue (51-xxxx series). This array of colors complicated the production process and the practice was soon discontinued, all records became black. Yellow and red held on until about 1952. The first 45 rpm record manufactured was "PeeWee the Piccolo" RCA
RCA
Victor 47-0147 pressed December 7, 1948 at the Sherman Avenue plant Indianapolis, R.O. Price, plant manager.[9] The use of vinyl, which was much more expensive than the gritty shellac compound normally used for 78s, was actually cheaper because of the smaller diameter and greatly reduced bulk of the new records, which required very little raw material. The smaller, lightweight discs were also more economical to store and ship.[10] RCA
RCA
Victor marketed the 45 as a direct replacement for 10-inch and 12-inch 78 rpm records, which typically played for about three and four minutes per side respectively. The company also released some "extended play" (EP) 45s with playing times up to 7 minutes per side, primarily for some vocal collections and light classical selections, as typified by an Arthur Fiedler
Arthur Fiedler
and the Boston Pops Orchestra
Boston Pops Orchestra
disc featuring Tchaikovsky's Marche Slave and Ketèlbey's In a Persian Market. Boxed sets of four to six 45s were issued, each set providing about the same amount of music as one LP. (An extreme case of these boxed sets was the complete recording of the opera Carmen, conducted by Fritz Reiner, which consisted of sixteen 45 rpm discs.) In the case of operas, symphonies and other complete recordings of classical music, there was an interruption every four minutes as one record side ended and another was started up. These disruptive "side breaks", a nuisance long familiar to listeners of album sets of classical and operatic 78 rpm records, were minimized by an extremely fast automatic record-changing mechanism that was a core feature of RCA Victor's 45 players. Thanks in large degree to RCA
RCA
Victor's massive five million dollar advertising campaign, the 45 became the preferred speed for pop music singles, overtaking U.S. sales of the same material on 78s by 1954, but Columbia's LP prevailed as the format for classical music and convenient one-disc "album" collections of eight or more pop songs. RCA
RCA
Victor finally bowed to the inevitable and announced its intention to issue LP's in January, 1950.

Label of an RCA
RCA
Victor 45 rpm record from the 1950s; RCA
RCA
Victor used this label for its 45 rpm records from 1954 to at least 1964.

The 1950s[edit] Finally acknowledging that Columbia's LP format had become successful and fear of losing further market share, RCA
RCA
Victor began issuing LPs itself.[11][12] Among the first RCA
RCA
Victor LPs released in 1950 was a performance of Gaîté Parisienne by Jacques Offenbach, played by Arthur Fiedler
Arthur Fiedler
and the Boston
Boston
Pops Orchestra, which had actually been recorded in Boston's Symphony Hall on June 20, 1947; it was given the catalogue number LM-1001. Non-classical albums were issued with the prefix "LPM". When RCA
RCA
Victor later issued classical stereo albums (in 1958), they used the prefix "LSC". Non-classical stereo albums were issued with the prefix "LSP". RCA
RCA
utilized these catalog prefixes until 1973.

In the 1950s, RCA
RCA
Victor had three subsidiary or specialty labels: Groove, Vik and "X". Label "X" was founded in 1953 and renamed Vik in 1955. Groove was an R&B specialty label founded in 1954.[13] Through the 1940s and 1950s, RCA
RCA
Victor was in intense competition with Columbia Records. A number of recordings were made with the NBC Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Arturo Toscanini; sometimes RCA Victor utilized recordings of broadcast concerts (Toscanini had been recording for the label since the days of acoustic recordings, and RCA Victor had been recording the NBC Symphony since its creation in 1937). When the NBC Symphony was reorganized in the fall of 1954 as the Symphony of the Air, it continued to record for RCA
RCA
Victor, as well as other labels, usually conducted by Leopold Stokowski. RCA Victor also released a number of recordings with the RCA
RCA
Victor Symphony Orchestra, which was usually drawn from either Philadelphia or New York musicians, as well as members of the Symphony of the Air. By the late 1950s, RCA
RCA
Victor had fewer high prestige orchestras under contract than Columbia had: RCA
RCA
recorded the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra, and the Boston
Boston
Pops, whereas Columbia had the Cleveland Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra
New York Philharmonic Orchestra
under contracts. On October 6, 1953, RCA
RCA
Victor held experimental stereophonic sessions in New York City's Manhattan Center with Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
conducting a group of New York City
New York City
musicians in performances of George Enescu's Roumanian Rhapsody No. 1 and the waltz from Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin. There were additional stereo tests in December, again in the Manhattan Center, this time with Pierre Monteux
Pierre Monteux
conducting members of the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra. In February 1954, RCA
RCA
Victor made its first commercial stereophonic recordings, taping the Boston
Boston
Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Charles Münch, in a performance of The Damnation of Faust by Hector Berlioz. This began a practice of simultaneously recording orchestras with both stereophonic and monaural equipment. Other early stereo recordings were made by Toscanini (never officially issued) and Guido Cantelli
Guido Cantelli
respectively, with the NBC Symphony Orchestra; the Boston Pops Orchestra
Boston Pops Orchestra
under Arthur Fiedler; and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Chicago Symphony Orchestra
under Fritz Reiner. Initially, RCA
RCA
used RT-21 quarter-inch tape recorders (which ran at 30 inches per second), wired to mono mixers, with Neumann U-47 cardioid and M-49/50 omnidirectional microphones. Then they switched to an Ampex 300-3 one-half inch machine, running at 15 inches per second (which was later increased to 30 inches per second). These recordings were initially issued in 1955 on special stereophonic reel-to-reel tapes and then, beginning in 1958, on vinyl LPs with the "Living Stereo" logo. RCA
RCA
has continued to reissue many of these recordings on CD.[14] Another 1953 project for RCA
RCA
was converting the acoustically superior building Webster Hall
Webster Hall
into its main East Coast recording studio. RCA
RCA
operated this studio venue from 1953 to 1968. In September 1954, RCA
RCA
Victor introduced "Gruve-Gard" where the center and edge of a record are thicker than the playing area, reducing scuff marks during handling and when stacked on a turntable with an automatic record changer.[15] Most competitors quickly adopted the raised label and edges. In 1955, RCA
RCA
purchased the recording contract of Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
from Sun Records
Sun Records
for the then astronomical sum of $35,000. Presley would become RCA's biggest selling recording artist. His first gold record was "Heartbreak Hotel", recorded in January 1956. In 1957, RCA
RCA
Victor ended its 55-year association with EMI/ HMV
HMV
and signed a distribution deal with Decca Records, which resulted in EMI's acquisition of Capitol Records. Capitol then became the main distributor for EMI
EMI
recordings in North and South America, with RCA distributing its recordings through Decca in the United Kingdom on the RCA
RCA
label, using the RCA
RCA
lightning bolt logo instead of the Nipper/His Master's Voice trademark (now owned by HMV
HMV
in the UK as EMI transferred trademark ownership in 2003) in the UK.[16] RCA
RCA
set up its own British distribution in 1969.[17] Also in 1957, RCA
RCA
opened a state-of-the-art recording studio in Nashville, Tennessee, which recorded hit after hit for RCA
RCA
Victor and other labels for 20 years and is now open for tours as RCA
RCA
Studio B. Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
made most of his recordings in this studio. RCA
RCA
Victor issued several spoken word albums in the 1950s and 60s, notably the soundtracks of the films Richard III,[18] A Man for All Seasons and The Taming of the Shrew,[19] as well as complete versions of the National Theatre of Great Britain
National Theatre of Great Britain
stage productions of Othello (starring Laurence Olivier) and Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
(starring Maggie Smith, who also played Desdemona in the Olivier Othello). None of these albums have appeared on compact disc, but the films of Richard III, A Man For All Seasons, The Taming of the Shrew and the filmed version of Olivier's Othello
Othello
have all been issued on DVD. The 1960s[edit]

RCA
RCA
used this label for its American 45 rpm records during the Dynagroove era from 1965 to 1968.

In 1960, RCA
RCA
Victor announced the Compact 33 double and singles. In January 1961, these discs hit the market. The Compact 33 discs were released simultaneously with their 45 rpm counterparts. The long-term goal was to phase out the 45 rpm, but by early 1962 the campaign had failed.[20] In 1963, RCA
RCA
Victor introduced Dynagroove which added computer technology to the disc cutting process, ostensibly to improve sound reproduction. Whether it was actually an improvement or not is still debated among audiophiles. RCA
RCA
quietly discontinued Dynagroove around 1970. In September 1965, RCA
RCA
and Lear Jet Corp. teamed up to release the first stereo 8-track tape music Cartridges (Stereo 8) which were first used in the 1966 line of Ford
Ford
automobiles and were popular throughout the late 1960s and 1970s. (The initial release comprised 175 titles from RCA
RCA
Victor and RCA
RCA
Camden's catalog of artists.) In 1968, the RCA
RCA
Corporation modernized its image with a new futuristic-looking logo (the letters RCA
RCA
in block modernized form), replacing the old lightning bolt logo, and the virtual retirement of both the Victor and Nipper/ His Master's Voice
His Master's Voice
trademarks. The RCA Victor Division was now known as RCA
RCA
Records, the Victor trademark now used only on RCA's regular popular record releases, while the Nipper image was restricted to the album covers of Red Seal records. The color of the labels, which had always been black for its popular series (as opposed to its Red Seal line), switched to a bright orange or yellow (becoming tan briefly later in 1975-76). Beginning in late 1976, RCA
RCA
Records reinstated Nipper
Nipper
to most (Victor, Victrola, Red Seal, and Special
Special
Products releases) record labels (as well as returning to the traditional black label color for popular releases) in countries where RCA
RCA
held the rights to the Nipper/His Master's Voice trademark. RCA
RCA
also reinstated Nipper
Nipper
to magazine and newspaper advertisements, store displays and promotional items such as watches, T-shirts, coffee mugs and stuffed toys. In late 1969, RCA
RCA
Records introduced a very thin, lightweight vinyl LP known as Dynaflex. This type of pressing claimed to overcome warping and other problems in conventional thicker pressings, but it had a controversial reputation in the industry and was abandoned by the late 1970s.[21] The 1970s[edit]

An example of an RCA
RCA
Quadradisc
Quadradisc
album

In April 1970, RCA
RCA
announced the first quadraphonic 4-channel 8-track tape cartridges ("Quad-8", later called just Q8). RCA
RCA
Records began releasing quadraphonic vinyl recordings in the United States in February 1973, in the CD-4 format developed by Japan Victor Corporation (JVC), and made commercially practical by Quadracast Systems Inc. (QSI). RCA's trade name became "Quadradisc". The CD-4 format required a special cartridge that had a ±1 db frequency response out to 50 kHz, a CD-4 demodulator which decoded the difference between the front and rear channels from a 30 kHz subcarrier, four separate amplifier channels, and four separate speakers for the left and right front and left and right rear. Both the CD-4 Quadradisc
Quadradisc
and Quad-8 tape cartridge systems were true discrete 4-4-4 quadraphonic systems. Columbia introduced a quadraphonic matrix system, SQ, which required a decoder, 4-channel amplifier and the four speakers. The SQ system was referred to as a 4-2-4 matrix system. The Warner Music Group
Warner Music Group
labels also adopted the Quadradisc
Quadradisc
format, but RCA
RCA
and Columbia abandoned quadraphonic recording within a few years; some of the RCA
RCA
sessions were later remastered for Dolby encoding (same as Peter Scheiber's original matrix system) and released on CD. This included Charles Gerhardt's series of albums devoted to classic film scores by Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Alfred Newman, Dimitri Tiomkin, Max Steiner, Franz Waxman, and others, performed by the National Philharmonic Orchestra in London's Kingsway Hall. The 1980s[edit] In 1983, Arista Records
Arista Records
owner Bertelsmann
Bertelsmann
sold 50% of Arista to RCA. In 1985, Bertelsmann
Bertelsmann
and RCA
RCA
Records formed a joint venture called RCA/Ariola International.[22] The following year, RCA
RCA
Corporation was acquired by General Electric
General Electric
and it sold its 50% interest in RCA Records to its partner Bertelsmann. The company was renamed BMG Music for Bertelsmann
Bertelsmann
Music Group.[23] BMG brought back the RCA
RCA
"lightning bolt" logo that was last used in 1968 to make clear that RCA
RCA
Records was no longer co-owned with the other RCA
RCA
entities which GE sold or closed. BMG also revived the " RCA
RCA
Victor" label for musical genres outside of country, pop and rock music. In 1986, Bob Buziak, formerly an artist manager, was appointed president of the label. During the mid-1980s, RCA
RCA
operated at a deficit, due in part to "overpriced deals" with pop stars including Kenny Rogers
Kenny Rogers
(worldwide) and Diana Ross
Diana Ross
(domestically). In 1986, they bought back $25 million in unsold albums and lost $35 million during the fiscal year 1987. As a partial corrective, a decentralized style of management which allowed RCA
RCA
Records to function as a free-standing entrepreneurial business was implemented in 1988. Buziak cut the RCA
RCA
roster from forty acts to 11, and began to rebuild it with a focus on developing artists, including artists acquired through marketing and distribution agreements with Beggars Banquet
Beggars Banquet
and Jive Records, whose roster included Schooly D, Kool Moe Dee, and DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince. By the end of the fiscal year 1988, RCA
RCA
Records had gross revenue of $236 million in the United States, their most profitable year to date. Bruce Hornsby's The Way It Is sold more than 3 million albums, and the soundtrack for the film Dirty Dancing, which cost RCA
RCA
$200,000, sold 15.6 million copies in less than two years. Its follow-up, "More Dirty Dancing", composed of song tracks which had been left out of the first album, was produced for $80,000 and went on to sell more than 5.6 million. Successful RCA
RCA
acts during the 1980s included the Eurythmics, Love and Rockets, Rick Astley
Rick Astley
and Bucks Fizz.[24][25] The 1990s[edit] In August 1990 Buziak was replaced by Joe Galante, who had been the president of RCA
RCA
Records Nashville. The roster was cut once again and the A&R department was restructured. Along with the launch of BNA Records and the expansion of the urban music division, these initiatives would prove to be positive, but RCA
RCA
was unsuccessful under Galante, ranking 10th in market share in 1995.[26][27][28][29] Galante returned to head RCA
RCA
Nashville and was replaced in March 1995 by the president of RCA
RCA
Records Canada, Bob Jamieson.[30] Jamieson overhauled RCA, eliminating a layer of middle management and retooling the label's marketing department. The A&R department was again restructured and the artist roster cut. By the close of the decade, RCA
RCA
Records had undergone what Billboard described as a "remarkable turnaround" with the success of artists including Britney Spears, The Dave Matthews Band, Natalie Imbruglia, The Verve Pipe, Robyn, SWV, Christina Aguilera, NSYNC, and Foo Fighters. A distribution deal with Loud Records
Loud Records
yielded hit records from urban artists including Big Punisher, Wu-Tang Clan
Wu-Tang Clan
and Mobb Deep.[31] The 2000s[edit] In 2002, BMG fully acquired J Records, which it had founded in 2000 as a joint venture with Clive Davis. Davis was then named chairman of RCA Records and J Records
J Records
under the auspices of a new entity, the RCA Music Group, which included RCA
RCA
Records, J, and Arista Records.[32] In 2004, Sony
Sony
and BMG merged their music divisions to create Sony
Sony
BMG, and in 2007, the RCA
RCA
Music Group was rebranded as the BMG Label Group.[33] In 2006, Sony BMG
Sony BMG
merged its former Broadway music and classical labels, including Red Seal and Gold Seal, to Sony Masterworks. Legacy Recordings, Sony Music
Sony Music
Entertainment's catalog division, reissues classic albums for RCA. In April 2008, former Zomba Label Group
Zomba Label Group
president and CEO Barry Weiss was appointed chairman of the BMG Label Group, and Davis was named chief creative officer of Sony BMG
Sony BMG
worldwide. In October, Sony acquired BMG's 50% ownership and the BMG Label Group
BMG Label Group
was merged with the Jive Label Group
Jive Label Group
to establish the RCA/Jive Label Group. It included RCA, Jive, J, Arista, Polo Grounds, LaFace Records, Volcano Entertainment, Hitz Committee, Battery Records, and the Verity Gospel Music Group.[34][35][36] The decade marked a period during which RCA
RCA
Records had notable success in the pop genre, with Christina Aguilera, NSYNC, Kesha, Pink, Kelly Clarkson
Kelly Clarkson
and Pitbull scoring multiple #1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100 charts.[37] NSYNC's No Strings Attached broke sales records, selling more than a million singles in one day and 2.3 million albums in one week. It was the top selling album of the decade.[38] The 2010s[edit] In May 2011, Doug Morris
Doug Morris
was appointed chairman of Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment. Focused on A&R, Morris named J/ RCA
RCA
A&R president Peter Edge chairman and CEO of RCA
RCA
Music Group. Tom Corson was named president and COO.[39] In October of that year, the Jive, Arista and J imprints were folded into RCA, and RCA
RCA
Music Group was renamed RCA
RCA
Records, making it a standalone label under the Sony
Sony
Music umbrella. Multiple artists from the Jive, Arista and J imprints were shifted to RCA.[40][41][42][43] Between 2010 and 2018, RCA
RCA
released million and multi-million selling albums by artists including A$AP Rocky, Cage the Elephant, Chris Brown, Kelly Clarkson, Miley Cyrus, D'Angelo, Dave Matthews Band, Foo Fighters, G-Eazy, Jennifer Hudson, R. Kelly, Kesha, Khalid, Alicia Keys, Kings of Leon, Miguel, Pentatonix, P!nk, Pitbull, Shakira, Sia, Britney Spears, Bryson Tiller, Justin Timberlake, T-Pain
T-Pain
and Zayn. [44] John Fleckenstein and Joe Riccitelli were named co-presidents of RCA in January 2018, following Corson's departure.[45] Broadway and Hollywood[edit] RCA
RCA
has produced several notable Broadway cast albums, among them the original Broadway recordings of Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon, the Mary Martin Peter Pan, Damn Yankees, Hello, Dolly!, Oliver!, and Fiddler on the Roof. RCA
RCA
has also recorded and released recordings of revival stagings of musicals. These include the musical productions staged at Lincoln Center, such as the 1966 revivals of Show Boat
Show Boat
and Annie Get Your Gun, the 1987 revival of Anything Goes
Anything Goes
and the 1998 Broadway revivals of Cabaret and The Sound of Music. Call Me Madam
Call Me Madam
was recorded by RCA
RCA
Victor with all of its original cast except for its star Ethel Merman, who, due to contractual obligations, could not be released from her American Decca Records
Decca Records
contract. She was replaced on the RCA album by Dinah Shore. RCA
RCA
was also responsible for the film soundtrack albums of Damn Yankees, South Pacific, Bye Bye Birdie, Half a Sixpence, and The Sound of Music. The album made from the 1965 hit Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
film was (and is) one of the best selling soundtracks of all time. The film soundtrack of Oliver!, made by Colgems Records, was distributed by RCA, which had released the Broadway cast album. RCA also released the original American cast album of Hair. Similarly, RCA
RCA
Victor also made several studio cast recording albums, including a Lerner and Loewe series with Jan Peerce, Jane Powell, and Robert Merrill, as well as a 1963 album of excerpts from George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, with its 1952 revival leads, Leontyne Price and William Warfield, but a different supporting cast. They also issued two studio cast versions of Show Boat, one with Robert Merrill, Patrice Munsel, and Rise Stevens
Rise Stevens
in 1956, and the other with Howard Keel, Anne Jeffreys, and Gogi Grant
Gogi Grant
in 1958. Unfortunately, contrary to the way the show is written, both of these Show Boat
Show Boat
albums featured all-white casts, reflecting the era of racial segregation. In 2006, Sony BMG
Sony BMG
merged its Broadway music labels, including RCA Victor, to the new Masterworks Broadway Records. All of these recordings are now on Masterworks Broadway Records, which has remastered and reissued many of these albums. Criticism and controversies[edit] Kelly Clarkson[edit] In the summer of 2007, Kelly Clarkson
Kelly Clarkson
and Clive Davis, then head of Sony
Sony
BMG, feuded publicly regarding the direction of her album My December, the follow-up to Clarkson's multi-platinum album, Breakaway. Clarkson wrote the songs on My December, "showcasing her own songwriting on darker, edgier rock-oriented fare," and Davis insisted Clarkson work with hired hitmakers, as she had previously, on "polished, radio-friendly songs." Clarkson refused to change the album, and it was released in June 2007. It has since been certified platinum.[46][47][48] Avril Lavigne[edit] In November 2010, singer Avril Lavigne
Avril Lavigne
stated that the long delay of her fourth album, Goodbye Lullaby, was due to "a bunch of bureaucratic BS" related to RCA.[49] The album was ultimately released in March 2011. In October 2011, Lavigne confirmed that she had left RCA
RCA
and signed with sister label Epic Records.[50][51] Kenny Rogers[edit] After singer Kenny Rogers
Kenny Rogers
left the label, he accused RCA
RCA
of trying to ruin his career. Rogers signed to RCA
RCA
in 1982 for an advance sum of $20 million (the largest deal ever in country music at that time) when Bob Summer was head of the label.[52] Other notable events[edit]

Rachmininoff's studio masters were destroyed in the demolition of RCA's Camden warehouse.

In the early 1920s, Victor was slow about getting deeply involved in recording and marketing black jazz and vocal blues. By the mid to late 1920s, Victor had signed Jelly Roll Morton, Bennie Moten, Duke Ellington and other black bands and were becoming very competitive with Columbia and Brunswick, even starting their own V-38000 "Hot Dance" series that was marketed to all Victor dealers. They also had a V-38500 "race" series, a 23000 'hot dance' continuation of the V-38000 series, as well as a 23200 'Race' series with blues, gospel and some hard jazz. However, throughout the 1930s, Victor's involvement in jazz and blues slowed down and by the time of the musicians' strike and the end of the war, Victor was neglecting the R&B (race) scene, which is one of the reasons so many independent companies sprang up so successfully.[53] In the early 1960s, Victor decided to demolish their Camden warehouse.[54] This warehouse held four floors' worth of catalog and vault masters (most of them were pre-tape wax and metal discs), test pressings, lacquer discs, matrix ledgers, and rehearsal recordings. A few days before the demolition took place, some collectors from the US and Europe were allowed to go through the warehouse and salvage whatever they could carry with them for their personal collections. Soon after, collectors and RCA
RCA
Records officials watched from a nearby bridge as the warehouse was demolished, with many studio masters still intact in the building. The remnants were bulldozed into the Delaware River and a pier was built on top of them. In 1973, when the company decided to release all of Rachmaninoff's recordings on LPs (to celebrate the centennial of the composer's birth), RCA
RCA
was forced to go to record collectors for materials, as documented by Time. Other RCA
RCA
labels[edit]

RCA
RCA
Records (UK): A division of Sony Music
Sony Music
UK, since 2006, which acts as an import label of American and multinational Sony Music
Sony Music
artists, and also signs UK and Irish artists, including Paloma Faith, Everything Everything, Laura Mvula, and Kodaline. RCA
RCA
Red Seal Records: The RCA
RCA
Red Seal classical music label is now part of Sony
Sony
Masterworks. RCA
RCA
Records (France): A division of Sony Music
Sony Music
France. Founded as RCA Cinematre in 1978. Renamed to its current name in 2006. RCA
RCA
Records (Italy): A division of Sony Music
Sony Music
Italy. Founded as RCA Italiana in 1949. It was closed in 1987 and reactivated in 2006. RCA
RCA
Victor: The former name of RCA
RCA
Records that currently distributes electronic, rock and soundtrack albums, such as The Sound of Music soundtrack, Jose Feliciano's Feliz Navidad, the European release of The Fashion
The Fashion
by The Fashion, American releases of albums by Imogen Heap, a handful of albums by Elvis Presley, and other classic albums. RCA
RCA
Records (Australia): A division of Sony Music
Sony Music
Australia. Founded in 1963 for Australian artists. Renamed to RCA
RCA
Limited Australia and New Zealand in 1976 for Australian and New Zealand artists. Renamed to its current name in 2006. Bluebird Records: Launched by RCA
RCA
in 1932, Bluebird was originally a low priced label consisting mainly of Jazz, Blues and Country music.

The current Bluebird label offers mostly Jazz releases, as well as some reissues of historic Jazz, Swing and Pop titles originally released on the RCA
RCA
Victor label. Previous labels[edit]

RCA
RCA
Victor Label Group: The RCA
RCA
Victor Label Group consisted of the RCA
RCA
Victor, Windham Hill Records
Windham Hill Records
and Bluebird Records
Bluebird Records
labels. RCA-distributed labels: A&M Records,[55] Colpix Records, Colgems Records, Calendar/Kirshner, Chelsea Records, Grunt Records, Windstar Records, Midland International, Loud Records, Planet Records, Total Experience Records, Wooden Nickel Records, Millennium Records and Tortoise International Records
Tortoise International Records
(Detroit)[56] Black Seal Music: A short-lived imprint of RCA
RCA
Records that released indie rock music. Artists who recorded on Black Seal are Albert Hammond, Jr., Audrye Sessions, Cory Chisel and The Wandering Sons and The Union Line.

Executives[edit]

Peter Edge: Chairman and CEO John Fleckenstein: Co-president Joe Riccitelli, Co-president Mark Pitts: President of Urban Music

[57] Artists and releases[edit] Main articles: List of RCA
RCA
Records artists and Category: RCA
RCA
Records artists Main pages: Category: RCA
RCA
Records singles and Category: RCA
RCA
Records albums See also[edit]

RCA
RCA
Red Seal RCA
RCA
Victrola RCA
RCA
Camden RCA
RCA
Records Nashville RCA
RCA
Studio B Dynaflex (RCA) Dynagroove

Companies portal Music portal

References[edit]

^ " RCA
RCA
(Radio Corporation of America)". EHTW.org. Engingeering and Technology History Wiki. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Elvis Presley: The King of Rock 'n' Roll. epubli.  ^ " RCA
RCA
Records - Artists". rcarecords.com. Retrieved January 17, 2017.  ^ Sanjek, Russell (July 28, 1998). American Popular Music and Its Business : The First Four Hundred Years ... London: Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780195043112. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Edward, David; et al. " RCA
RCA
Program Transcription Album Discography (1931-33)". bsnpubs.com. Both Sides Now. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ "Quality Go Together at RCA
RCA
Records". via Google. Billboard (archived ad). October 6, 1958. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Penndorf, Ron. " RCA
RCA
Victor Red Seal Labelography (19501976)". RECOLLECTIONS: Fine Vintage LPs and Journal of Recorded Music. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Carson, B.H. et al. (1949) "A Record Changer and Record of Complementary Design", RCA
RCA
Review, June 1949, as reprinted by the Audio Engineering Society (retrieved January 5, 2013) ^ Indiana State Museum document no. 71.2010.098.0001 ^ Dawson, Jim and, Propes, Steve (October 1, 2003). 45 Rpm: The History, Heroes and Villains of a Pop Music Revolution. Backbeat Books. p. 37. ISBN 0879307579. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Wallerstein, Edward. "LPs historic". Musicinthemail.com. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ "Diskery Goes 33 in March To Service Entire Market; 45 Promotion in High Gear". Billboard. January 7, 1950. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Marion, JC (2005). "Label "X"". Jamm Upp. 2 (36).  ^ The History of Living Stereo, RCA
RCA
Victor liner notes ^ Hough, Clint. "Bringing on back the good times". Sixties City. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ "Trade Mark Details as at 13 November 2012: Case details for Trade Mark 325592". United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office. September 7, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2012.  ^ "British RCA
RCA
to Cut Decca Ltd. Tie In U.K., Eire & Form Own Set-Up". Billboard. November 4, 1967. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ "Richard III (1955) - Soundtrack details". SoundtrackCollector.com. May 13, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ "Taming Of The Shrew, The  – Various Artists : Read reviews and compare prices at Ciao.co.uk". Cd.ciao.co.uk. July 26, 1999. Retrieved June 8, 2012.  ^ "The Rise and Fall of the Compact 33 Record". Megocollector.com. December 18, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Belam, Martin. "Dynaflex - RCA's 1970s ultra-thin vinyl". www.currybet.net. Martin Belam. Retrieved September 9, 2016.  ^ RCA: Now Elvis rocked for Bertelsmann, too (PDF), Bertelsmann Worldwide Media, archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2013  ^ Hennessey, Mike (September 20, 1986). " RCA
RCA
Deal Gives Bertelsmann Multinational Label Ranking". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 98 (3B). Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Knoedelselder, Jr., William (September 18, 1998). "Rap On Rca Records : The Original U.s. Record Company Is Back In Groove". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 14, 2015.  ^ Dannen, Frederic (July 2, 1991). Hit Men: Power Brokers and Fast Money Inside the Music Business. New York: Random House. p. 260. ISBN 9780679730613. Retrieved August 14, 2015.  ^ New York Times staff (August 9, 1990). "New Chief at RCA
RCA
Records". New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ Newman, Melinda (November 28, 1992). "Novik Knows the Score in RCA's New Talent Drive". Billboard. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ Jeffrey, Don (April 8, 1995). "Jamieson Named RCA
RCA
President After 7 Month Search". Billboard. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ Haring, Bruce (May 13, 1993). " RCA
RCA
prexy gives Nipper
Nipper
something to bark about". Variety. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ Phillips, Chuck (March 28, 1995). "Company Town : BMG Names Insider to Head RCA
RCA
Records". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Baumgartner, Bradley (May 23, 1998). "Retooled RCA
RCA
Is Once Again A Hitmaker". Billboard. Retrieved August 16, 2015.  ^ Holloway, Lynette (November 20, 2002). "BMG Buys J Records
J Records
and Shuffles Executives". New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2015.  ^ Garrity, Brian (December 25, 2004). "Music Biz Gets a Makeover". Billboard. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ Grover, Ron (August 6, 2008). " Sony
Sony
Buys the Rest of Ailing Sony BMG". Businessweek. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ "Deal with RCA/JIVE Brings Music Stars to BAT's Endorsement Platform". The Business Journals (Via PR Newswire). The Business Journals (Via PR Newswire). October 12, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2015. RCA/JIVE Label Group is comprised of RCA
RCA
Music Group (J Records, Arista Records, RCA
RCA
Records, Polo Grounds, and Battery Records) and JIVE Label Group (Jive Records, LaFace Records, Volcano Entertainment, Battery Records and Verity Gospel Music Group).  ^ Mumbai Moody, Nekesa (April 18, 2008). " Clive Davis
Clive Davis
replaced by Barry Weiss as BMG head". USA Today. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ "The Hot 100 - 2000s Archive". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Gracie, Bianca (March 20, 2015). "*NSYNC's 'No Strings Attached' Turns 15: Backtracking". Idolator. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Szalai, Doug (August 8, 2011). " Peter Edge Named CEO of Sony's RCA Music Group". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Halperin, Shirley (October 7, 2011). " RCA
RCA
Execs Confirm Jive and Arista Labels Shut Down". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 24, 2015.  ^ Lewis, Randy (October 7, 2011). " RCA
RCA
is Slimming Down for the Holidays". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 24, 2015.  ^ Halperin, Shirley (October 7, 2011). "RCA's Peter Edge, Tom Corson on the Shuttering of Jive, J and Arista". Billboard.biz. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Billboard staff (August 8, 2011). " Peter Edge Appointed CEO of RCA Music Group". Billboard.biz. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ "Gold & Platinum - RIAA". RIAA. Retrieved 2018-02-12.  ^ Staff, Variety (2018-01-19). "John Fleckenstein and Joe Riccitelli Upped to Co-Presidents at RCA
RCA
Records". Variety. Retrieved 2018-02-12.  ^ Newman, Melinda (April 3, 2015). "Now Free From Her Idol Contract, What's Kelly Clarkson
Kelly Clarkson
Worth?". Billboard. Retrieved August 8, 2015.  ^ Benjamin, Jeff (March 3, 2015). "9 Times Kelly Clarkson
Kelly Clarkson
Kept it Real". Fuse. Retrieved August 8, 2015.  ^ Du Lac, J. Freedom (June 26, 2007). "My December': Kelly Clarkson, Striking Out On Her Own". Washington Post. Retrieved August 22, 2015.  ^ "The Official Avril Lavigne
Avril Lavigne
Site". Avril Lavigne. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ "Audio Player". 92.5 THE BEAT Montreal's Best Music Variety Radio Station. Archived from the original (MP3 (audio)) on May 21, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Halperin, Shirley (November 17, 2011). " Avril Lavigne
Avril Lavigne
Shifts to Epic Records, Reunites With L.A. Reid". Billboard.biz. Retrieved January 8, 2012.  ^ Holden, Steven (July 28, 1982). "The Pop Life: Gambling on Kenny Rogers". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ " RCA
RCA
Victor". elvispresleymuseum. Retrieved May 2, 2017.  ^ "Label: RCA
RCA
Victor". RateyourMusic.com.  ^ Passman, Donald. "Pressing & Distribution Deals". taxi.com. Taxi: The World's Leading Independent A&R Company. Retrieved December 20, 2015.  ^ "Tortoise International Records". Discogs.com. Retrieved December 29, 2011.  ^ Staff, Variety (2018-01-19). "John Fleckenstein and Joe Riccitelli Upped to Co-Presidents at RCA
RCA
Records". Variety. Retrieved 2018-02-05. 

Further reading[edit]

Bryan, Martin F. Report to the Phonothèque Québécoise on the Search for Archival Documents of Berliner Gram-O-Phone Co., Victor Talking Machine Co., R.C.A. Victor Co. (Montréal), 1899–1972. Further augmented ed. Montréal: Phonothèque Québécoise, 1994. 19, [1] p.

External links[edit]

Official RCA
RCA
Records website Official RCA
RCA
Label Group UK website Callahan, Mike (February 13, 2018). " RCA
RCA
Victor Album Discography".  William J. Ganz (1942). Internet Archive: Command Performance (1942) - How RCA
RCA
records are made, narrated by Milton Cross.  RCA
RCA
Victor on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project

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Sony

Founders

Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita

Key personnel

Kaz Hirai
Kaz Hirai
(Chairman) Kenichiro Yoshida (President and CEO)

Primary businesses

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Sony
Corporation Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment

PlayStation

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Sony
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Sony
Sony
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Financial Holdings

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Bank

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Sony
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Historical products

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Networks (57%)

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Sony
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Former subsidiaries

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PlayStation

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Consoles

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2

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3

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and Lions Gate Entertainment)

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Online distribution platforms

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Other

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