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Ramaswamy Venkataraman ( pronunciation (help·info), 4 December 1910 – 27 January 2009)[1][2] was an Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and politician who served as a Union minister and as the eighth President of India.[3] Venkataraman was born in Rajamadam
Rajamadam
village in Tanjore district, Madras Presidency. He studied law and practised in the Madras High Court
Madras High Court
and the Supreme Court of India. In his young age, he was an activist of the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
and participated in the Quit India Movement. He was appointed member of the Constituent Assembly and the provisional cabinet. He was elected to Lok Sabha four times and served as Union Finance Minister and Defence Minister. In 1984, he was elected the seventh Vice President of India
President of India
and in 1987, he became the 8th President of India
President of India
and served from 1987 to 1992. He also served as a State minister under K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
and M. Bhaktavatsalam.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Political career

2.1 As Minister of Industries

3 Honours and accolades 4 Illness and death 5 Books by Venkataraman 6 Books on R. Venkataraman 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Venkataraman was born in Rajamadam
Rajamadam
village near in Pattukottai, near Tanjore district
Tanjore district
in Tamil Nadu. He had his school education in Govt Boys Higher Secondary School, Pattukottai
Pattukottai
& Undergraduation in National College, Tiruchirappalli. Educated locally and in the city of Madras
Madras
(now Chennai), Venkataraman obtained his master's degree in Economics from Loyola College, Madras. He later qualified in Law from the Law College, Madras. Venkataraman was enrolled in the Madras High Court
Madras High Court
in 1935 and in the Supreme Court in 1951.[4] While practising law, Venkataraman was drawn into the movement for India's freedom from Britain's colonial subjugation. His active participation in the Indian National Congress's celebrated resistance to the British Government, the Quit India
India
Movement of 1942, resulted in his detention for two years under the Defence of India
India
Rules. Venkataraman's interest in the law continued during this period. In 1946, when the transfer of power from British to Indian hands was imminent, the Government of India
India
included him in the panel of lawyers sent to Malaya and Singapore to defend Indian nationals charged with offences of collaboration during the Japanese occupation of those two places. In the years 1947 to 1950, Venkataraman served as Secretary of the Madras
Madras
Provincial Bar Federation. Political career[edit] Law and trade activity led to Venkataraman's increasing association with politics. He was a member of constituent assembly that drafted India's constitution. In 1950 he was elected to free India's Provisional Parliament (1950–1952) and to the First Parliament (1952–1957). During his term of legislative activity, Venkataraman attended the 1952 Session of the Metal Trades Committee of International Labour Organisation as a workers' delegate. He was a member of the Indian Parliamentary Delegation to the Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference in New Zealand. Venkataraman was also Secretary to the Congress Parliamentary Party in 1953–1954. Although re-elected to Parliament in 1957, Venkataraman resigned his seat in the Lok Sabha to join the State Government of Madras
Madras
as a Minister. There Shri Venkataraman held the portfolios of Industries, Labour, Cooperation, Power, Transport and Commercial Taxes from 1957 to 1967. During this time, he was also Leader of the Upper House, namely, the Madras
Madras
Legislative Council. As Minister of Industries[edit] Venkataraman was appointed a Member of the Union Planning Commission in 1967 and was entrusted the subjects of Industry, Labour, power, Transport, Communications, Railways. He held that office until 1971. In 1977, Venkataraman was elected to the Lok Sabha from Madras
Madras
(South) Constituency and served as an Opposition Member of Parliament and Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee. Venkataraman was also, variously, a member of the Political Affairs Committee and the Economic Affairs Committee of the Union Cabinet; Governor, International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Asian Development Bank. Venkataraman was a Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961. He was Leader of the Indian Delegation to the 42nd Session of the International Labour Conference at Geneva (1958) and represented India
India
in the Inter Parliamentary Conference in Vienna (1978). He was a member of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal from 1955 to 1979 and was its President from 1968 to 1979. In 1980, Venkataraman was re-elected to the Lok Sabha and was appointed Union Minister of Finance in the Government headed by Smt. Indira Gandhi. He was later appointed Union Minister of Defence, here he is credited for initiating India's missile programme, he shifted A P J Abdul Kalam from space programme to the missile programme, and consolidated the entire missile system, naming it as Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.[5] Later he was to serve as Vice- President of India
President of India
and then as a President of India
President of India
starting 1987, where he worked with four prime ministers, and appointed three of them: V P Singh, Chandra Shekhar
Chandra Shekhar
and P V Narasimha Rao, during his five-year term, which saw the advent of coalition politics in India. His successor S D Sharma was the only other Indian President in 20th Century to work with four prime ministers and appoint three of them.[6][7]

As President of India
President of India
Venkataraman led 11 state visits including to USSR, Pakistan, Japan and China.[8]

Honours and accolades[edit] Venkataraman received the Doctorate of Law (Honoris Causa) from University of Madras, the Doctorate of Law (Honoris Causa) from Nagarjuna University. He is Honorary Fellow, Madras
Madras
Medical College; Doctor of Social Sciences, University of Roorkee; Doctor of Law (Honoris Causa) from University of Burdwan. He was awarded The Tamra Patra for participation in the freedom struggle, the Soviet Land Prize for his travelogue on K. Kamaraj's visit to the Socialist countries. He was the recipient of a Souvenir from the Secretary-General of the United Nations for distinguished service as President of the U.N. Administrative Tribunal. The title of "Sat Seva Ratna" was conferred on him by His Holiness the Sankaracharya of Kancheepuram.He was a devotee of the Paramacharya
Paramacharya
of Kanchi. Illness and death[edit] On 12 January 2009, Venkataraman was admitted to the Army Hospital (Research and Referral ) with complaints of Urosepsis (a toxic condition caused by the extravasation of urine into bodily tissues).[9] His condition grew critical on 20 January, when he was detected with low blood pressure and E. coli
E. coli
tract infection. Venkataraman died at the Army Hospital (was Research and Referral) New Delhi on 27 January 2009 at 14:30 IST[9] due to multiple organ failure at the age of 98.[10] He died on the day after Republic Day(India) and some programmes coinciding it were cancelled to mark the respect towards the late former President. He was cremated with full state honours at Ekta Sthal near Raj Ghat. Books by Venkataraman[edit]

Role of Planning in Industrial Development, by Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Govt. of India
India
Press, 1969. The Role of a Private Member of Parliament, by Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Harold Laski Institute of Political Science, 1986. My Presidential Years – R Venkataraman, by R Venkataraman. 1995. HarperCollins/Indus. ISBN 81-7223-202-0. R. Venkataraman
R. Venkataraman
on Contemporary Issues, by Ramaswami Venkataraman, K. Venkatasubramanian. Published by Variant Communications, 1996. Relevance of Gandhi: And Other Essays, by K Swaminathan, Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Gandhigram Trust, 1998.

Books on R. Venkataraman[edit]

President R. Venkataraman, by Nand Gopal Chaudhry. Published by Manas Publications, 1987. ISBN 81-7049-018-9. The Great Humanist Ramaswami Venkataraman, by Attar Chand. Published by Gian Pub. House, 1987. ISBN 81-212-0106-3. So May India
India
be Great: Selected Speeches and Writings of President R. Venkataraman, by Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 1990. Selected Speeches, 1984–87, 10 September 1984 – 14 May 1987: 10 September 1984 – 14 May 1987, by Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 1991. President R. Venkataraman
R. Venkataraman
Selected Speeches: July 1987 – December 1989., by Ramaswami Venkataraman. Published by Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 1991.

Notes[edit]

^ Profile of Ramaswamy Venkataraman ^ [1] Archived 5 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Shri Ramaswami Venkataraman – R.Venkataraman – Past President of India". Pastpresidentsofindia.indiapress.org. Retrieved 13 September 2012.  ^ Venkataraman presided over the change to era of coalitions The Hindu, 28 January 2009. ^ Venkataraman responsible for shaping missile programme: Kalam The Hindu, 27 January 2009. ^ Former President Venkataraman passes away The Times
The Times
of India, 28 January 2009. ^ Former President R Venkataraman passes away Indian Express, 27 January 2009. ^ "DETAILS OF MEDIA PERSONS ACCOMPANYING THE PRESIDENT IN HIS/HER VISITS ABROAD SINCE 1947 TO 2012" (PDF). The President's Secretariat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.  ^ a b "Former President R Venkataraman dies". NDTV. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009.  ^ "Former President Venkataraman dead". Sindh Today. 27 January 2009. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. 

References[edit]

"Ramaswamy Venkataraman:Eighth President of India". The Times. 30 January 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ramaswamy Venkataraman.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: R. Venkataraman

Late R.Venkatraman's Journey maintained by RV Foundation, a Trust founded by him and administered by the family.

Political offices

Preceded by Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Minister of Finance 1980–1982 Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee

Preceded by Indira Gandhi Minister of Defence 1982–1984 Succeeded by Shankarrao Chavan

Preceded by Zail Singh Minister of Home Affairs 1982 Succeeded by Prakash Chandra Sethi

Preceded by Mohammad Hidayatullah Vice-President of India 1984–1987 Succeeded by Shankar Dayal Sharma

Preceded by Zail Singh President of India 1987–1992

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(acting) Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Zail Singh R. Venkataraman Shankar Dayal Sharma K. R. Narayanan A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Pratibha Patil Pranab Mukherjee Ram Nath Kovind

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 52495725 LCCN: n85103402 ISNI: 0000 0001 1439 7705 GND: 119287404 BNF:

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