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Saif ad-Din Qutuz
Qutuz
(Arabic: سيف الدين قطز‎; d. 24 October 1260), also romanized as Kutuz, Kotuz,[1] and fully al-Malik al-Muzaffar Saif ad-Din Qutuz
Qutuz
(الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز), was the third or fourth[2] of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line.[3][4][5] He reigned for less than a year, from 1259 until his death in 1260. Sold into slavery in Egypt, he rose to vice- Sultan
Sultan
over 20 years, becoming the power behind the throne. He was prominent in defeating the Seventh Crusade, which invaded Egypt in 1249–50. When Egypt was threatened by the Mongols
Mongols
in 1259 he took the lead militarily and then deposed the reigning Sultan, 15-year-old Sultan
Sultan
Al-Mansur Ali. The centers of Islamic power in Syria
Syria
and Baghdad
Baghdad
were conquered by the Mongols, and the center of the Islamic Empire transferred to Egypt, which became their next target. Qutuz
Qutuz
led an Egyptian Mamaluk
Mamaluk
army north to confront the Mongols, having made a pact with Egypts long-time enemy the Crusaders. The battle of Ain Jalut was fought on 3 September 1260 in southeastern Galilee, between the Egyptian Mamaluk
Mamaluk
army and the Mongols. The Mongols
Mongols
were crushingly defeated by Qutaz' force, in what has been considered an historical turning point. Qutuz
Qutuz
was assassinated by a fellow Mamluk
Mamluk
leader, Baibars, on the triumphant return journey to Cairo. Although Qutuz's reign was short, he was one of the most popular Mamluk
Mamluk
sultans in the Islamic world and holds a high position in Islamic history.[6]

Contents

1 Background 2 Mongol threat 3 Battle of Ain Jalut 4 Assassination 5 Coins 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] Qutuz
Qutuz
was of Turkic origin.[7][8][9] Captured by the Mongols
Mongols
during the fall of Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
c. 1231,[10] he traveled to Damascus, Syria
Syria
where he was sold to an Egyptian slave merchant who then sold him to Aybak, the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan in Cairo. According to some sources, Qutuz
Qutuz
claimed that his original name was Mahmud ibn Mamdud and he was descended from Ala ad-Din Muhammad II, a ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.[11] He became the most prominent Mu'izi Mamluk
Mamluk
of Sultan
Sultan
Aybak[12] and he became his vice- Sultan
Sultan
in 1253. Aybak
Aybak
was assassinated in 1257 and Qutuz
Qutuz
remained vice- Sultan
Sultan
for Aybak's son al-Mansur Ali. Qutuz
Qutuz
led the Mu'izi Mamluks who arrested Aybak's widow Shajar al-Durr
Shajar al-Durr
and installed al-Mansur Ali as the new Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt.[12] In November 1257 and April 1258 he defeated raids of the forces of al-Malik al-Mughith[13] of Al Karak
Al Karak
which were supported by the Bahriyya Mamluks[14] and included Shahrzuri Kurds.[15][16] The raids caused a dispute among the Bahriyya Mamluks in Al Karak
Al Karak
as some of them wanted to support their followers in Egypt.[17]

1258 Mongols
Mongols
sacked Baghdad

In February 1258, the Mongol army sacked Baghdad, massacred its inhabitants and killed the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
Al-Musta'sim. It then advanced towards Syria
Syria
which was ruled by the Ayyubid king an-Nasir Yusuf, who received a threatening letter from Hulagu.[18] Vice-Sultan Qutuz
Qutuz
and the Egyptian Emirs were alarmed by a message from an-Nasir Yusuf in which he appealed for immediate help from Egypt. The emirs assembled at the court of the 15-year-old Sultan
Sultan
Al-Mansur Ali
Al-Mansur Ali
and Qutuz
Qutuz
told them that because of the seriousness of the situation, Egypt should have a strong and a capable Sultan
Sultan
who could fight the Mongols. On 12 November 1259, Al-Mansur Ali
Al-Mansur Ali
was deposed by Qutuz. When Qutuz
Qutuz
became the new sultan, he promised the emirs that they could install any other sultan after he defeated the Mongols.[19] Qutuz
Qutuz
kept Emir Faris ad-Din Aktai al-Mostareb[20] as the Atabeg of the Egyptian army and began to prepare for battle.[21] Mongol threat[edit]

The 1260 Mongol offensives in the Levant. The early successful attacks on Aleppo
Aleppo
and Damascus
Damascus
led to smaller attacks on secondary targets such as Baalbek, al-Subayba, and Ajlun
Ajlun
as well as raids against other Palestine towns, perhaps including Jerusalem. Smaller raiding parties reached as far south as Gaza.

Hulagu
Hulagu
and his forces were proceeding towards Damascus, where some of the Syrian emirs suggested to an-Nasir Yusuf to surrender and submit to Hulagu
Hulagu
as the best solution to save themselves and Syria. The Mamluk
Mamluk
Baibars, who was present at the meeting, was upset by the suggestion,[22] and the Mamluks decided to kill an-Nasir Yusuf that night. However, he managed to escape with his brother to the citadel of Damascus. Baibars
Baibars
and the Mamluks then left Syria, travelling to Egypt where they were warmly welcomed by Sultan
Sultan
Qutuz, who granted Baibars
Baibars
the town of Qalyub.[23][24][25] When an-Nasir Yusuf heard that the Mongol army was approaching Aleppo, he sent his wife, his son and his money to Egypt. The population of Damascus
Damascus
and other Syrian towns began to flee.[25] After besieging Aleppo
Aleppo
for seven days, the Mongols sacked it and massacred its population. When an-Nasir Yusuf heard about the fall of Aleppo
Aleppo
he fled towards Egypt, leaving Damascus
Damascus
with its remaining population defenseless, but Qutuz
Qutuz
denied him entry. Yusuf thus stayed on the border of Egypt, while his Emirs deserted him to proceed into the country. Sultan
Sultan
Qutuz
Qutuz
ordered the seizing of the an-Nasir Yusuf's jewelry and money, which were sent to Egypt with his wife and servants. Sixteen days after the fall of Aleppo
Aleppo
to the Mongols, Damascus
Damascus
surrendered without a fight. Yusuf was taken prisoner by the Mamluks and sent to Hulagu.[26][27] With the centers of Islamic power in Syria
Syria
and Baghdad
Baghdad
conquered, the center of the Islamic Empire transferred to Egypt, and became Hulagu's next target. Hulagu
Hulagu
sent messengers to Cairo
Cairo
with a threatening letter, urging Qutuz
Qutuz
to surrender and submit to the Mongols.[28] Qutuz's response was to execute the messengers. They were sliced in half, and their heads were mounted on the gate at Bab Zuweila
Bab Zuweila
in Cairo.[29] Then, rather than waiting for the Mongols
Mongols
to attack, Qutuz decided to raise an army to engage them away from Egypt.[30][31] Others fled the area. Moroccans who resided in Egypt fled westward, while Yemenis escaped to Yemen
Yemen
and Hejaz.[30] Qutuz
Qutuz
went to Al-Salihiyya[32][33] and assembled his commanders to decide when to march to the Mongols. But the Emirs showed timidity. Qutuz
Qutuz
shamed them into joining him, with the statement, "Emirs of the Muslims, for some time now you have been fed by the country treasury and you hate to be invaded. I will go alone and who likes to join me should do that and who does not like to join me should go back home, but who will not join will carry the sin of not defending our women."[31] Qutuz
Qutuz
ordered Baibars
Baibars
to lead a force to Gaza to observe the small Mongol garrison there, which Baibars
Baibars
easily defeated.[21] After spending a day in Gaza, Qutuz
Qutuz
led his army along the coast towards Acre, a remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Crusader state. The Crusaders
Crusaders
were traditional enemies of the Mamluks, and had been approached by the Mongols
Mongols
about forming a Franco-Mongol alliance. However, that year the Crusaders
Crusaders
recognized the Mongols
Mongols
as the greater threat. Qutuz
Qutuz
suggested a military alliance with the Crusaders
Crusaders
against the Mongols, but the Crusaders
Crusaders
opted to stay neutral between the two forces. They did, however, allow Qutuz
Qutuz
and his forces to travel unmolested through Crusader territory, and to camp for re-supply near the Crusader stronghold of Acre. Qutuz
Qutuz
and his army stayed there for three days,[34] until they heard that the Mongols
Mongols
had crossed the Jordan River, at which point Qutuz
Qutuz
and Baibars
Baibars
led their forces to meet the Mongols
Mongols
at Ain Jalut.[35] (See also Mongol Invasions of Syria.) Battle of Ain Jalut[edit]

Troop movements leading up to the Battle of Ain Jalut

Main article: Battle of Ain Jalut The battle of Ain Jalut which was fought on 3 September 1260 was one of the most important battles and a turning point in history. In 1250, only ten years before the battle of Ain Jalut, the same Bahariyya Mamluks (Qutuz, Baibars
Baibars
and Qalawun) led Egypt against the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. The Mongol army at Ain Jalut that was led by Kitbuqa, a Nestorian Christian
Nestorian Christian
Naiman Turk, was accompanied by the Christian king of Cilician Armenia
Cilician Armenia
and by the Christian prince of Antioch.[36] After the fall of Khawarezm, Baghdad
Baghdad
and Syria, Egypt was the last citadel of Islam in the Middle East, and the existence of crusade beach-heads along the coast of the Levant were forming a serious menace to the Islamic World.[37] Therefore, the future of Islam and of the Christian west as well depended on the outcome of that battle[38] which was fought between two of the most powerful fighters of the Middle Ages, the Mamluks and the Mongols
Mongols
accompanied by some Christian crusaders. Baibars, who was known to be a swift commander, led the vanguard[39] and succeeded in his maneuver and lured the Mongol army to the Ain Jalut where the Egyptian army led by Qutuz
Qutuz
waited. The Egyptians at first failed to counter the Mongol attack and were scattered after the left flank of their army suffered a severe damage but Qutuz
Qutuz
stood firm, he threw his helmet to the air and shouted "O Islam" and advanced towards the damaged side followed by his own unit.[40][41] The Mongols
Mongols
were pushed back and fled to a vicinity of Bisan followed by Qutuz's forces but they managed to gather and returned to the battlefield making a successful counterattack. Qutuz
Qutuz
cried loudly three times "O Islam! O God grant your servant Qutuz
Qutuz
a victory against the Mongols".[42] The Mongols with their Christian and Muslim [43] allies were totally defeated by Qutuz' army and fled to Syria
Syria
where they became a prey for the local population.[44] Qutuz
Qutuz
kissed the ground and prayed while the soldiers collected the booty. Kitbuqa
Kitbuqa
the Commander of the Mongol army was killed and his head was sent to Cairo.[40] This was the first defeat suffered by the Mongols
Mongols
since they attacked the Islamic world. They fled from Damascus
Damascus
then from the whole of the northern Levant.[40] Qutuz
Qutuz
entered Damascus
Damascus
with his army and sent Baibars
Baibars
to Homs
Homs
to liquidate the remaining Mongols. While Alam ad-Din Sonjar was nominated by Qutuz
Qutuz
as the sultan's deputy in Damascus, Qutuz
Qutuz
granted Aleppo
Aleppo
to al-Malik al-Said Ala'a ad-Din the Emir of Mosul[40] and a new Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
was about to be installed by Qutuz.[45] All of the Levant from the border of Egypt to the river Euphrates was freed from the Mongols. After this victory the Mamluks stretched their sovereignty to the Levant and were recognized by the Ayyubids
Ayyubids
and the others as legitimate rulers.[46] When Hulagu
Hulagu
heard about the defeat of the Mongol Army he executed an-Nasir Yusuf near Tabriz.[47] Hulagu
Hulagu
kept threatening the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate, but soon he was struck hard by conflicts with the Mongols
Mongols
of the Golden Horde, in the western half of the Eurasian Steppe, who converted to Islam (see Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war). Hulagu
Hulagu
died in 1265. He never would avenge the defeat of the Mongols
Mongols
at Ain Jalut.[48] The Battle of Ain Jalut
Battle of Ain Jalut
is also notable for being the earliest known battle where explosive hand cannons (midfa in Arabic) were used. These explosives were employed by the Mamluk
Mamluk
Egyptians in order to frighten the Mongol horses and cavalry and cause disorder in their ranks. The explosive gunpowder compositions of these cannons were later described in Arabic chemical and military manuals in the early 14th century.[49][50] Assassination[edit] On his way back to Cairo, Qutuz
Qutuz
was assassinated in Salihiyah.[51] According to both modern and medieval Muslim historians Baibars
Baibars
was involved in the assassination, according to Al-Maqrizi, who also believed that Baibars
Baibars
was involved, the Emirs who actually struck down Qutuz
Qutuz
were Emir Badr ad-Din Baktut, Emir Ons, and Emir Bahadir al-Mu'izzi.[52] Western historians include Baibars
Baibars
in the conspiracy and, indeed, assign him direct responsibility.[53] Muslim chronicler from the Mamluk
Mamluk
era stated that Baibars
Baibars
wanted to avenge the killing of his friend and leader of the Bahariyya Faris ad-Din Aktai during Sultan
Sultan
Aybak's reign[54] or because Qutuz
Qutuz
granted Aleppo
Aleppo
to al-Malik al-Said Ala'a ad-Din the Emir of Mosul, instead of to him as he had promised him before the battle of Ain Jalut.[55][56] Qutuz
Qutuz
was first buried in the town of Al-Qusair and then reburied in a cemetery in Cairo.[57][58] Baibars
Baibars
returned to Cairo
Cairo
which was decorated and celebrating the victory over the Mongols,[51] where he became the new Sultan. Baibars
Baibars
was at once admired by the people as he revoked the war taxes which had been imposed by Qutuz.[59] Coins[edit] The coins of Qutuz
Qutuz
are considered unique in the history of Mamluk coinages as no other names except his names and titles were inscribed on it: al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif al-Donya wa al-Din ("The victorious king, sword of the temporal world and of the faith") and al-Muzafar Saif al-Din ("The victorious sword of faith").[60] See also[edit]

List of rulers of Egypt Mosque of Amr ibn al-As

Notes[edit]

^ Encyclopaedia Islamica, "Baalbek". ^ Some historians consider Shajar al-Durr
Shajar al-Durr
as the first of the Mamluk Sultans. Thus, to them Qutuz
Qutuz
was the fourth Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
and not the third. (Shayal, p. 115/vol. 2.) ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 507/vol. 1 ^ Mawsoa ^ Holt et al., p. 215 ^ Qasim, p. 24 ^ (2009) L'Égypte des Mamelouks 1250–1517. L'empire des esclaves, Paris:Perrin ISBN 978-2-262-03045-2 ^ Koperman, Kazım Yaşar (1989), Egyptian Mamluk
Mamluk
History,Ankara: Ministry of Culture and Tourism Publications, ISBN 975-17-0489-8 ^ Yiğit, İsmail (2008), Mamluks, İstanbul: Kayıhan Publications , ISBN 978-605-5996-02-4 ^ "سيف الدين قطز". islamstory.com (in Arabic). 8 March 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ See Amitai-Preiss, p. 35. ^ a b Qasim, p. 44 ^ Al-Malik al-Mughith Omar Ben al-Adil II Ben al-Kamil Muhammed (Arabic: الملك المغيث عمر بن العادل الثانى بن الكامل محمد) was the Ayyubid ruler of Al Karak. During the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Baibars
Baibars
he was killed in the Citadel of Cairo. ^ After the assassination of Faris ad-Din Aktai the leader of the Bahariyya Mamluks, during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Aybak, many Bahariyya Mamluks fled from Egypt. Baibars, Qalawun
Qalawun
and other prominent Mamluks took refuge in Syria, but after a dispute with an-Nasir Yusuf the Ayyubid king of Syria
Syria
they moved to Al Karak
Al Karak
which was also ruled by an Ayyubid king. ^ See Al-Mansur Ali ^ Shahrzuriyah were Kurds
Kurds
who escaped from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
after the Mongol invasion. They deceived al-Malik al-Mughith during the second battle and walked over to the Egyptian side. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 500/vol. 1) ^ During the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Aybak
Aybak
many Bahari Mamluks fled from Egypt after their leader Faris ad-Din Aktai was assassinated. The stayed in Syria, Al Karak
Al Karak
and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Two of the most prominent Mamluks Baibars
Baibars
al-Bunduqdari and Qalawun
Qalawun
al-Alfi went to Syria
Syria
then to Al Karak
Al Karak
where they persuaded al-Malik al-Mughith the Ayyubid king of Al Karak
Al Karak
to attack Egypt. (See also Aybak, Al-Mansur Ali and an-Nasir Yusuf). ^ The message was given by Hulagu
Hulagu
to an-Nasir's son al-Malik al-Aziz. some of its passages said: "As al-Malik an-Nasir the ruler of Aleppo knows, we have conquered Baghdad
Baghdad
by the sword of the almighty God, we killed its knights, we razed its buildings and we captured its inhabitants" When you receive this message, you should at once submit with your men, your money and your knights to the king of kings the ruler of the earth. By doing that you can be saved from his evil and gain his goodness." "We have heard that the merchants of the Levant and others have fled with their money and women to Egypt. If they hide in mountains we will raze the mountains and if they hide in the earth we will sink the earth down. Where is safety ? none can flee because I own both the land and the sea..The lions were despised by our dignity and the princes and the viziers are held in my grasp ". (Al-Maqrizi, p. 506/vol. 1) ^ Shayyal, p. 122/vol.2 ^ Not to be confused with his namesake and contemporary Faris ad-Din Aktai al-Jemdar who was the leader of the Bahari Mamluks and who was assassinated by Al-Mansur Ali's father Sultan
Sultan
Aybak. ^ a b Shayyal, p. 122/vol.2 ^ The surrendering to Hulagu
Hulagu
suggestion was uttered by the Syrian Emir Zain ad-Din al-Hafizi. Baibars
Baibars
who was outraged struck and insulted the Emir saying to an-Nasir Yusuf and his Emirs: "You are the reason of the destruction of the Muslims!" (Al-Maqrizi, p. 509/vol. 1) ^ Qalyub
Qalyub
is a town in the Qalyubia Governorate
Qalyubia Governorate
now, north of Cairo. ^ Qaylub on map ^ a b Al-Maqrizi, p. 509/vol. 1 ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 513/vol. 1 ^ An-Nasir Yusuf, his son al-Aziz, and his brother al-Zahir were abducted in Gaza by one of his servants and were sent to Hulagu. In another account, an-Nasir went to Kitbuga who arrested him and sent him to Hulagu. ^ " From the King of Kings in the East and the West, the mighty Khan: In your name, O God, You who laid out the earth and raised up the skies. Let al-Malik al-Muzaffar Qutuz, who is of the race of Mamluks who fled before our swords into this country, who enjoyed its comforts and then killed its rulers, let al-Malik al-Muzzafar Qutuz
Qutuz
know, as well as the Emirs of his state and the people of his kingdom, in Egypt and in the adjoining countries, that we are the army of God on His earth. He created us from his wrath and urged us against those who incurred His anger. In all lands there are examples to admonish you and to deter you from challenging our resolve. Be warned by the fate of others and hand over your power to us before the veil is torn and you are sorry and your errors are rebound upon you. For we do not pity those who weep, nor are we tender to those who complain. You have heard that we have conquered the lands and cleansed the earth of corruption and killed most of the people. Yours to flee: ours to pursue. And what land will shelter you, what road save you; what country protect you? You have no deliverance from our swords and you cannot avoid dreading us for our horses are swift, our arrows do pierce, our swords like thunder-bolts, our hearts like rocks and our numbers like sand. Fortresses cannot withstand us; armies are of no avail in fighting us. Your prayers against us will not be heard, for you have eaten forbidden things and your speech is foul, you betray oaths and promises, and disobedience and fractiousness prevail among you. Be informed that your lot will be shame and humiliation. "Today you are recommenced with the punishment of humiliation, because you were so proud on earth without right and for your wrongdoing" (Quran, xlvi, 20). "Those who have done wrong will know to what end they will revert" (Quran,xxvi. 227). Those who make war against us are sorry; those who seek our protection are safe. If you submit to our orders and conditions, then your rights and duties are the same as ours. If you resist you will be destroyed. Do not, therefore, destroy yourselves with you own hands. He who is warned should be on his guard. You are convinced that we are the infidels, and we are convinced that you are debauchers. God, who determines all and judges all, has urged us against you. What much for you is little for us, the honorable for you is base for us. Your kings should expect nothing from us except humiliation. Therefore, do not wait long but quickly answer us before the fire of war is set and the spark is thrown over you then You will not have from us dignity, nor comfort, nor protection, nor sanctuary and you will suffer at our hands the most fearful calamity, and your land will be empty of you. By writing to you we have dealt equitably with you and have awakened you by warning you. Now we have no other purpose but you. Peace be with both us and you, and with all of those who follow divine guidance, who fear the consequences of evil and who obey the Supreme King. Say to Egypt, Hulagu
Hulagu
has come with swords unsheathed and sharp. The mightiest of her people will become humble and he will send their children to join the aged. " (Letter from Hulagu
Hulagu
to Qutuz)- Al-Maqrizi, pp. 515–16/vol. 1 / Ibn Aybak
Aybak
al-dwadari, pp. 47–48 / al-Qalqashandi, pp. 63–64 / Qasim, p. 61 ^ (Al-Maqrizi, pp. 514–15/vol. 1) – (Shayal, p. 122/vol2 ) ^ a b Ibn-Taghri, pp. 105–273/vol. 7 /Al-Muzafar Qutuz. ^ a b Al-Maqrizi, p. 515/vol. 1 ^ Al-Salihiyyah on a Map ^ Al-Salihiyya Also 'As Salhiyah' in north Egypt, east of the Nile Delta. In Sharqia Governorate
Sharqia Governorate
now. ^ Riley-Smith, p. 204. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 516/ vol. 1 ^ Toynbee, p. 449 ^ Toynbee, p. 446 ^ Shayyal, pp. 122–23, 126 /vol.2 ^ Britannica, p. 773/vol.2 ^ a b c d Shayyal, p. 123/vol. 2 ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p. 516/vol. 1) – (Ibn Taghri, pp. 105–273/ Al-Muzafar Qutuz) ^ Shayyal, p. 123/vol.2 ^ Mongols
Mongols
and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War 1260–1281 Reuven Amitai-Preiss pp. 39–45 ^ (Ibn Taghri, pp. 105–273/ Al-Muzafar Qutuz)- (Al-Maqrizi, p. 517/vol. 1) ^ While in Damascus, Qutuz
Qutuz
chose an Abbasid
Abbasid
named Abu al-Abbas Ahmad to become the new Abbasid
Abbasid
Chaliph. After the assassination of Qutuz, Baibars
Baibars
invited Abu al-Abbas to Cairo
Cairo
but before his arrival another Abbasid
Abbasid
named Abu al-Qasim Ahmad arrived to Cairo
Cairo
and was installed by Baibars
Baibars
as the new Chaliph. Qutuz' candidate Abu al-Abbas returned to Syria. (Shayyal, 132/vol.2 ) ^ Shayyal, pp. 123–24/ vol.2 ^ Hulagu
Hulagu
executed An-Nasir Yusuf
An-Nasir Yusuf
and his brother al-Zahir Ghazi near Tabriz. Tuquz Khaton wife of Hulagu
Hulagu
apealed for the life of Yusuf's son al-Aziz and he was not executed. (Al-Maqrizi, pp. 518–19 ) ^ 1945-, Morgan, David, (2007). The Mongols
Mongols
(2nd ed ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9781405135399. OCLC 70831115. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries ^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 12: Machines of the East, History Channel, 2007  (Part 4 and Part 5) ^ a b Shayyal, p. 126/vol.2 ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 519/vol. 1. ^ See Perry (p. 150), Riley-Smith (p. 237, Baybars ... murdered Qutuz"), Amitai-Preiss (p. 47, "a conspiracy of amirs, which included Baybars and was probably under his leadership"), Holt et al. (Baibars "came to power with [the] regicide [of Qutuz] on his conscience"), and Tschanz. ^ See Faris ad-Din Aktai ^ Shayyal, p. 126/vol.2 ^ It should be noted that different medieval historians supply contradicting accounts. Al-Maqrizi and Ibn-Taghri say that the assassins killed Qutuz
Qutuz
while he was giving his hand to Baibars. Abu-Al-Fida says that Qutuz
Qutuz
was giving his hand to someone else when Baibars
Baibars
struck his back with a sword. Hassan, O. says that Baibars tried to help Qutuz
Qutuz
against the assassins. ^ Mawsoa, p. 764/vol.24 ^ Al-Maqrizi, pp. 519–20/vol. 2 ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 521/vol. 1 ^ Fahmi, p. 88

References[edit]

Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997. Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (1995). Mongols
Mongols
and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6.  Bohn, Henry G. (1848) The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, New York, 1969 edition, a translation of Chronicles of the Crusades: being contemporary narratives of the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf and of the crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville. Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar, Matabat aladab, Cairo
Cairo
1996, ISBN 977-241-175-X. Idem in French: Bouriant, Urbain, Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte, Paris 1895. Al-Qalqashandi, Sobh al-Asha Fi sena'at al-Insha, Dar Alkotob, Cairo 1913 Fahmi, Dr. Abd al-Rahman, al-Niqood al-Arabiya (Arabic coins), Mat Misr, Cairo
Cairo
1964. Hassan, O, Al-Zahir Baibars, Dar Alamal, Cairo
Cairo
1997, ISBN 977-5823-09-9 Ibn Aybak
Aybak
Al-Dwedar, Kinz al-Dorar wa Jamia al-Ghorar, Hans Robert Roemer, Cairo Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, al-Hay'ah al-Misreyah 1968 History of Egypt, 1382–1469 A.D. by Yusef. William Popper, translator Abu L-Mahasin ibn Taghri Birdi, University of California Press 1954 Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1977) The Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1A: The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4. Mawsoa Thakafiya (Culture encyclopedia), Franklin Publishing, Cairo 1973 Perry, Glenn E. (2004) The History of Egypt, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-32264-8. Qasim,Abdu Qasim Dr., Asr Salatin AlMamlik (era of the Mamluk Sultans), Eye for human and social studies, Cairo
Cairo
2007 Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2001) The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US, ISBN 978-0-19-285428-5. Shayyal, Jamal, Prof. of Islamic history, Tarikh Misr al-Islamiyah (History of Islamic Egypt), dar al-Maref, Cairo
Cairo
1266, ISBN 977-02-5975-6 The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, H.H. Berton Publisher, 1973–1974 Toynbee, Arnold J., Mankind and mother earth, Oxford University Press, 1976 Tschanz, David W. (July–August 2007). "History's Hinge: 'Ain Jalut". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 

External links[edit]

Map of Qalyub Al-Salihiyah on Map Map of the location of the Battle of Ain Jalut

Qutuz Bahri dynasty Cadet branch of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate Born:  ? Died: 24 October 1260

Regnal titles

Preceded by Al-Mansur Ali Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt November 1259 – 24 October 1260 Succeeded by Baibars

Vacant Annexed after Battle of Ain Jalut

Sultan
Sultan
of Syria September 1260 – 24 October 1260

v t e

Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans of Cairo

Salihi Mamluks

Izz ad-Din Aybak
Aybak
(1250–1257) Nur ad-Din Ali (1257–1259) Sayf ad-Din Qutuz
Qutuz
(1259–1260)

Bahri dynasty

Rukn ad-Din Baybars (1260–1277) Nasir ad-Din Barakah (1277–1279) Badr ad-Din Salamish (1279) Sayf ad-Din Qalawun
Qalawun
(1279–1290) Salah ad-Din Khalil (1290–1293) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1293–1294) Zayn ad-Din Kitbugha (1294–1296) Husam ad-Din Lajin
Lajin
(1296–1299) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1299–1309) Rukn ad-Din Baybars al-Jashnakir (1309–1310) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1310–1341) Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr (1341) Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk (1341–1342) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1342) Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il (1342–1345) Sayf ad-Din Sha'ban (1345–1346) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1346–1347) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1347–1351) Salah ad-Din Salih (1351–1354) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1354–1361) Salah ad-Din Muhammad (1361–1363) Zayn ad-Din Sha'ban (1363–1377) Ala'a ad-Din Ali (1377–1381) Salah ad-Din Hajji (1381–1382)

Burji dynasty

Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1382–1389) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1389–1390) Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1390–1399) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1399–1405) Izz ad-Din Abd al-Aziz (1405) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1405–1412) Al-Musta'in Billah (1412) Shaykh al-Mahmudi (1412–1421) Ahmad (1421) Sayf ad-Din Tatar (1421) An-Nasir ad-Din Muhammad (1421–1422) Sayf ad-Din Barsbay
Barsbay
(1422–1438) Jamal ad-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf (1438) Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq (1438–1453) Fakhr ad-Din Uthman (1453) Sayf ad-Din Inal
Sayf ad-Din Inal
(1453–1461) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1461) Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam (1461–1467) Sayf ad-Din Yalbay (1467) Timurbugha (1467–1468) Sayf ad-Din Qa'itbay (1468–1496) Muhammad (1496–1498) Abu Sa'id Qansuh (1498–1500) Abu al-Nasir Janbalat (1500–1501) Sayf ad-Din Tumanbay (1501) Qansuh al-Ghawri (1501–1516) Tumanbay II (1516–1517)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 21713063 LCCN: no92030

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