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Réunion (French: La Réunion, pronounced [la.ʁe.y.njɔ̃] ( listen); previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 kilometres (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2018[update], it had a population of 865,826.[1] It is the most prosperous island in the Indian Ocean, having the highest GDP per capita in the region. The island has been inhabited since the 17th century when people from France and Madagascar settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848 (a date celebrated yearly on the island), after which indentured workers were brought from Tamil Nadu, Southern India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946. As elsewhere in France, the official language is French. In addition, the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole. Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other four overseas departments, it is also one of the 18 regions of France, with the modified status of overseas region, and an integral part of the Republic with the same status as Metropolitan France. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, part of the Eurozone.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Politics 3 Administrative divisions

3.1 Municipalities (communes)

4 Foreign relations 5 Geography

5.1 Climate 5.2 Beaches

6 Environment

6.1 Wildlife 6.2 Gardening - Bourbon roses

7 Demographics

7.1 Historical demographics 7.2 Religion

8 Culture

8.1 Language 8.2 Music 8.3 Sport

9 Media

9.1 Broadcasting 9.2 Newspapers 9.3 Film 9.4 Blogs

10 Economy 11 Public services

11.1 Health 11.2 Transport

12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

History[edit]

1816 ten cent coin, Isle de Bourbon

Not much is known of Réunion's history prior to the arrival of the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century.[4] Arab traders were familiar with it by the name Dina Morgabin.[5] The island is possibly featured on a map from 1153 AD by Al Sharif el-Edrisi.[citation needed] The island might also have been visited by Swahili or Austronesian (Ancient Indonesian-Malaysian) sailors on their journey to the west from the Malay Archipelago to Madagascar.[4] The first European discovery of the area was made around 1507 by Portuguese explorer Diogo Fernandes Pereira, but the specifics are unclear. The uninhabited island might have been first sighted by the expedition led by Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, who gave his name to the island group around Réunion, the Mascarenes.[6] Réunion itself was dubbed Santa Apolónia after a favourite saint,[5] which suggests that the date of the Portuguese discovery could have been 9 February, her saint day. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira is said to have landed on the islands of Réunion and Rodrigues in 1509.[citation needed] Over a century later, nominal Portuguese rule had left Santa Apolónia virtually untouched.[6] The island was then occupied by France and administered from Port Louis, Mauritius. Although the first French claims date from 1638, when François Cauche and Salomon Goubert visited in June 1638,[7] the island was officially claimed by Jacques Pronis of France in 1642, when he deported a dozen French mutineers to the island from Madagascar. The convicts were returned to France several years later, and in 1649, the island was named Île Bourbon after the French Royal House of Bourbon. Colonization started in 1665, when the French East India Company sent the first settlers.[6]

Statue of Mahé de La Bourdonnais in Saint-Denis

"Île de la Réunion" was the name given to the island in 1793 by a decree of the Convention nationale (elected revolutionary constituent assembly) with the fall of the House of Bourbon in France, and the name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the National Guard in Paris, which took place on 10 August 1792. In 1801, the island was renamed "Île Bonaparte", after First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. The island was invaded by a Royal Navy squadron led by Commodore Josias Rowley in 1810, who used the old name of "Bourbon". When it was restored to France by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the island retained the name of "Bourbon" until the fall of the restored Bourbons during the French Revolution of 1848, when the island was once again given the name "Île de la Réunion".[6] From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, French colonisation, supplemented by importing Africans, Chinese and Indians as workers, contributed to ethnic diversity in the population. From 1690, most of the non-Europeans were enslaved. The colony abolished slavery on 20 December 1848. Afterward, many of the foreign workers came as indentured workers. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.[citation needed]

Hindu festival, nineteenth century

During the Second World War, Réunion was under the authority of the Vichy Regime until 30 November 1942, when Free French forces took over the island with the destroyer Léopard.[citation needed] Réunion became a département d'outre-mer (overseas départment) of France on 19 March 1946. INSEE assigned to Reunion the department code 974, and the region code 04 when regional councils were created in 1982 in France, including in existing overseas departments which also became overseas regions. Over about two decades in the late twentieth century (1963–1982), 1,630 children from Réunion were relocated to rural areas of metropolitan France, particularly to Creuse, ostensibly for education and work opportunities. That programme was led by influential Gaullist politician Michel Debré, who was an MP for Réunion at the time. Many of these children were abused or disadvantaged by the families with whom they were placed. Known as Children of Creuse, they and their fate came to light in 2002 when one of them, Jean-Jacques Martial, filed suit against the French state for kidnapping and deportation of a minor.[8] Other similar lawsuits were filed over the following years, but all were dismissed by French courts and finally by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011.[9] In 2005 and 2006, Réunion was hit by a crippling epidemic of chikungunya, a disease spread by mosquitoes. According to the BBC News, 255,000 people on Réunion had contracted the disease as of 26 April 2006.[10] The neighbouring islands of Mauritius and Madagascar also suffered epidemics of this disease during the same year.[11][12] A few cases also appeared in mainland France, carried by people travelling by airline. The French government of Dominique de Villepin sent an emergency aid package worth 36 million Euro and deployed approximately five hundred troops in an effort to eradicate mosquitoes on the island.[citation needed] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Réunion

Map of the European Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

Réunion sends seven deputies to the French National Assembly and three senators to the Senate. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Arrondissements of the Réunion department, Cantons of the Réunion department, and Communes of the Réunion department Administratively, Réunion is divided into 24 communes (municipalities) grouped into four arrondissements. It is also subdivided into 49 cantons, meaningful only for electoral purposes at the departmental or regional level.[13] It is a French overseas department and hence a French overseas region. The low number of communes, compared with French metropolitan departments of similar size and population, is unique: most of its communes encompass several localities, sometimes separated by significant distances. Municipalities (communes)[edit]

Les Avirons Bras-Panon Cilaos Entre-Deux L'Étang-Salé La Plaine-des-Palmistes Petite-Île La Possession Le Port Saint-André Saint-Benoît Saint-Denis Saint-Joseph Saint-Leu Saint-Louis Sainte-Marie Saint-Paul Saint-Philippe Saint-Pierre Sainte-Suzanne Sainte-Rose Salazie Trois-Bassins Le Tampon

The communes voluntarily grouped themselves into five intercommunalities for cooperating in some domains, apart from the four arrondissements to which they belong for purposes of applying national laws and executive regulation. After some changes in the composition, name and status of intercommunalities, all of them operate with the status of agglomeration communities, and apply their own local taxation (in addition to national, regional, departmental and municipal taxes) and have an autonomous budget decided by the assembly representing all member communes. This budget is also partly funded by the state, the region, the department, and by the European Union for some development and investment programs. Every commune in Réunion is now a member of an intercommunality with its own taxation, to which member communes have delegated their authority in various areas. Foreign relations[edit] Although diplomacy, military and French government matters are handled by Paris, Réunion is a member of La Francophonie, the Indian Ocean Commission, the International Trade Union Confederation, the Universal Postal Union, the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa, and the World Federation of Trade Unions in its own right. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Réunion

INDIAN OCEAN

Piton des Neiges 3 071 m

Piton de la Fournaise 2 632 m

Rivière des Pluies

Rivière du Mât

Rivière des Galets

Rivière des Marsouins

Rivière de l'Est

Rivière des Remparts

Rivière Saint-Étienne

Saint-Denis

Sainte- Suzanne

Sainte- Marie

Saint-Benoît

Saint-André

Bras-Panon

Salazie

La Plaine-des-Palmistes

Sainte-Rose

Saint-Paul

Le Port

La Possession

Saint-Leu

Les Trois-Bassins

Saint-Pierre

Les Avirons

L'Étang-Salé

Saint-Louis

Cilaos

Entre-Deux

Le Tampon

Petite-Île

Saint-Joseph

Saint-Philippe

The island is 63 kilometres (39 mi) long; 45 kilometres (28 mi) wide; and covers 2,512 square kilometres (970 sq mi). It is above a hotspot in the Earth's crust. The Piton de la Fournaise, a shield volcano on the eastern end of Réunion Island, rises more than 2,631 metres (8,632 ft) above sea level and is sometimes called a sister to Hawaiian volcanoes because of the similarity of climate and volcanic nature. It has erupted more than 100 times since 1640 and is under constant monitoring, most recently erupting on 14 July 2017.[14] During another eruption in April 2007, the lava flow was estimated at 3,000,000 cubic metres (3,900,000 cu yd) per day.[15] The Piton de la Fournaise is created by a hotspot volcano, which also created the Piton des Neiges and the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The Piton des Neiges volcano, the highest point on the island at 3,070 metres (10,070 ft) above sea level, is north west of the Piton de la Fournaise. Collapsed calderas and canyons are south west of the mountain. Like Kohala on the Big Island of Hawaii, the Piton des Neiges is extinct. Despite its name, snow (French: neige) practically never falls on the summit. The slopes of both volcanoes are heavily forested. Cultivated land and cities like the capital city of Saint-Denis are concentrated on the surrounding coastal lowlands. Offshore, part of the west coast is characterised by a coral reef system. Réunion also has three calderas: the Cirque de Salazie, the Cirque de Cilaos and the Cirque de Mafate. The last is accessible only on foot or by helicopter.

Plaine-des-Palmistes

View from satellite

Réunion from space (NASA image). The three cirques, forming a kind of 3-leafed clover shape, are visible in the central north west of the image. Piton de la Fournaise, in the south east, is covered by cloud.

Lava flow emitted in 2005 by the Piton de la Fournaise

"Plage de l'Ermitage" beach

Climate[edit] The climate in Réunion is tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation. The weather is cool and dry from May to November, but hot and rainy from November to April. Precipitation levels vary greatly within the island, with the east being much wetter than the west. There is more than 6 m of rain a year on some parts of the east and less than 1 m a year on the west coast.[16] Réunion holds the world records for the most rainfall in 12-, 24-, 72- and 96-hour periods.[17] Beaches[edit] Réunion hosts many tropical and unique beaches. These beaches are often equipped with barbecues, amenities, and parking spaces. Hermitage Beach is the most extensive and best preserved lagoon in Réunion Island and a popular snorkelling location.[18] It is a white sand beach that’s lined with casuarina trees under which the locals often organise picnics. La Plage des Brisants is a well-known surfing spot, with many athletic and leisurely activities taking place. Each November, a film festival is also organised in La Plage des Bristants. Movies are projected on a large screen in front of a crowd. Beaches at Boucan Canot are surrounded by a stretch of restaurants that particularly cater to tourists. L’Etang-Salé on the west coast is a particularly unique beach as it's covered in black sand consisting of tiny fragments of basalt. This occurs when lava contacts water, it cools rapidly and shatters into sand and fragmented debris of various size. Much of the debris is small enough to be considered sand. Grand Anse is a tropical white sand beach lined with coconut trees in the south of Réunion, with a rock pool built for swimmers, a pétanque playground, and a picnic area.[19]

Sunset at Grand Anse beach Reunion Island

Restaurants along Boucan Canot beach[20]

Manapany beach rock pool

L'etang Sale Beach - a black sand beach from volcanic basalt

L’Ermitage les Bains lagoon in front of Saint Paul, and its pass through the coral reef.

Environment[edit] See also: Réunion National Park Since 2010, Réunion is home to a UNESCO World Heritage Site that covers about 40% of the island's area and coincides with the central zone of the Réunion National Park.[21] Wildlife[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Réunion See also: List of extinct animals of Réunion Réunion is home to a variety of birds such as the white-tailed tropicbird (French: paille en queue).[22] Its largest land animal is the panther chameleon, Furcifer pardalis. Much of the West coast is ringed by coral reef which harbours, among other animals, sea urchins, conger eels and parrot fish. Sea turtles and dolphins also inhabit the coastal waters. Humpback whales migrate north to the island from the Antarctic waters annually during the Southern Hemisphere winter (June–September) to breed and feed, and can be routinely observed from the shores of Réunion during this season. At least 19 species formerly endemic to Réunion have become extinct following human colonisation. Between 2011 and 2015, there were 17 shark attacks in the waters of Réunion of which seven were fatal.[23] In July 2013 the Prefect of Réunion Michel Lalande announced a ban on swimming, surfing and bodyboarding off more than half of the coast. Lalande also said 45 bull sharks and 45 tiger sharks would be culled, in addition to the 20 already killed as part of scientific research into the illness ciguatera.[24] Migrations of humpback whales contributed to a bloom of whale watching industries on Réunion, and watching rules have been governed by the OMAR (Observatoire Marin de la Réunion) and Globice (Groupe local d'observation et d'identification des cétacés).

A panther chameleon

A juvenile Emperor angelfish

A Moorish idol

A white-tailed Tropicbird

A Hawksbill sea turtle

A Humpback whale off St-Gilles

Gardening - Bourbon roses[edit] The first members of the "Bourbon" group of garden roses originated on this island (then still Île Bourbon, hence the name) from a spontaneous hybridisation between Damask roses and Rosa chinensis,[25] which had been brought there by the colonists. The first Bourbon roses were discovered on the island in 1817.[26] Demographics[edit]

Manapany

Main article: Demographics of Réunion See also: Cafres, Malbars, Chinois (Réunion), Zarabes, and Zoreilles Ethnic groups present include people of African, Indian, European, Malagasy and Chinese origin. Local names for these are Yabs, Cafres, Malbars, and Chinois. All of the ethnic groups comprising the island are immigrant populations that have come to Réunion from Europe, Asia, and Africa over the centuries. There are no indigenous people on the island, as it was originally deserted.[27] These populations have mixed from the earliest days of the island's colonial history (the first settlers married women from Madagascar and of Indo-Portuguese heritage) resulting in a majority population of mixed race and of "Creole" culture. It is not known exactly how many people there are of each ethnicity since the French census does not ask questions there about ethnic origin,[28] which applies in Réunion because it is a part of the 1958 constitution, and also because of the extent of racial mixing on the island. According to estimates, whites (petits blancs and gros blancs) make up approximately one-quarter of the population,[29] Malbars make up more than 25% of the population and people of Chinese ancestry form roughly 3%.[30] The percentages for mixed race people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary widely in estimates. There are also some people of Vietnamese ancestry on the island, though they are very few in number.[31][32][33] Tamils are the largest group among the Indian community.[34] The island's community of Muslims from North Western India, particularly Gujarat, and elsewhere is commonly referred to as Zarabes. Creoles (a name given to those born on the island, regardless of ethnic origins), make up the majority of the population. Groups that are not creole include people recently arrived from Metropolitan France (known as zoreils) and those from Mayotte and the Comoros. Historical demographics[edit]

Year Population

Year Population

Year Population

1671 90 1830 101,300 1961 349,282

1696 269 1848 110,300 1967 416,525

1704 734 1849 120,900 1974 476,675

1713 1,171 1860 200,000 1982 515,814

1717 2,000 1870 212,000 1990 597,823

1724 12,550 1887 163,881 1999 706,300

1764 25,000 1897 173,192 2006 781,962

1777 35,100 1926 182,637 2011 828,581

1789 61,300 1946 241,708 2015 850,727

1826 87,100 1954 274,370 2018 865,826

Official data from INSEE by census or estimate; estimates shown in italics.

Religion[edit] See also: Islam in Réunion and Hinduism in Réunion

Catholic church of Notre-Dame-des-Neiges in Cilaos

The predominant religion is Christianity, notably Roman Catholicism, with a single (Latin Rite) jurisdiction, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion. Religious Intelligence estimates Christians to be 84.9% of the population, followed by Hindus (6.7%) and Muslims (2.2%).[33] Chinese folk religion and Buddhism are also represented, among others. Most large towns have a Hindu temple and a mosque.[35] Culture[edit] See also: Réunionnais literature Réunionese culture is a blend (métissage) of European, African, Indian, Chinese and insular traditions. The most widely spoken language, Réunion Creole, derives from French. Language[edit] French is the only official language of Réunion. Although not official, Réunion Creole is the native language of a large part of the population and is spoken alongside French. Creole is used informally and orally in some administration offices whereas the official language of any administration office as well as education is French.[36] Because of the diverse population, other languages are also spoken such as Comorian language varieties (especially Shimaore), Malagasy by recent immigrants from Mayotte and Madagascar, Mandarin, Hakka and Cantonese by members of the Chinese community, but fewer people speak these languages as younger generations start to converse in French and Réunion Creole. There are significant number of speakers of Indian languages mostly Tamil, Gujarati and Urdu. Arabic is taught in mosques and spoken by a small community of Muslims. English is a compulsory second language as part of the French school curriculum,[citation needed] but as in mainland France, English fluency is rare. German and Spanish are offered as a third language. Cantonese, Arabic, Tamil is also taught as an optional language in some schools.[34] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Réunion See also: Sega music and Maloya There are two music genres which originated in Réunion: sega, which originated earlier and is also traditional in Mauritius, Rodrigues and Seychelles and maloya, which originated in the 19th century and is only found in Réunion. Sport[edit] Moringue is a popular combat/dance sport similar to capoeira. There are several famous Réunionese sportsmen and women like the handballer Jackson Richardson, as well as the karateka Lucie Ignace. Professional footballers include Dimitri Payet, Florent Sinama Pongolle and Guillaume Hoarau. Laurent Robert and ex-Hibernian and Celtic player Didier Agathe have also featured in movies. Agathe appeared in A Shot at Glory, whilst Robert was in Goal!. Réunion has a number of contributions to worldwide professional surfing. It has been home to notable pro surfers including Jeremy Flores, Johanne Defay and Justine Mauvin. Famous break St Leu has been host to several world surfing championship competitions. Media[edit] Broadcasting[edit] Réunion has a local public television channel, Réunion 1ère, which now forms part of France Télévision, and also receives France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5 and France 24 from metropolitan France, as well as France Ô, which shows programming from all of the overseas departments and territories. There are also two local private channels, Télé Kréol and Antenne Réunion. It has a local public radio station, formerly Radio Réunion, but now known as Réunion 1ère, like its television counterpart. It also receives the Radio France networks France Inter, France Musique and France Culture. The first private local radio station, Radio Freedom, was introduced in 1981. They broadcast daily content about weather and local services. Newspapers[edit] Two main newspapers:

Journal de l'île de La Réunion Le Quotidien (Réunionese newspaper) (fr)

Film[edit]

Adama (animated there) Mississippi Mermaid (1969) (filmed there)

Blogs[edit]

Visit Reunion (English language blog and instagram page)[37] Reunion Island Tourism blog (English/French tourism blog)

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Réunion

The east dock of Réunion's main seaport in Le Port.

Man sorting Bourbon vanilla.

In 2016, the GDP of Réunion was estimated at 19.2 billion euros (US$21.3 bn) and the GDP per capita was 22,400 euros (US$24,800).[2] Sugar was traditionally the chief agricultural product and export. Tourism is now an important source of income.[38] The island's remote location combined with its stable political alignment with Europe makes it a key location for satellite receiving stations[39] and naval navigation.[40] GDP sector composition in 2013 (contribution of each sector to the total gross value added):[41]

Sector % of total GVA

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 1.5%

Detail

Agriculture and forestry 1.1%

Fishing 0.3%

Mining and quarrying 0.0%

Manufacturing 4.4%

Detail

Food manufacturing (of which: sugar and rum) 1.8% (0.4%)

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing 0.0%

Non-food and non-petroleum/coal manufacturing 2.6%

Utilities 1.8%

Construction 5.4%

Market services 51.1%

Detail

Wholesale and retail trade 12.1%

Transportation and warehousing 3.5%

Accommodation and food services 1.6%

Information and communication 3.6%

Finance and insurance 3.9%

Real estate activities 15.2%

Professional, scientific and technical services 3.2%

Administrative and support services 3.5%

Other (entertainment, repair, personal and laundry services) 4.4%

Non-market services 35.9%

Detail

Public administration and defense 10.9%

Education, health care, elderly care, child day-care 24.9%

Unemployment is a major problem on Réunion, although the situation has improved markedly since the beginning of the 2000s: the unemployment rate, which stood above 30% from the early 1980s to the early 2000s, declined to 24.1% in 2007, then rebounded to 29.6% in 2011 due to the 2008 global financial crisis and subsequent Great Recession, but has since 2011 again declined, reaching 22.4% in 2016,[42] its lowest level in 40 years.[43] In 2014, 40% of the population lived below the poverty line (defined by INSEE as 60% of Metropolitan France's median income; in 2014 the poverty line for a family of 2 parents and 2 young children was €2,064 (US$ 2,743) per month).[44] Rum distillation is a sugar-based process that contributes to the island's economy. A "Product of France", it is shipped to Europe for bottling, then shipped to consumers around the world. Public services[edit] Health[edit] In 2005–2006, Réunion experienced an epidemic of chikungunya, a viral disease similar to dengue fever brought in from East Africa, which infected almost a third of the population because of its transmission through mosquitoes. The epidemic has since been eradicated. See the History section for more details. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Réunion Roland Garros Airport serves the island, handling flights to mainland France, India, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania, Comoros, Seychelles, South Africa, China and Thailand. Pierrefonds Airport, a smaller airport, has some flights to Mauritius and Madagascar. See also[edit]

Africa portal France portal Islands portal

Administrative divisions of France Anchaing List of colonial and departmental heads of Réunion List of islands administered by France in the Indian and Pacific oceans List of islands List of Réunionnais Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 Overseas departments and territories of France Scouting and Guiding in Réunion

References[edit]

^ a b INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2018" (in French). Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ a b "Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Réunion is pictured on all Euro banknotes, on the back at the bottom of each note, right of the Greek ΕΥΡΩ (EURO) next to the denomination. ^ a b Allen, Richard B. (14 October 1999). "Slaves, Freedmen and Indentured Laborers in Colonial Mauritius". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b Tabuteau, Jacques (1987). Histoire de la justice dans les Mascareignes (in French). Paris: Océan éditions. p. 13. ISBN 2-907064-00-2. Retrieved 2011-06-11.  ^ a b c d Moriarty, Cpt. H.A. (1891). Islands in the southern Indian Ocean westward of Longitude 80 degrees east, including Madagascar. London: Great Britain Hydrographic Office. p. 269. OCLC 416495775.  ^ " Journal de l'île de la Réunion". Clicanoo.re. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ Jean-Jacques Martial (2003). Une enfance volée. Les Quatre Chemins. p. 113. ISBN 978-2-84784-110-7. Retrieved 2012-09-13.  ^ Géraldine Marcon: CHRONOLOGIE : L'histoire des enfants réunionnais déplacés en métropole on francebleu.fr. ^ "Island disease hits 50,000 people". BBC News. 2 February 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-18.  ^ Beesoon, Sanjay; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kotea, Navaratnam; Spielman, Andrew; Robich, Rebecca M. "Chikungunya Fever, Mauritius, 2006". 14 (2): 337–338. doi:10.3201/eid1402.071024. PMC 2630048 . PMID 18258136.  ^ "Madagascar hit by mosquito virus". BBC News. 6 March 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-18.  ^ "Insee - Code Officiel Géographique". Insee.fr. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ Piton de la Fournaise on volcanodiscovery.com ^ Thomas Staudacher (7 April 2007). "Reunion sees 'colossal' volcano eruption, but population safe". AFP. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2007.  (Web archive) ^ Jacques Libert. "la pluviométrie". Pedagogie2.ac-reunion.fr. Archived from the original on 19 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "World Meteorological Organization: Global Weather & Climate Extremes". Arizona State University.  ^ "Lagon de l'Ermitage". Snorkeling Report. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ Ocean, Indian. "The beaches of Réunion Island". Snorkeling Report. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ "Lunch at Plage de Boucan Canot". Flickr. Retrieved 2016-11-15.  ^ "Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 July 2015.  ^ (in French) L'Île de la Réunion.com: Le paille en queue ^ Valo, Martine (17 April 2015). "Comment La Réunion lutte contre les requins-bouledogues après une nouvelle attaque mortelle" – via Le Monde.  ^ "Big Read: Reunion Island beset by shark controversy". News Corp Australia. 2013-08-30.  ^ ADUMITRESEI, LIDIA; STĂNESCU, IRINA (2009). "Theoretical Considerations upon the origin and nomenclature of the present rose cultivars". Journal of Plant Development. 16.  ^ "History of Roses: Bourbon Roses" (PDF). American Rose Society.  ^ Bollée, Annegret (2015). "French on the Island of Bourbon (Réunion)". Journal of Language Contact. 8 (1): 91. doi:10.1163/19552629-00801005.  ^ "SSRN-Why France Needs to Collect Data on Racial Identity - In a French Way by David Oppenheimer". Papers.ssrn.com. SSRN 1236362 .  ^ Holm, John A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-521-35940-6.  ^ "Réunion" (PDF). The Indian Diaspora.  ^ Clicanoo. "La Réunion Métisse".  ^ "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". 2006. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  ^ a b "Country Profile: Reunion (Department of Reunion)". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b "NRI" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-16.  ^ Peoples of Africa: Réunion-Somalia. Marshall Cavendish. 2001. pp. 412–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7166-0.  ^ "Ethnologue report (language code:rcf)". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-04-16.  ^ https://www.instagram.com/visitreunion/ ^ "Reunion Island Holidays".  ^ "SEAS-OI, VIGISAT international success Réunion Island acquires an acquisition and processing system for high-resolution satellite images". Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "Surveillance of maritime and terrestrial activities by radar". Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "Comptes économiques définitifs de La Réunion" (in French). INSEE. 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ "Unemployment rates by sex, age and NUTS 2 regions (%)". Eurostat. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Célimène, Fred; Legris, André (2011). De l'économie coloniale à l'économie mondialisée - Aspects multiples de la transition (XXe et XXIe siècles). Paris: Publibook. p. 179. ISBN 978-2-7483-7225-0.  ^ "Quatre Réunionnais sur dix vivent sous le seuil de pauvreté" (in French). INSEE. 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-12. 

Bibliography[edit]

James Rogers and Luis Simón. The Status and Location of the Military Installations of the Member States of the European Union and Their Potential Role for the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Brussels: European Parliament, 2009. 25 pp.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Réunion.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Réunion.

Government

Réunion - The severe island - Official French website (in English) Departmental Council website Régional council website

General information

Official tourism website Réunion at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Réunion UNESCO World Heritage Site datasheet

v t e

Réunion articles

History Politics Wildlife

Geography

Places

Cirque de Mafate Hotspot Saint-Denis

Subdivisions

Arrondisements Cantons Communes

Economy

Telecommunications Transport

Air Austral Tram Train

Culture

Creole language Demographics Flag L'Âme de la France (statues) List of Réunionnais Music

Maloya "P'tite fleur aimée" (regional anthem) Séga

Religion

Sport

Football

Premier League national team

Rugby union

national team

Category

Articles relating to Réunion

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Réunion-related lists

List of airports in Réunion List of birds of Réunion List of butterflies of Réunion List of colonial and departmental heads of Réunion List of extinct animals of Réunion List of football clubs in Réunion List of mammals of Réunion List of non-marine molluscs of Réunion List of moths of Réunion List of political parties in Réunion List of supermarket chains in Réunion List of volcanoes in Réunion

France portal Africa portal  Category: Réunion-related lists

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Countries and territories of Africa

Sovereign states

entirely/mostly in Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

partly in Africa

France

Mayotte Réunion

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Portugal

Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Yemen

Socotra

Territories and dependencies

Îles Éparses

France

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

UK

Southern Provinces (Western Sahara)1

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

1 Unclear sovereignty.

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Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

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Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean

Africa

Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea France

Mayotte Réunion

Kenya Madagascar Mauritius Mozambique Rodrigues (Mauritius) Seychelles Somalia South Africa Sudan Tanzania Zanzibar, Tanzania

Asia

Bangladesh British Indian Ocean Territory

Chagos Archipelago - United Kingdom

Christmas Island (Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) India Indonesia Malaysia Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste Yemen

Other

Antarctica

Australian Antarctic Territory French Southern and Antarctic Lands Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Australia

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Countries and regions in the Somali Plate

Countries

Somalia Madagascar Seychelles Comoros Uganda Kenya Tanzania Swaziland Mozambique

Regions

Somaliland Réunion Mayotte Mauritius KwaZulu-Natal Khatumo Somali Region

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Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Administrative regions of France

Current administrative regions (since 2016)

Metropolitan regions

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Corsica Grand Est Hauts-de-France Île-de-France Normandy Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Pays de la Loire Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

Former administrative regions (1982–2015)

Metropolitan regions

Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Burgundy Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Champagne-Ardenne Corsica Franche-Comté Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lower Normandy Upper Normandy Pays de la Loire Picardy Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Rhône-Alpes

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

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Dependencies of European Union states

Denmark

Faroe Islands Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Île Amsterdam Crozet Islands Îles Éparses Kerguelen Islands Île Saint-Paul

New Caledonia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Crown dependencies

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Sovereign Base Areas

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Overseas territories

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Outermost regions of European Union states

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands

France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion Saint-Martin

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131337096 ISNI: 0000 0001 2156 3951 GND: 4049639-9 SUDOC: 026399598 BNF: cb11865432v (data)

Coordinates: 21°06′52″S 55°31′57″E / 21.11444°S 55.53250°E / -21.114